324 relations: Academic Press, Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetylcholinesterase, Acid, Acid-base extraction, Aconitine, Acridine, Actinidine, Adenosine receptor, Adrenaline, Agonopterix alstroemeriana, Ajmaline, Albert Ladenburg, Alicyclic compound, Alpha-aminoadipate pathway, Amaryllis, Amine, Amino acid, Amphoterism, Amurensine, Anabasine, Anabolism, Analgesic, Ancient Greece, Animal, Anthranilic acid, Anti-diabetic medication, Antiarrhythmic agent, Antibiotic, Anticholinergic, Antihypertensive drug, Antimalarial medication, Antiprotozoal, Antipyretic, Aphrodisiac, Aporphine, Arecoline, Arginine, Aspartic acid, Aspidosperma, Asthma, Atropa belladonna, Atropine, Bacteria, Base (chemistry), Batrachotoxin, Berberine, Beta-Carboline, Bromine, ..., Brucine, Bufotenin, Cadaverine, Caffeine, Canadine, Caprylic acid, Capsaicin, Carapichea ipecacuanha, Carbanion, Carbon, Carbonyl group, Carpaine, Castanospermine, Catecholamine, Catharanthine, Catharanthus roseus, Cathinone, Central nervous system, Chelerythrine, Chemical compound, Chemotherapy, Chlorine, Chloroform, Cholesterol, Chordate, Chromatography, Cinchona, Cinchonine, Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology, Coca, Cocaine, Codeine, Colchicine, Coniine, Conium maculatum, Cough medicine, CRC Press, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Cuscohygrine, Cyclopamine, Cyclopia, Cysteine, Cytisine, Dauricine, Delphinine, Diethyl ether, Dihydrocapsaicin, Dimer (chemistry), Distillation, Dopamine, Drug discovery, Ecgonine, Elsevier, Emetine, Entheogen, Ephedra, Ephedrine, Ergoline, Ergotamine, Erythrina, Ester, Ethanol, Extract, Febrifugine, Friedrich Sertürner, Fruit, Fungus, Galantamine, Geranyl pyrophosphate, Glaucine, Glutamic acid, Gout, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Hallucinogen, Harmaline, Harmine, Heterocyclic compound, Histamine, Histidine, Homer, Homoserine, Hydrastine, Hydrogen, Hygrine, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, Hyoscyamus niger, Ibogaine, Ibogamine, Ibotenic acid, Imidazole, Indole, Indolizidine, Insecticide, Isoleucine, Isoquinoline, Isoxazole, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Lactone, Laudanosine, Leucine, Liriodendron tulipifera, Liriodenine, List of poisonous plants, Loline alkaloid, Lupinine, Lycorine, Lysergic acid, Lysine, Mannich reaction, Matrine, Mayer's reagent, Medication, Mescaline, Mesopotamia, Metabolism, Methamphetamine, Methcathinone, Mevalonic acid, Michael reaction, Mitragynine, Molecules (journal), Morpheus, Morphine, Muscarine, Muscimol, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Naloxone, Natural product, Neotyphodium, Neurotransmitter, Niacin, Nicotinamide, Nicotine, Nicotinic agonist, Nitrogen, Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Norepinephrine, Nornicotine, Noscapine, Nucleic acid, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleotide, Odyssey, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate, Opioid receptor, Opium, Organic Letters, Ornithine, Oxazole, Oxycodone, Oxygen, Palau'amine, Papaver somniferum, Papaverine, Parasympathomimetic drug, Pavine (molecule), Peptide, Pesticide, Pharmacology, Phenanthrene, Phenethylamine, Phenylalanine, Phosphorus, Physostigmine, Phytochemistry (journal), Pierre Joseph Pelletier, Pipecolic acid, Piperidine, Piperine, Plant, Precursor (chemistry), Proline, Protein, Protopine, Pseudoephedrine, Psilocin, Psilocybe, Psilocybin, Psychedelic drug, Psychoactive drug, Purine, Putrescine, Pyridine, Pyrrolidine, Pyrrolizidine, Pyruvic acid, Quinazoline, Quinidine, Quinine, Quinoline, Quinolizidine, Rauvolfia serpentina, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Reserpine, Retronecine, Ricinine, Sanguinarine, Saxitoxin, Schiff base, Secologanin, Secondary metabolite, Seed, Semisynthesis, Serotonin, Sesquiterpene, Sinomenine, Sodium, Solanidine, Solvent, South America, Sparteine, Spectroscopy, Spermidine, Spermine, Springer Science+Business