269 relations: A 250 Years Old Person, Abbas Amirifar, Abbas Duzduzani, Abbas Edalat, Abbas Maroufi, Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili, Abdulali Ali-Asgari, Ahmad Jannati, Ahmad Khatami, Ahmad Zeidabadi, Akbar Ganji, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Al Arabiya, Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri, Ali Akbar Velayati, Ali Fallahian, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Ali Khamenei's fatwa against nuclear weapons, Ali Meshkini, Ali Movahedi-Kermani, Ali Shariati, Amman Message, Antisemitism, Arab Spring, Arabic, Arabs, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Asia Times, Assassination attempt on Ali Khamenei, Assembly of Experts, Assisted reproductive technology, Astan Quds Razavi, Ataollah Salehi, Azerbaijani language, Bahá'í Faith, Bahrain, Barack Obama, Bertrand Russell, Biographical evaluation, Blasphemy law in Iran, BMW, Bonyad, Boston Review, Capital punishment in Iran, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Chief Justice of Iran, Christopher Dickey, Combatant Clergy Association, Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces, ..., Commissar, Committee to Protect Journalists, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Counter Extremism Project, Criminal justice, Definitions of terrorism, Der Spiegel, Ebrahim Amini, Ebrahim Raisi, Egypt, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Eid al-Adha, Elections in Iran, Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei, Evin Prison, Expediency Discernment Council, Faqīh, Fars News Agency, Fatwa, Fereydoun Kian, Forbes, Foreign Policy, Gareth Porter, Gender equality, General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, George W. Bush, Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, Google Books, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Guardian Council, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, Hadi Khamenei, Hashem Aghajari, Hassan Rouhani, Hassan Tabatabaei Qomi, Hawza, Head of state, Heydar Moslehi, Hijab, Honoré de Balzac, Hooman Majd, Hossein Ashtari, Hujjat al-Islam, Hussainiya, Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Ijtihad, Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation, Independent politician, International Atomic Energy Agency, Iran, Iran nuclear deal framework, Iran student protests, July 1999, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Azerbaijanis, Iranian legislative election, 2004, Iranian presidential election, 1985, Iranian presidential election, 1989, Iranian presidential election, October 1981, Iranian Revolution, Iranian rial, Iranian Supreme Leader election, 1989, Iraq War, Iraqi Army, Irregular Warfare Headquarters, Islamic Azad University, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Islamic republic, Islamic Republic News Agency, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Islamic Republican Party, Islamic revival, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Israel, Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jinn, John Kerry, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Jumu'ah, Karim Sadjadpour, Kazem Seddiqi, Khamaneh, Khojaste Bagherzadeh, Khorasan Province, Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Le Figaro, Les Misérables, Libya, List of current heads of state and government, List of current Maraji, List of heads of state of Iran, List of Presidents of Iran, List of Tehran's Friday Prayer Imams, LiveLeak, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Maktab, Marja', Markazi Province, Marriage in Islam, Mashhad, Mehdi Khalaji, Michel Zevaco, Mikhail Sholokhov, Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (Iran), Ministry of Intelligence, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Modus vivendi, Mohammad al-Husayni al-Shirazi, Mohammad Ali Araki, Mohammad Ali Jafari, Mohammad Bagheri (Iranian commander), Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Hadi Milani, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Nourizad, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad Saeedikia, Mohammad-Ali Rajai, Mohammad-Javad Bahonar, Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi, Mohammed Sharif Malekzadeh, Mohsen Sazegara, Mojtaba Khamenei, Mostazafan Foundation, Mother Nature Network, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad's wives, Music, Mykonos restaurant assassinations, Najaf, Native Americans in the United States, Nowruz, Nuclear program of Iran, Nuclear weapon, Office of the Supreme Leader of Iran, Omid Reza Mir Sayafi, One Million Signatures, Operation Samen-ol-A'emeh, Osprey Publishing, Palestine (2011 book), Palestinian territories, Parviz Fattah, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Persian people, Poetry, President of Iran, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Privatization in Iran, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Qaboos bin Said al Said, Qard al-Hasan, Qom, Qom Seminary, Quran, Ramadan, Reuters, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sadeq Larijani, Sahabah, Sayyid, Sayyid Qutb, Seminary, September 11 attacks, Sex segregation in Iran, Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, Shia Islam, Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom, Somatic cell nuclear transfer, State of emergency, Stem cell, Supreme Leader of Iran, Tabriz, Tafresh, Tafsir, Tar (string instrument), Tehran, Tehran Province, Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (electoral district), Telegraphy, The Atlantic, The Daily Telegraph, The Grapes of Wrath, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, The Washington Post, Theater (warfare), Third World, Time 100, To the Youth in Europe and North America, Tunisia, Twelver, Twitter, Ulama, Uncle Tom's Cabin, United States Department of State, United States Secretary of State, Usuli, Vali Nasr, Victor Hugo, Vienna, Voice type, Women's rights movement in Iran, Yasubedin Rastegar Jooybari, Yazd, Yemen, Zionism, 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, 2011–12 Iranian protests, 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, 2017–18 Iranian protests. 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A 250 Years Old Person (انسان 250 ساله) is a book by Ali Khamenei, supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran.
