246 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Aerosol spray, Affix, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkane, Alkane stereochemistry, Alkene, Alkyl, Alkyne, Amorphothecaceae, Amorphous silica-alumina, Archaea, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Asphalt, Atmosphere, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Aviation fuel, Back-formation, Barton–McCombie deoxygenation, Base (chemistry), Beta scission, Bicyclobutane, Biogas, Biological activity, Boiling point, Bond length, Butane, Butyric acid, Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules, Candle, Carbanion, Carbocation, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonaceous chondrite, Carbon–carbon bond, Carbon–hydrogen bond, Carbon–hydrogen bond activation, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Cattle, Cetane number, Chemical formula, Chemical Reviews, Chemical shift, Chirality (chemistry), ..., Chlorine, Clemmensen reduction, Combustion, Comet Hyakutake, Conformational isomerism, Corey–House synthesis, Cracking (chemistry), Cyclic compound, Cycloalkane, Cyclobutane, Cyclopentane, Cyclopropane, Decane, Decarboxylation, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Diesel fuel, Diethyl ether, Dihedral angle, Dimethyl ether, Dodecane, Eclipsed conformation, Electric field, Electron configuration, Energy crisis, Engine knocking, Entropy, Epicuticular wax, Ester, Ethane, Ethanol, Ether, Ethyl group, Eukaryote, Exothermic reaction, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fischer–Tropsch process, Fractional distillation, Free-radical halogenation, Fuel oil, Functional group, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Haloalkane, Halogen, Heat of combustion, Heptadecane, Heptane, Herbivore, Heterolysis (chemistry), Hexadecane, Hexane, Higher alkanes, Homologous series, Homology (chemistry), Homolysis (chemistry), Honey bee, Huygens (spacecraft), Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogenation, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Icosane, Intermolecular force, Internal combustion engine, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intramolecular force, Ion, Ionization energy, Isobutane, Isomer, Isopentane, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, IUPAC numerical multiplier, Jeffrey pine, Jupiter, Ketone, Latin, Leaching (agriculture), Lipophilicity, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of straight-chain alkanes, Lithium hydroxide, Lubricant, Marsh gas, Martinez, California, Melting point, Meteorite, Methane, Methane clathrate, Methanogen, Methanogenesis, Methanol, Methyl group, Methylcyclopropane, Methylene bridge, Molecular geometry, Molecular mass, Molecule, N-Butyllithium, Natural gas, Neopentane, Neptune, Newman projection, Nickel, Nitration, Nonane, Nuclear Overhauser effect, Nucleophilic abstraction, Nylon, Octane, Octane rating, Oil field, Oil refinery, On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, Open-chain compound, Ophrys sphegodes, Orbital hybridisation, Organic chemistry, Oxygen, Paraffin, Paraffin wax, Parts-per notation, Pentadecane, Pentane, Petrochemical, Petrochemical industry, Petroleum, Pheromone, Photochemistry, Photosynthesis, Pichia, Plant cuticle, Platinum, Pollination, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polypropylene, Pristane, Propane, Propionic acid, Radical (chemistry), Reactive intermediate, Redox, Reed reaction, Relative permittivity, Relaxation (physics), Renewable energy, Retrosynthetic analysis, Rhodotorula, Room temperature, Rose, Saturation (chemistry), Saturn, Second law of thermodynamics, Single bond, Skeletal formula, Solvent, Soot, Staggered conformation, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Steam, Stereocenter, Steric effects, Stoichiometry, Structural isomer, Sulfonic acid, Sulfur dioxide, Termite, Tetrahedrane, Tetrahedron, Titan (moon), Transmetalation, Tree (graph theory), Tsetse fly, Undecane, Unified atomic mass unit, Uranus, Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Viscosity, Waggle dance, Wavenumber, Wax, Wetland, Xylotrechus colonus, Zeolite, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, 2,2-Dimethylbutane, 2,3-Dimethylbutane, 2-Methylpentane, 3-Methylhexane, 3-Methylpentane. Expand index (196 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Alkane stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of alkanes.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
The Amorphothecaceae are a family of fungi in the division Ascomycota.