Media, Steroid, Stimulant, Strictosidine, Strychnine, Strychnos nux-vomica, Sulfur, Swainsonine, Tabernanthe iboga, Terpene, Tetramer, Theacrine, Thebaine, Theobromine, Theophylline, Thiazole, Toxicity, Toxiferine, Traditional medicine, Transamination, Trigonelline, Trimer (chemistry), Tropane, Tryptamine, Tryptophan, Tubocurarine chloride, Tyramine, Tyrosine, Urea, Uterotonic, Utetheisa ornatrix, Valine, Vanillylamine, Vascular plant, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Veratrum californicum, Villalstonine, Vinblastine, Vinca, Vinca alkaloid, Vincamine, Vincristine, Vindoline, Vinorelbine, Voacamine, Voacangine, Vomiting, Xanthine, Xanthosine, Yohimbine, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, 2-Quinolone, 4-Quinolone. Expand index (274 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 126.96.36.199) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid–liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties.
Aconitine is an alkaloid toxin produced by the Aconitum plant, also known as devil's helmet or monkshood.
Acridine is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N.
Actinidine is a pyridine derivative found in the essential oil of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root and Actinidia polygama (silver vine).
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The hemlock moth (Agonopterix alstroemeriana), also known as the defoliating hemlock moth or poison hemlock moth, is a nocturnal moth species of the family Depressariidae.
Ajmaline (also known by trade names Gilurytmal, Ritmos, and Aritmina) is an alkaloid that is class Ia antiarrhythmic agent.
Albert Ladenburg (July 2, 1842August 15, 1911) was a German chemist.
An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic.
The amino acid L-lysine The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine.
Amaryllis is the only genus in the subtribe Amaryllidinae (tribe Amaryllideae).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Amurensine is an alkaloid found in Papaver species such as Papaver alpinum, P. pyrenaicum, P. suaveolens, and P. tatricum and P. nudicaule.
Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the common tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum).
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anthranilic acid (o-amino-benzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA, 2AA, AA) is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H).
Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Aporphine is an alkaloid that forms the core of a class of quinoline alkaloids.
Arecoline is a nicotinic acid-based alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu).
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspidosperma is a genus of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae, first described as a genus in 1824.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Batrachotoxin (BTX) is an extremely potent cardiotoxic and neurotoxic steroidal alkaloid found in certain species of frogs (poison dart frog), melyrid beetles, and birds (the pitohui, blue-capped ifrit, and little shrikethrush).
Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as Berberis (e.g. Berberis vulgaris – barberry, Berberis aristata – tree turmeric, Mahonia aquifolium – Oregon-grape, Hydrastis canadensis – goldenseal, Xanthorhiza simplicissima – yellowroot, Phellodendron amurense – Amur cork tree, Coptis chinensis – Chinese goldthread, Tinospora cordifolia, Argemone mexicana – prickly poppy, and Eschscholzia californica – Californian poppy. Berberine is usually found in the roots, rhizomes, stems, and bark. Due to berberine's strong yellow color, Berberis species were used to dye wool, leather, and wood. Wool is still dyed with berberine today in northern India. Under ultraviolet light, berberine shows a strong yellow fluorescence, so it is used in histology for staining heparin in mast cells. As a natural dye, berberine has a color index of 75160.
