199 relations: Adair Crawford, Alkali, Aluminium, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium silicate, American Chemical Society, Ancient Rome, André-Louis Debierne, Anhydrite, Antoine Bussy, Antoine Lavoisier, Argon, Atomic number, Augustus Matthiessen, Barium, Barium nitrate, Barium oxide, Barium sulfate, Barium sulfide, Barn (unit), Baryte, Beryl, Beryllium, Beryllium chloride, Beryllium fluoride, Beryllium hydroxide, Beryllium oxide, Beryllium-10, Boiling point, Bracket, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium chloride, Calcium oxide, Calcium sulfate, Calcium-48, Carbon, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carnallite, Celestine (mineral), Celsius, Cement, Chalk, Cheese, Chemical compound, Chemical element, China, Coal, Committee on Data for Science and Technology, ..., Copper, Covalent bond, Covalent radius, Cumberland, Decay product, Density, Dolomite, Dopant, Double beta decay, Drinking water, Dubna, Effective nuclear charge, Electric charge, Electrical polarity, Electrolysis, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Emerald, England, Enzyme, Epsom, Exoskeleton, Extrinsic semiconductor, Fireworks, Flame test, French Academy of Sciences, Friedrich Wöhler, Froth flotation, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Gypsum, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Helium, Humphry Davy, Hydration energy, Hydrogen, Hydroxide, Insulator (electricity), International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Ion transporter, Ionic crystal, Ionic radius, Ionization energy, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of barium, Isotopes of beryllium, Isotopes of calcium, Isotopes of radium, J J Lagowski, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Johan Gottlieb Gahn, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joule per mole, Journal of Chemical Physics, Kelvin, Khafaja, Krypton, Ligand, Lime (material), Lime kiln, Limestone, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Luminous paint, Magnesite, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Magnesium sulfate, Marie Curie, Mass number, Melting point, Mercury(II) oxide, Mesopotamia, Metal, Metallic bonding, Mortar (masonry), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neon, Neurotransmitter, Nickel, Noble gas, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclide, Orbital overlap, Ore, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Parts-per notation, Paul Lebeau, Periodic table, Periodic trends, Petroleum, Picometre, Pierre Curie, Plutonium, Potassium, Properties of water, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Radium, Radon, Reactivity (chemistry), Reducing agent, Relative atomic mass, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Robert Bunsen, Royal Society of Chemistry, Scandium, Significant figures, Silicon dioxide, Sintering, Sodium carbonate, Sodium fluoride, Sodium fluorosilicate, Sodium hydroxide, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Steel, Strontian, Strontianite, Strontium, Strontium carbonate, Strontium chloride, Strontium oxide, Sulfuric acid, Thermal conduction, Thomas Charles Hope, Titanium, Toothpaste, Trace radioisotope, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, Transmetalation, Unbinilium, Unified atomic mass unit, University of Glasgow, University of Sheffield, Upper gastrointestinal series, Uraninite, Uranium, Vacuum tube, William Withering, Xenon, Zinc. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
Adair Crawford FRS FRSE (174829 July 1795), a chemist and physician, was a pioneer in the development of calorimetric methods for measuring the specific heat capacity of substances and the heat of chemical reactions.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) is a name commonly applied to chemical compounds which are derived from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 and silicon dioxide, SiO2 which may be anhydrous or hydrated, naturally occurring as minerals or synthetic.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
André-Louis Debierne (14 July 1874 – 31 August 1949) was a French chemist and is considered the discoverer of the element actinium.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Antoine Alexandre Brutus Bussy (29 May 1794, Marseille – 1 February 1882, Paris) was a French chemist who primarily studied pharmaceuticals.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Augustus Matthiessen, FRS (2 January 1831, in London – 6 October 1870, in London), the son of a merchant, was a British chemist and physicist who obtained his PhD in Germany at the University of Gießen in 1852 with Johann Heinrich Buff.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2.
