58 relations: Alexei Rykov, All-Russian Central Executive Committee, April Theses, Belarus, Bolsheviks, Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library, British Socialist Party, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Congress of Soviets, Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, Council of People's Commissars, Direct election, Dual power (Russian Revolution), February Revolution, Gleb Krzhizhanovsky, GOELRO plan, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Indirect election, Internet Archive, Joseph Stalin, Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, Left SR uprising, Leninism, Leon Trotsky, Lev Kamenev, Marxists Internet Archive, Mensheviks, October Revolution, Peace, People's Commissariat for Nationalities, Petrograd Soviet, Politics of the Soviet Union, Popular sovereignty, Red Army, Regime, Republics of the Soviet Union, Russian Civil War, Russian Constituent Assembly, Russian Constitution of 1918, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Smolny, Socialist Revolutionary Party, Soviet (council), Soviet Union, Strike action, Supreme Soviet, Supreme Soviet of Russia, Transcaucasia, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, ..., Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Ukraine, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, University of Warwick, Vladimir Lenin, World War I, Yakov Sverdlov, 1905 Russian Revolution. Expand index (8 more) » « Shrink index
Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (25 February 188115 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.
The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Vserossiysky Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet (VTsIK)), was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) from 1917 until 1937.
The April Theses (Russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration) were a series of ten directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland via Germany and Finland.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Yeltsin Presidential Library was established by Vladimir Putin and is one of the national Libraries in Russia.
The British Socialist Party (BSP) was a Marxist political organisation established in Great Britain in 1911.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and several other Soviet republics from 1917–36 and again from 1989-91.
The Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union (Съезд Советов Советского Союза), was the supreme governing body in the Soviet Union since the formation of the USSR (30 December 1922) and until adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
"Dual Power" (r) was a term first used by Vladimir Lenin, which described a situation in the wake of the February Revolution in which two powers, the workers councils (or Soviets, particularly the Petrograd Soviet) and the official state apparatus of the Provisional Government coexisted with each other and competed for legitimacy.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
Gleb Maximilianovich Krzhizhanovsky (Глеб Максимилиа́нович Кржижано́вский) (24 January 1872 – 31 March 1959) was a Soviet Scientist and a state figure.
GOELRO plan (план ГОЭЛРО) was the first-ever Soviet plan for national economic recovery and development.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
An indirect election is an election in which voters do not choose between candidates for an office, but elect people who then choose.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was a revolutionary socialist political party formed during the Russian Revolution.
The Left SR uprising or Left SR revolt was an uprising against the Bolsheviks by the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party in July 1918.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
The People's Commissariat of Nationalities (abbreviation transliterated as Narkomnats), an organisation functioning from 1917 to 1924 in the early Soviet period of Russian and Soviet history, dealt with non-Russian nationalities.
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
The political system of the Soviet Union took place in a single-party socialist republic framework which was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the only party permitted by the Constitution.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.
The first constitution of Russia, also called the Basic Law (Основной закон, Osnovnoy zakon) which governed the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, described the regime that assumed power in the October Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Smolny is a place name in central Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры, esery) was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union.
The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (Верховный Совет РСФСР, Verkhovnıy Sovet RSFSR), later Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation (Верховный Совет Российской Федерации, Verkhovnıy Sovet Rossiyskoi Federatsii) was the supreme government institution of the Russian SFSR in 1938–1990; in 1990–1993 it was a permanent parliament, elected by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation). The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR was established as similar structure as the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1938, instead of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) as the highest organ of power of Russia. In the 1940s, the Supreme Soviet Presidium and the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR were located in the former mansion of counts Osterman (str Delegatskaya, 3), which was later in 1991 given to a museum. The sessions were held in Grand Kremlin Palace. In 1981 the Supreme Soviet was moved to a specially constructed building on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment, The House of Soviets. The Supreme Soviet was abolished in October 1993 (after the events of Russia's 1993 constitutional crisis) and replaced by the Federal Assembly of Russia (consists of the Federation Council of Russia and State Duma), whose powers are weaker than Supreme Council ones.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The University of Warwick is a plate glass research university in Coventry, England.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) known by pseudonyms "Andrei", "Mikhalych", "Max", "Smirnov", "Permyakov"; was a Bolshevik party administrator and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
5th All-Russia Congress of Soviets, Congress of Soviets of RSFSR, Congress of Soviets of Russia, Congress of Soviets of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Congress of Soviets of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Fourth All-Russia Congress of Soviets, Second Congress of Soviets, Съезд Советов РСФСР.