β-Carboline (9H-pyridoindole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Brucine, an alkaloid closely related to strychnine, is most commonly found in the Strychnos nux-vomica tree.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, bufotenine) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Cadaverine is a foul-smelling diamine compound produced by the putrefaction of animal tissue.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Canadine is a protoberberine alkaloid which can act as a calcium channel blocker.
Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
Carapichea ipecacuanha is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Carpaine is one of the major alkaloid components of papaya leaves which has been studied for its cardiovascular effects.
Castanospermine is an indolizidine alkaloid first isolated from the seeds of Castanospermum australe.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Catharanthine is a terpene indole alkaloid produced by the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus.
Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle, rose periwinkle, or rosy periwinkle, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family Apocynaceae.
Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chelerythrine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid present in the plant Chelidonium majus (greater celandine).
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.
Cinchonine is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal focusing on clinical applications of oncology.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.
Coniine refers to a poisonous chemical compound, an alkaloid present in and isolable from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), where its presence has been a source of significant economic, medical, and historico-cultural interest; coniine is also produced by the yellow pitcher plant (Sarracenia flava), and fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium).
Conium maculatum, the hemlock or poison hemlock, is a highly poisonous biennial herbaceous flowering plant in the carrot family Apiaceae, native to Europe and North Africa.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Current Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.
Cuscohygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid found in coca.
Cyclopamine (11-deoxojervine) is a naturally occurring chemical that belongs in the family of steroidal alkaloids. It is a teratogen isolated from the corn lily (Veratrum californicum) that causes fatal birth defects.
Cyclopia (also cyclocephaly or synophthalmia) is a rare form of holoprosencephaly and is a congenital disorder (birth defect) characterized by the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to properly divide the orbits of the eye into two cavities.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae.
Dauricine is a plant metabolite, chemically classified as a phenol, an aromatic ether, and an isoquinoline alkaloid.
Delphinine is a toxic diterpenoid alkaloid found in plants from the Delphinium (larkspur) and Atragene (a clematis) genera, both in the family Ranunculaceae.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Dihydrocapsaicin is a capsaicinoid and analog and congener of capsaicin in chili peppers (Capsicum).
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Ecgonine (tropane derivative) is a tropane alkaloid found naturally in coca leaves.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Emetine is a drug used as both an anti-protozoal and to induce vomiting.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Ephedra is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Ergoline derivatives comprise a diverse group of chemical compounds whose structural skeleton is the alkaloid ergoline.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Erythrina is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
Febrifugine is a quinazolinone alkaloid first isolated from the Chinese herb Dichroa febrifuga, but also found in the garden plant Hydrangea.
Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner (19 June 1783 – 20 February 1841) was a German pharmacist.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.
Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), also known as geranyl diphosphate (GDP), is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway used by organisms in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.
Glaucine is an alkaloid found in several different plant species in the Papaveraceae family such as Glaucium flavum, Glaucium oxylobum and Corydalis yanhusuo, and in other plants like Croton lechleri in the family Euphorbiaceae.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Harmaline is a fluorescent psychoactive indole alkaloid from the group of harmala alkaloids and beta-carbolines.
Harmine, also known as telepathine, is a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homoserine (also called isothreonine) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2OH.
Hydrastine is an alkaloid which was discovered in 1851 by Alfred P. Durand.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid, found mainly in coca leaves (0.2%).
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hyoscyamine (also known as daturine) is a tropane alkaloid.
Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Ibogamine is an alkaloid found in Tabernanthe iboga.
Ibotenic acid or (S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)acetic acid, also referred to as ibotenate, is a chemical compound and psychoactive drug which occurs naturally in Amanita muscaria and related species of mushrooms typically found in the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
Indolizidine is a heterocyclic chemical compound that forms the central core of the indolizidine alkaloids such as swainsonine and castanospermine.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Isoquinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound.
Isoxazole is an azole with an oxygen atom next to the nitrogen.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (30 June 1795 – 5 May 1877) was a French pharmacist.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
The Journal of Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in medicinal chemistry.
Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.