Barium oxide, BaO, is a white hygroscopic non-flammable compound.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS.
A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2).
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Beryllium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula BeCl2.
Beryllium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BeF2.
Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide, dissolving in both acids and alkalis.
Beryllium oxide (BeO), also known as beryllia, is an inorganic compound with the formula BeO.
Beryllium-10 (10Be) is a radioactive isotope of beryllium.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Calcium-48 is a scarce isotope of calcium containing 20 protons and 28 neutrons.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Carnallite (also carnalite) is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).
Celestine or celestite is a mineral consisting of strontium sulfate (SrSO4).
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council for Science.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of an atom that forms part of one covalent bond.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epsom is a market town in Surrey, England, south-west of London, between Ashtead and Ewell.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Wixhausen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydration energy (also hydration enthalpy) is the amount of energy released when one mole of ions undergo hydration which is a special case of solvation.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.
An ionic crystal is a crystal consisting of ions bound together by their electrostatic attraction.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Naturally occurring barium (56Ba) is a mix of six stable isotopes and one very long-lived radioactive primordial isotope, barium-130, recently identified as being unstable by geochemical means (from analysis of the presence of its daughter xenon-130 in rocks).
Beryllium (4Be) has 12 known isotopes, but only one of these isotopes is stable and a primordial nuclide.
Calcium (20Ca) has 24 isotopes, from 34Ca to 57Ca.
Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Dr J J Lagowski was an American chemist working at The University of Texas at Austin.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Johan Gottlieb Gahn (19 August 1745 – 8 December 1818) was a Swedish chemist and metallurgist who discovered manganese in 1774.
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan).
The joule per mole (symbol: J·mole−1 or J/mol) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material.
The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics that carries research papers on chemical physics.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Khafaja (خفاجة, also known as Al Khafaji and Khafaji) is one of the major Arab tribes (especially in Iraq and Egypt).
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) to produce the form of lime called quicklime (calcium oxide).
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist.
Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.
Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
In chemical bonds, an orbital overlap is the concentration of orbitals on adjacent atoms in the same regions of space.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Paul Marie Alfred Lebeau (19 December 1868 – 18 November 1959) was a French chemist.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (30 March 1811N1 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.
Sodium fluorosilicate is a compound with the chemical formula Na2.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Strontian (Sròn an t-Sìthein) is the main village in Sunart, an area in western Lochaber, Highland, Scotland, on the A861 road.
Strontianite (SrCO3) is an important raw material for the extraction of strontium.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) is the carbonate salt of strontium that has the appearance of a white or grey powder.
Strontium chloride (SrCl2) is a salt of strontium and chloride.
Strontium oxide or strontia, SrO, is formed when strontium reacts with oxygen.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thomas Charles Hope (21 July 1766 – 13 June 1844) was a Scottish physician, chemist and lecturer.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small).
Traité élémentaire de chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry) is a textbook written by Antoine Lavoisier published in 1789 and translated into English by Robert Kerr in 1790 under the title Elements of Chemistry in a New Systematic Order containing All the Modern Discoveries.
Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another.
Unbinilium, also known as eka-radium or simply element 120, is the hypothetical chemical element in the periodic table with symbol Ubn and atomic number 120.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
William Withering FRS (17 March 1741 – 6 October 1799) was an English botanist, geologist, chemist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Alkali earth element, Alkali earth metal, Alkali earth metals, Alkaline Earth, Alkaline Earth Metal, Alkaline Earth Metals, Alkaline Earth metal, Alkaline Earth metals, Alkaline Earths, Alkaline earth, Alkaline earth element, Alkaline earth metals, Alkaline earths, Alkaline-Earth Metal, Alkaline-earth metal, Alkaline-earth metals, Alkaline-earth oxide, Beryllium family, Earth metals, Group 2 element, Group 2 elements, Helium family (s2), Helium family (s^2), Helium family 2, Metals, alkaline earth.