Hojjatoleslam Abbas Amirifar is the prayer leader of Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and head of the presidential cultural committee.
Abbas Duzduzani (عباس دوزدوزانی) is an Iranian politician who served in Mohammad-Ali Rajai cabinet.
Abbas Edalat (عباس عدالت) is a professor of computer science and mathematics at Imperial College of London and a political activist.
Abbas Maroufi (عباس معروفی, born May 17, 1957, in Sangesar, Semnan) is an Iranian novelist and journalist.
Seyyed Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili (عبدالکریم موسوی اردبیلی, 28 January 1926 – 23 November 2016) was an Iranian reformist politician and Twelver shi'a marja.
Abdulali Ali-Asgari (عبدالعلی علیعسگری; born 1958 in Ray, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian media executive who is the current director-general of IRIB.
Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati (احمد جنتی, born 23 February 1927) is an Iranian Shi'i cleric and a conservative politician.
Sayyid Ahmad Khatami (احمد خاتمی, born 8 May 1960) is a senior Iranian cleric, as well as a senior member of the Assembly of Experts.
Ahmad Zeidabadi (born 21 July 1965 in Zeidabad, Sirjan) is an Iranian journalist, academic, writer and political analyst and the secretary general of Office for Strengthening Unity.
Akbar Ganji (اکبر گنجی., born 31 January 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian journalist and writer.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels.
Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri (علیاکبر ناطقنوری; sometimes spelt Nategh-Nouri) (born 6 October 1944) is an Iranian politician.
Ali Akbar Velayati (علیاکبر ولایتی; born 24 June 1945, Tehran) is an Iranian physician and conservative politician.
Ali Fallahian, (علی فلاحیان., born 23 October 1945) is an Iranian politician and cleric.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
A fatwa by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, against the acquisition, development and use of nuclear weapons dates back to the mid-1990s, though its first public announcement is reported to have occurred on October 2003, which was followed by an official statement at a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna two years later on August 2005.
Ali Akbar Feyz Aleni (علیاکبر فیض آلنی; 2 December 1921 – 30 July 2007), more known as Ali Meshkini, was an Iranian hardline cleric and politician.
Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Movahedi-Kermani (محمدعلی موحدی کرمانی) is Tehran's Friday Prayer Ephemeral Imam and the current secretary-general of Combatant Clergy Association.
Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.
The Amman Message (رسالة عمان) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
An assassination attempt on Ali Khamenei occurred on 27 June 1981.
The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.
Astan Quds Razavi (Āstān-e Qods-e Razavi) is a Bonyad, or autonomous charitable foundation, in Mashhad, Iran.
Seyyed Ataollah Salehi (سيد عطاءالله صالحی; born 9 March 1950) is the former and third commander-in-chief of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army, serving from 2005 until 2017.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Biographical evaluation (`Ilm al-Rijāl), literally meaning 'Knowledge of Men' but more commonly understood as the Science of Narration, refers to a discipline of Islamic religious studies within hadith terminology in which the narrators of hadith are evaluated.
Iran is a constitutional, Islamic theocracy.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
Bonyads (بنیاد "Foundation") are charitable trusts in Iran that play a major role in Iran's non-petroleum economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP, and channeling revenues to groups supporting the Islamic Republic.