Amorphous silica alumina is a synthetic substance that is used as a catalyst or catalyst support.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
August Wilhelm von Hofmann (8 April 18185 May 1892) was a German chemist.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.
The Barton–McCombie deoxygenation is an organic reaction in which an hydroxy functional group in an organic compound is replaced by a hydrogen to give an alkyl group.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beta scission is an important reaction in the chemistry of thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and the formation of free radicals.
Bicyclobutane is an organic compound with the formula C4H6.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
The Cahn–Ingold–Prelog (CIP) sequence rules, named for organic chemists Robert Sidney Cahn, Christopher Kelk Ingold, and Vladimir Prelog — alternatively termed the CIP priority rules, system, or conventions — are a standard process used in organic chemistry to completely and unequivocally name a stereoisomer of a molecule.
A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
The carbon-hydrogen bond (C–H bond) is a bond between carbon and hydrogen atoms that can be found in many organic compounds.
Carbon–hydrogen bond functionalization (C–H functionalization) is a type of reaction in which a carbon–hydrogen bond is cleaved and replaced with a carbon-X bond (where X is usually carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Clemmensen reduction is a chemical reaction described as a reduction of ketones (or aldehydes) to alkanes using zinc amalgam and hydrochloric acid.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Comet Hyakutake (formally designated C/1996 B2) is a comet, discovered on 31 January 1996, that passed very close to Earth in March of that year.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
The Corey–House synthesis (also called the Corey–Posner–Whitesides–House reaction and other permutations) is an organic reaction that involves the reaction of a lithium diorganylcuprate (R2CuLi) with an organyl (pseudo)halide (R'X) to form a new alkane, as well as an ill-defined organocopper species and lithium halide as byproducts.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.
Cyclobutane is a cycloalkane and organic compound with the formula (CH2)4.
Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane.
Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.
Decane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C10H22.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series.
In chemistry an eclipsed conformation is a conformation in which two substituents X and Y on adjacent atoms A, B are in closest proximity, implying that the torsion angle X–A–B–Y is 0°.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
An energy crisis is any significant bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy.
Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Epicuticular wax is a coating of wax covering the outer surface of the plant cuticle in land plants.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
In organic chemistry, free-radical halogenation is a type of halogenation.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Heptadecane is an organic compound, an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C17H36.
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different", and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") is the process of cleaving a covalent bond where one previously bonded species takes both original bonding electrons from the other species.
Hexadecane (also called cetane) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C16H34.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms.
In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties.
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.
In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally bonded electrons.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Icosane (alternative spelling eicosane) is an alkane with the chemical formula C20H42.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound, not to be confused with intermolecular forces, which are the forces present between molecules.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Isopentane, C5H12, also called methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is a branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
The numerical multiplier (or multiplying affix) in IUPAC nomenclature indicates how many particular atoms or functional groups are attached at a particular point in a molecule.
Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) also known as Jeffrey's pine, yellow pine and black pine, is a North American pine tree.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
The following is a list of straight-chain and branched alkanes and their common names, sorted by number of carbon atoms.
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Marsh gas, swamp gas and bog gas hydrogen sulfide sulfide and carbon dioxide as minor compositions, produced naturally within some geographical marshes, swamps, and bogs.
Martinez is a city in and the county seat of Contra Costa County, California, in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methylcyclopropane is an organic compound with the structural formula C3H5CH3.
In organic chemistry, a methylene bridge, methylene spacer, or methanediyl group is any part of a molecule with formula --; namely, a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms and connected by single bonds to two other distinct atoms in the rest of the molecule.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
n-Butyllithium (abbreviated n-BuLi) is an organolithium reagent.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Neopentane, also called 2,2-dimethylpropane, is a double-branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
A Newman projection, useful in alkane stereochemistry, visualizes the conformation of a chemical bond from front to back, with the front atom represented by a dot and the back carbon as a circle.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
Nonane is a linear alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20.
The nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE or nOe) is the transfer of nuclear spin polarization from one spin bath to another spin bath via cross-relaxation.