Laudanosine or N-methyltetrahydropapaverine is a recognized metabolite of atracurium and cisatracurium.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Liriodendron tulipifera—known as the tulip tree, American tulip tree, tulipwood, tuliptree, tulip poplar, whitewood, fiddletree, and yellow-poplar—is the North American representative of the two-species genus Liriodendron (the other member is Liriodendron chinense), and the tallest eastern hardwood.
Liriodenine is a bio-active isolate of the Chinese medicinal herb Zanthoxylum nitidum.
Poisonous plants are those plants that produce toxins that deter herbivores from consuming them.
A loline alkaloid is a member of the 1-aminopyrrolizidines (often referred to as lolines), which are bioactive natural products with several distinct biological and chemical features.
Lupinine is a quinolizidine alkaloid present in the genus Lupinus (colloquially referred to as lupins) of the flowering plant family Fabaceae.
Lycorine is a toxic crystalline alkaloid found in various Amaryllidaceae species, such as the cultivated bush lily (Clivia miniata), surprise lilies (Lycoris), and daffodils (Narcissus).
Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and found in the seeds of Turbina corymbosa (ololiuhqui), Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), and Ipomoea tricolor (morning glories, tlitliltzin).
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The Mannich reaction is an organic reaction which consists of an amino alkylation of an acidic proton placed next to a carbonyl functional group by formaldehyde and a primary or secondary amine or ammonia.
Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the genus Sophora.
Mayer's reagent is an alkaloidal precipitating reagent used for the detection of alkaloids in natural products.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "intash") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone.
Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.
The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.
Mitragynine is an indole-based opioid-receptor agonist and the most abundant active alkaloid in the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom and biak-biak.
Molecules is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that focuses on all aspects of synthetic organic chemistry and natural product chemistry.
Morpheus is a Greek god of dreams who appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neotyphodium is a genus of endophytic fungi symbiotic with grasses.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
A nicotinic agonist is a drug that mimics the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nornicotine is an alkaloid found in various plants including Nicotiana, the tobacco plant.
Noscapine (also known as Narcotine, Nectodon, Nospen, Anarcotine and (archaic) Opiane) is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from plants of the poppy family, without painkilling properties.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (INN, trade names Synribo or Myelostat), formerly named as homoharringtonine or HHT, is a pharmaceutical drug substance that is indicated for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Organic Letters (usually abbreviated as Org. Lett.), is a peer-reviewed biweekly scientific journal, published since 1999 by the American Chemical Society.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
Oxazole is the parent compound for a vast class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palau'amine is a toxic alkaloid compound synthesized naturally by Stylotella agminata, a species of sea sponge found in the southwest Pacific Ocean.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
Pavine is an alkaloid found in a variety of plants in four families, Papaveraceae, Berberidaceae, Lauraceae, and Ranunculaceae.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Physostigmine (also known as eserine from éséré, the West African name for the Calabar bean) is a highly toxic parasympathomimetic alkaloid, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
Phytochemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pure and applied plant chemistry, plant biochemistry and molecular biology.
Pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid) is a small organic molecule which accumulates in pipecolic acidemia.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
Piperine, along with its isomer chavicine, is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protopine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid occurring in opium poppy, Corydalis tubers and other plants of the family papaveraceae, like Fumaria officinalis.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybe is a genus of gilled mushrooms growing worldwide.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Putrescine, or tetramethylenediamine, is a foul-smelling organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) that is related to cadaverine; both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrrolidine, also known as tetrahydropyrrole, is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)4NH.
Pyrrolizidine is a heterocyclic organic compound that forms the central chemical structure of a variety of alkaloids known collectively as pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Quinazoline is an organic compound with the formula C8H6N2.
Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N.
Quinolizidine (norlupinane, octahydro-2H-quinolizine) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound.
Rauvolfia serpentina, the Indian snakeroot or devil pepper, is a species of flower in the family Apocynaceae.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
Retronecine is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid found in a variety of plants in the genera Senecio and Crotalaria, and the family Boraginaceae.
Ricinine is a toxic alkaloid found in the castor plant.