Boston Review is a quarterly American political and literary magazine.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Iran.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.
The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of Iran (Head of Judiciary) and is responsible for its administration and supervision.
Christopher Dickey (born August 31, 1951) is the Paris-based world news editor for The Daily Beast.
The Combatant Clergy Association (Jāme'e-ye Rowhāniyyat-e Mobārez) is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense.
Farmandeye Koll-e Qova (فرمانده کل قوا), formerly known as Bozorg Arteshtaran (بزرگارتشتاران), is the supreme commanding authority of all the Armed Forces of Iran and the highest possible military position within the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
The Counter Extremism Project (CEP) is a nonprofit NGO that combats extremist groups "by pressuring financial support networks, countering the narrative of extremists and their online recruitment, and advocating for strong laws, policies and regulations.".
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Ebrahim Amini (born 30 June 1925 in Najaf Abad, Isfahan Province, Iran) is an Iranian politician in the Assembly of Experts.
Seyyed Ebrahim Raisol-Sadati (سید ابراهیم رئیسالساداتی; born 14 December 1960), commonly known as Ebrahim Raisi (ابراهیم رئیسی), is an Iranian cleric and the current custodian and chairman of Astan Quds Razavi (a wealthy and powerful foundation or bonyad).
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Iran elects on national level a head of state and head of government (the president), a legislature (the Majlis), and an "Assembly of Experts" (which elects the Supreme Leader).
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei (اسفندیار رحیممشایی; born 16 November 1960) is an Iranian politician and former intelligence officer.
Evin Prison (Zendān-e-Evin) is a prison located in the Evin neighborhood of Tehran, Iran.
The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fereydoun Kian (فریدون کیان) was an Iranian military officer with regular military (''Artesh'') background who served as the acting commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps for a short period of time in late 1979, during its early formative phase.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Gareth Porter (born June 18, 1942) is an American historian, investigative journalist, author and policy analyst specializing in U.S. national security policy.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (ستاد کل نیروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the most senior military body in Iran, with an aim to implement policy, monitor and coordinate activities within the Armed Forces.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل, born 4 May 1945) is an Iranian philosopher, politician and former chairman of the Parliament.
Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i (غلامحسین محسنی اژهای,; born 1956) is an Iranian conservative politician, judge and prosecutor who currently serves as the second-highest official in the Judicial system of Iran.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām (lit) among its supporters, and "the regime" among its dissidents) is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist (ولایت فقیه, Vilayat-e Faqih; ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al-Faqih), is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
Hojatoleslam Hadi Khamenei (born 1947) is an Iranian reformist politician, mojtahed and linguist.
Hashem Aghajari (هاشم آقاجری) also Seyyed Hashem Aghajari (born 1957) is an Iranian historian, university professor and a critic of the Islamic Republic's government who was sentenced to death in 2002 for apostasy for a speech he gave on Islam urging Iranians to "not blindly follow" Islamic clerics.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Grand Ayatollah Hassan Tabatabaei Qomi (1912-2007) was a Twelver Shia Marja'.
A Hawza (Arabic/Persian: حوزة) or ḥawza ʻilmiyya (Arabic/Persian: حوزة علمیة) is a seminary where Shi'a Muslim clerics are trained.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heydar Moslehi (born 1957 in Isfahan) is an Iranian cleric and politician who served as the minister of intelligence from 2009 to 2013.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.
Hooman Majd, born 1957 in Tehran, is an Iranian-American journalist, author, and commentator who writes on Iranian affairs.
Hossein Ashtari (حسین اشتری) is an Iranian military officer who currently serves as Iran's Chief of police, the chief commander of Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran, since 2015.
Hujjat al-Islam (from ḥujjatu l-Islām) (also Hojatoleslam) is an honorific title meaning "authority on Islam" or "proof of Islam".
A ḥosayniya (حسینیه hoseyniye), also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Shi'i commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
The Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation (Persian: کمیتهی امداد امام خمینی) is an Iranian charitable organization, founded in March 1979 to provide support for poor families.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran nuclear deal framework was a preliminary framework agreement reached in 2015 between the Islamic Republic of Iran and a group of world powers: the P5+1 (the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, and China—plus Germany) and the European Union.