Nucleophilic abstraction is a type of an organometallic reaction which can be defined as a nucleophilic attack on a ligand which causes part or all of the original ligand to be removed from the metal along with the nucleophile.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS), also cited simply as Sloane's, is an online database of integer sequences.
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.
Ophrys sphegodes, commonly known as the early spider-orchid, is a species of orchid found on alkaline meadows and waste land.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paraffin may refer to.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Pentadecane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C15H32.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
The petrochemical industry is concerned with the production and trade of petrochemicals.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Pichia (Hansenula and Hyphopichia are obsolete synonyms) is a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae with spherical, elliptical, or oblong acuminate cells.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Pristane is a natural saturated terpenoid alkane obtained primarily from shark liver oil, from which its name is derived (Latin pristis, "shark").
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
In chemistry, a reactive intermediate or an intermediate is a short-lived, high-energy, highly reactive molecule.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Reed reaction is a chemical reaction that utilizes light to oxidize hydrocarbons to sulfonyl chlorides.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In the physical sciences, relaxation usually means the return of a perturbed system into equilibrium.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses.
Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular pigmented yeasts, part of the division Basidiomycota.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.
The skeletal formula, also called line-angle formula or shorthand formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of a molecule's bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
In organic chemistry, a staggered conformation is a chemical conformation of an ethane-like moiety abcX–Ydef in which the substituents a, b, and c are at the maximum distance from d, e, and f. This requires the torsion angles to be 60°.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
A sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Tetrahedrane is a platonic hydrocarbon with chemical formula and a tetrahedral structure.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one path.
Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.
Undecane (also known as hendecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)9CH3.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee.
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Xylotrechus colonus is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2.
2,2-Dimethylbutane, trivially known as neohexane, is an organic compound with formula C6H14 or (H3C-)3-C-CH2-CH3.
2,3-Dimethylbutane is an isomer of hexane.
2-Methylpentane, trivially known as isohexane, is a branched-chain alkane with the molecular formula C6H14.
3-Methylhexane is a branched hydrocarbon with two enantiomers.
3-Methylpentane is a branched-chain alkane with the molecular formula C6H14.
Alkane nomenclature, Alkanes, Branched alkane, C37H76, C38H78, C39H80, C40H82, C41H84, C43H88, C46H94, C52H106, C54H110, Cycloalkyl, Dicetyl, Doheptacontane, Dohexacontane, Dononacontane, Dooctacontane, Dopentacontane, Dotetracontane, Hectane, Henheptacontane, Henhexacontane, Hennonacontane, Henoctacontane, Henpentacontane, Hentetracontane, Heptacontane, Heptaheptacontane, Heptahexacontane, Heptanonacontane, Heptaoctacontane, Heptapentacontane, Heptatetracontane, Heptatriacontane, Hexaheptacontane, Hexahexacontane, Hexanonacontane, Hexaoctacontane, Hexapentacontane, Hexatetracontane, ISO-ALKANES, Isoalkane, Isoparaffin, Linear alkane, Linear paraffins, Methane series, Nonacontane, Nonaheptacontane, Nonahexacontane, Nonanonacontane, Nonaoctacontane, Nonapentacontane, Nonatetracontane, Nonatriacontane, Octacontane, Octaheptacontane, Octahexacontane, Octanonacontane, Octaoctacontane, Octapentacontane, Octatetracontane, Octatriacontane, Paraffin number, Paraffin series, Paraffinic hydrocarbon, Paraffins, Pentaheptacontane, Pentahexacontane, Pentanonacontane, Pentaoctacontane, Pentapentacontane, Pentatetracontane, Primary alkyl, Saturated hydrocarbon, Saturated hydrocarbons, Secondary alkyl, Tertiary alkyl, Test for alkanes, Tetraheptacontane, Tetrahexacontane, Tetranonacontane, Tetraoctacontane, Tetrapentacontane, Triheptacontane, Trihexacontane, Trinonacontane, Trioctacontane, Tripentacontane, Tritetracontane.