Sanguinarine is a toxic polycyclic ammonium ion.
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST).
A Schiff base (named after Hugo Schiff) is a compound with the general structure R2C.
Secologanin is a secoiridoid monoterpene synthesized from geranyl pyrophosphate in the mevalonate pathway.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units and often have the molecular formula C15H24.
Sinomenine or cocculine is an alkaloid found in the root of the climbing plant Sinomenium acutum which is native to Japan and China.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solanidine is a poisonous steroidal alkaloid chemical compound that occurs in plants of the Solanaceae family, such as potato and Solanum americanum.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Sparteine is a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent; a sodium channel blocker.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Spermidine is a polyamine compound found in ribosomes and living tissues, and having various metabolic functions within organisms.
Spermine is a polyamine involved in cellular metabolism found in all eukaryotic cells.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Strictosidine is formed by the Pictet–Spengler reaction condensation of tryptamine with secologanin by the enzyme strictosidine synthase.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Strychnos nux-vomica, the strychnine tree, also known as nux vomica, poison nut, semen strychnos, and quaker buttons, is a deciduous tree native to India, and southeast Asia.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid.
Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
A tetramer (tetra-, "four" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer formed from four monomers or subunits.
Theacrine, also known as 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid, is a purine alkaloid found in Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) and in a Chinese tea known as kucha (Camellia assamica var. kucha).
Thebaine (paramorphine), also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai (Thebes), an ancient city in Upper Egypt.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a heterocyclic compound that contains both sulfur and nitrogen; the term 'thiazole' also refers to a large family of derivatives.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxiferine (C-toxiferine I) is a curare toxin.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
Trigonelline is an alkaloid with chemical formula 772.
In chemistry, a trimer is a molecule or an anion formed by combination or association of three molecules or ions of the same substance.
Tropane is a nitrogenous bicyclic organic compound.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tubocurarine (also known as d-tubocurarine or DTC) is a toxic alkaloid historically known for its use as an arrow poison.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
A uterotonic, also known as ecbolic, is an agent used to induce contraction or greater tonicity of the uterus.
The bella moth, ornate moth or rattlebox moth is a moth of the Arctiidae family.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Vanillylamine is an alkaloid that is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of capsaicin.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Veratrum californicum (California corn lily, white or California false hellebore) is a poisonous plant native to mountain meadows at 3500 to 11,000 ft elevation in southwestern North America, the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains, and as far north as Alaska and as far south as Durango.
Villalstonine is a bisindole isolate of Alstonia with anticancer and antiplasmodial activities.
Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.
Vinca (Latin: vincire "to bind, fetter") is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae, native to Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia.
Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant Catharanthus roseus (basionym Vinca rosea) and other vinca plants.
Vincamine is a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid found in the leaves of Vinca minor (lesser periwinkle), comprising about 25-65% of the indole alkaloids found in Vinca minor by weight.
Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Most people experience some side effects from vincristine treatment. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, hair loss, constipation, difficulty walking, and headaches. Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby if given during pregnancy. It works by stopping cells from dividing properly. Vincristine was first isolated in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 1.80 and 42.60 USD per dose. It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.
Vindoline is a chemical precursor to vinblastine.
Vinorelbine (NVB), sold under the brand name Navelbine among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Voacamine, also known under the older names voacanginine and vocamine, is a naturally occurring dimeric indole alkaloid of the secologanin type, found in a number of plants, including Voacanga africana.
Voacangine (12-methoxyibogamine-18-carboxylic acid methyl ester) is an alkaloid found predominantly in the rootbark of the Voacanga africana tree, as well as in other plants such as Tabernanthe iboga, Tabernaemontana africana, Trachelospermum jasminoides and Ervatamia yunnanensis.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Xanthosine is a nucleoside derived from xanthine and ribose.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.
1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate is an intermediate in the non-mevalonate pathway.
2-Quinolone is an organic compound related structurally to quinoline.
4-Quinolone is an organic compound derived from quinoline.