Iranian Student Protests of July 1999 (Also known as 18th of Tir and Kuye Daneshgah Disaster (فاجعه کوی دانشگاه) in Iran) (7–13 July) BBC News, 11 July 2000 were, before the 2009 Iranian election protests, the most widespread and violent public protests to occur in Iran since the early years of the Iranian Revolution.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iranian Azerbaijanis (ایران آذربایجانلیلاری – İran azərbaycanlıları), also known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, Azeri Turks, Azerbaijani Turks or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azerbaijani ethnicity who speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language.
The Iranian parliamentary elections of February 20 and May 7, 2004 were a victory for Islamic conservatives over the reformist parties.
The Iranian presidential election of 1985 took place on August 16, 1985, and resulted in the re-election of the incumbent President Ali Khamenei.
The Iranian presidential election of 1989 took place on July 28, 1989, after the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the selection of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the previous President of Iran, as the new Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Iranian presidential election of October 1981, took place on 2 October 1981, after the assassination of Mohammad-Ali Rajai, the previous President of Iran, during the interim premiership of Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iranian rial (ریال ایران Riâl Irân; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the currency of Iran.
The Supreme Leader of Iran election, 1989 was an indirect election where the Assembly of Experts members voted to choose the second Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
Irregular Warfare Headquarters (ستاد جنگهای نامنظم) was an Irregular military unit of Iranian Armed Forces, active during Iran–Iraq War.
The Islamic Azad University (IAU; دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی, Dāneshgāh-e Āzād-e Eslāmi) is a non-governmental private university system in Iran.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Iran Participation Front (جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی; Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami) is a reformist political party in Iran.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.
The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
Jumu'ah (صلاة الجمعة, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer.
Karim Sadjadpour is an Iranian-American policy analyst at the Carnegie Endowment.
Kazem Seddiqi (کاظم صدیقی, born 4 March 1951, sometimes with the honorific Hojatoleslam, or Hujjat al-Islam, "authority of Islam", and surname anglicised as Sedighi) is an Iranian scholar and Mujtahid currently serving as Tehran's Friday Prayer Temporary Imam.
Khamaneh (خامنه; also Romanized as Khāmeneh, Khamaneh, and Khāmneh; also known as Khumla and Khumna) is a city in the Central District of Shabestar County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Mansoureh Khojaste Bagherzadeh (born 14 March 1947) is the wife of Ali Khamenei, the current Supreme Leader of Iran.
Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.
The Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran or Disciplinary Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Nīrū-ye entezāmī-ye jomhūrī-ye eslāmī-ye Īrān), abbreviated as NAJA (ناجا) is the uniformed police force in Iran.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government.
This article provides the list of ''Maraji'' (plural of Marja, the supreme legal authority or the source of emulation), followed by Twelver (also known as Imamiyyah) Shia Muslims around the world.
This article lists the heads of state of Iran since establishment of the Iran's modern Nation-State on 1501 AD.
This is a list of the Presidents of the Islamic Republic of Iran since the establishment of that office in 1980.
This list of Tehran's Friday Prayer Imams after 1979 Iranian Revolution contains both permanent and temporary ones.
LiveLeak is a video sharing website located in London, United Kingdom that lets users post and share videos.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Maktab (مكتب) or Maktabeh (مكتبة) or Maktabkhaneh (مکتبخانه) (other transliterations include makteb, mekteb, mektep, meqteb, maqtab), also called a Kuttab (الكتَّاب) “school” is an Arabic word meaning elementary schools.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.
Markazi Province (fa, Ostān-e Markazi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
In Islam, marriage is a legal contract between a man and a woman.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Mehdi Khalaji (مهدی خلجی, born 21 September 1973) is an Iranian-American writer, scholar of Islamic studies and political analyst.
Michel Zevaco (also written as Zévaco) (1 February 1860, Ajaccio - 8 August 1918, Eaubonne) was a French journalist, novelist, publisher, film director, and anti-clerical as well as anarchist activist.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (p; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Ministry of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL; وزارت دفاع و پشتیبانی نیروهای مسلح) is the defence ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran, reestablished in 1989.
The Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: وِزارَتِ اِطّلاعات جُمهوریِ اِسلامیِ ایران Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran and a member of the Iran Intelligence Community.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
Modus vivendi is a Latin phrase that means "mode of living" or “way of life”.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad ibn Mahdi al-Hussaini al-Shirazi (آية الله العظمى السيد محمد بن مهدي الحسيني الشيرازي; August 31, 1928 – December 17, 2001), commonly known as Mohammad Al-Shirazi, was a Shia Muslim author, politician and religious leader.
Mohammad Ali Araki (محمدعلی اراکی, 22 December 1894 in Arak – 24 November 1994 in Qom) was an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja'.
Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari (محمدعلی جعفری, born 1 September 1957 in Yazd, also known as Aziz Jafari and Ali Jafari) is the Iranian commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). He was appointed by the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, on September 1, 2007, to succeed Major General Yahya Rahim Safavi. According to a September 2, 2007, report by Radio Free Europe, Radio Farda has described Jafari has been close to the conservative subfaction, which includes Mohsen Rezaee, the secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council and former commander of the IRGC and Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, a former IRGC member and the mayor of Tehran. The replacement of Safavi was thought to be a move to strengthen the conservative faction as a counterweight to the radicalizers around President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, whom Safavi is close to. "Observers appear to regard Jafari as principally a tactician, organizer, and 'technical' military man," according to Radio Free Europe. The EU's official journal said the three Iranian Revolutionary Guard members, Jafari, General Qasem Soleimani and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb, were now subject to sanctions and had been "providing equipment and support to help the Syrian regime suppress protests in Syria".
Major general Mohammad Bagheri (محمد باقری) is an Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps military commander currently serving at the most senior military position available in Iran, Chief of Staff for the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی; 24 October 1928 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution.
Seyyed Mohammad Hadi Milani was a Shiite grand ayatollah.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Nourizad, (محمد نوری زاد) born 10 December 1952 in Shahriar County is an Iranian filmmaker, activist, and former journalist for the conservative daily Kayhan.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad Saeedikia (born 1946) is an Iranian politician who served as government minister in different cabinets, the last of which was minister of housing and urban development from 2005 to 2009.
Mohammad-Ali Rajai (محمدعلی رجائی; 15 June 1933 – 30 August 1981) was the second President of Iran from 2 to 30 August 1981 after serving as prime minister under Abolhassan Banisadr.
Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر, 5 September 1933 – 30 August 1981) was a Shia Iranian theologian and politician who served as the Prime minister of Iran for less than one month in August 1981.
Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani (20 March 1899 – December 9, 1993) was an Iranian Shia cleric and marja.
Taqī Miṣbāḥ (تقی مصباح; born Taqī Givečī, تقی گیوهچی), commonly known as Muḥammad–Taqī Miṣbāḥ Yazdī (محمدتقی مصباح یزدی, born 31 January 1934) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'i cleric and principlist political activist who unofficially leads Front of Islamic Revolution Stability.
Mohammad-Sharif Malekzadeh born in the city of Zabol (Sistan & Baluchestan Province), is a top advisor of the Grand Ayatollah Sayed Mahmoud Shahroodi in the field of executive affaires, and the former chief of Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handcraft and Tourism Organization until the end of Mahmood Ahmadinejad’s government in 2013.
Mohsen Sazegara (محسن سازگارا) is an Iranian journalist and pro-democracy political activist.
Sayyed Mojtaba Hosseini Khamenei (سید مجتبی حسینی خامنهای; born 8 September 1969) is son of Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Mostazafan Foundation of Islamic Revolution (بنیاد مستضعفان انقلاب اسلامی) formerly Bonyad-e Mostazafan va Janbazan (Foundation of the Oppressed and Disabled or "MFJ") is a charitable bonyad, or foundation, in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the second-largest commercial enterprise in Iran behind the state-owned National Iranian Oil Company Originally printed in Forbes, Retrieved 15 May 2009 and biggest holding company in the Middle East.
Mother Nature Network (mnn.com) is a website with news and information related to sustainability, health, lifestyle, technology, money, food, home, and family.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Muhammad's wives or Wives of Muhammad were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
In the Mykonos restaurant assassinations (Persian: ترور رستوران میکونوس, also the "Mykonos Incident"), Iranian-Kurdish opposition leaders Sadegh Sharafkandi, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and their translator Nouri Dehkordi were assassinated at the Mykonos Greek restaurant in Berlin, Germany on 17 September 1992.
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The House of Leadership (بیت رهبری, Beit-e Rahbari; official name: Office of the Supreme Leader of Iran (دفتر مقام معظم رهبری); Daftar-e Magham-e Moazzam-e Rahbari) is the official residence, bureaucratic office and principal workplace of the Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989.
Omid Reza Mir Sayafi (also Omidreza Mirsayafi) (1979/80 – March 18, 2009 in Evin Prison in Tehran) was an Iranian blogger and journalist.
One Million Signatures for the Repeal of Discriminatory Laws (Persian: يک ميليون امضا برای لغو قوانين تبعيض آميز Yek Milyun Emzā barā-ye Laghv-e Qavānin-e Tab‘iz Āmiz), also known as Change for Equality, is a campaign by women in Iran to collect one million signatures in support of changing discriminatory laws against women in their country.
Operation Samen-ol-A'emeh (عملیات ثامنالائمه "Operation Eighth Imam") was an offensive of the Iran-Iraq war between 27–29 September 1981 where Iran broke the Iraqi Siege of Abadan.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
Palestine from the Perspective of Ayatollah Khamenei (فلسطین از منظر آیت الله خامنه ای; Felsetan az menzer aat alelh khamenh aa) is a 2011 book excerpting many statements of Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei about Palestine and Israel.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
Seyed Parviz Fattah (سید پرویز فتاح) is an Iranian conservative politician, former member of Revolutionary Guard and former minister of energy in Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's first cabinet from 2005 to 2009.
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is a division of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., United States, with campuses in Bologna, Italy; and Nanjing, China.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based.
--> According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005–2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Sayyid Qaboos bin Said Al Said (قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد,; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman.
Qard al-hasan (قرض الحسن, transl. benevolent lending) is a form of interest-free loan (fungible, marketable wealth) that is extended by a lender to a borrower on the basis of benevolence (ihsan).
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Qom Hawza is the largest Hawza (seminary of traditional Islamic school of higher learning.) established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Ha'eri Yazdi in Qom.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani (صادق اردشیر لاریجانی; born 12 March 1961), more known as Amoli Larijani (آملی لاریجانی), is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician and the current and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Sayyid Qutb (or;,; سيد قطب Sayyid Quṭb; also spelled Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, Kutb; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sex segregation in Iran has a long and complex history firmly grounded in the mullahcracy's dogma of Shiite Islam.
Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi (Luri/Persian:آیت الله العظمی سید حسین طباطبایی بروجردی, transcript Ayatollah al-azmi Seyyed Hossein(e) Tabatabai(ye) Borujerdi) March 1875 – 30 March 1961) was an Iranian Shia Marja' and the leading Marja in Iran from roughly 1947 to his death in 1961.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom (جامعهٔ مدرسین حوزهٔ علمیهٔ قم) was founded in 1961 by the leading Muslim clerics of Qom.
In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tafresh (تفرش, Tafreš) is a city (academic city) & capital of Tafresh County, in Markazi Province, Iran.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Tar (تار; tar) is an Iranian.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr (تهران، ری، شمیرانات و اسلامشهر) is a constituency for the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Time 100 (often written in all-caps as TIME 100) is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time.
"To the Youth in Europe and North America" is an online open letter written on 21 January 2015 by Iran's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Usulis (الاصولية) are the majority Twelver Shi'a Muslim group.
Vali Reza Nasr (ولی رضا نصر, born 20 December 1960) is an Iranian-American academic and author specializing in the Middle East and the Islamic world.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
A voice type classifies a singing voice by vocal range, vocal weight, tessitura, vocal timbre, vocal transition points (passaggia) like breaks and lifts, and vocal register.
The Iranian women's movement (Persian: جنبش زنان ایران), is based on the Iranian women's social movement for women's rights.
Yasubedin Rastegar Jooybari (Persian: يعسوب الدين رستگار جويباري) (born 1927) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric and a Grand Ayatollah.
Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.
The 2011–12 protests in Iran were a series of demonstrations in Iran which began on 14 February 2011, called "The Day of Rage".
The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.
A series of public protests occurred in various cities throughout Iran beginning on 28 December 2017 and continuing into 2018.
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