145 relations: Abdullah (name), Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Abraham, Affix, Ahura Mazda, Al-Andalus, Aleph, Alhamdulillah, Allah as a lunar deity, Anthropomorphism, Arab Christians, Arab Muslims, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic definite article, Arabic Presentation Forms-A, Arabs, Aramaic language, Assamese language, Assyrian people, Bahá'í Faith, Basmala, Bábism, Belarusian language, Bible, Biblical Aramaic, Biblical Hebrew, Brahman, Brill Publishers, Chinese language, Christianity in Indonesia, Christianity in Malta, Cognate, Columbia Encyclopedia, Comparative religion, Contraction (grammar), Creator deity, Czech language, Daily Express (Malaysia), Dari language, Deity, Dhikr, El (deity), Elohim, Emblem of Iran, Encyclopædia Britannica, Etymology, Filipino language, Francis Edward Peters, Francis Xavier, ..., Ghassanids, God in Abrahamic religions, God in Christianity, God in Islam, God the Father, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Matthew, Government of Malaysia, Greek language, Gurmukhi script, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Hasan al-Basri, Hebrew language, High Courts (Malaysia), Himyarite Kingdom, Holy Spirit in Christianity, Hubal, Idris Jala, Ilah, Indonesian language, Inshallah, Israel, Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Jinn, Jordan, Julius Wellhausen, Kaaba, King James Version, Kingdom of Aksum, Latin, Malay language, Malaysian language, Malta, Maltese language, Mandaeans, Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca), Marshall Hodgson, Mecca, Miscellaneous Symbols, Mizrahi Jews, Monotheism, Muhammad, Muslim, Names of God, Names of God in Islam, New Testament, Pantheon (religion), Peninsular Malaysia, Persian language, Polytheism, Portuguese language, Pre-Islamic Arabia, Princeton University Press, Quran, Quraysh, Rahman (name), Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Routledge, Russian language, Sabah, Sarawak, Semitic languages, Serbian language, Shadda, Shahada, Siegfried August Mahlmann, Sikh, Sikh scriptures, Son of God, Spanish language, Sufism, Synalepha, Syria, Syriac language, Takbir, Tamil language, Tanukhids, Tasbih, The Borneo Post, The Christian Science Monitor, The Herald (Malaysian Catholic Weekly), The Star (Malaysia), Thomas Carlyle, Tor Andræ, Trinity, Typographic ligature, Ukrainian language, Umm el-Jimal, Unicode, University of Chicago Press, Urdu, Uyghur language, Yahweh, 18-point agreement, 20-point agreement. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
Abdullah or Abdallah is the primary transliteration of the Arabic given name, عبد الله, built from the Arabic words Abd and Allah (Allah itself composed of Al- and Ilah).
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) (c.546–570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Al-ḥamdu lil-lāh (ٱلْـحَـمْـدُ للهِ) or Alḥamdulillāh, also known as Taḥmīd (lit), is an Arabic phrase meaning "praise be to the Lord", sometimes translated as "thank Lord!".
The claim that Allah (the name of God in Islam) historically originates as a moon god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia is a fringe theory with origins in early 20th-century scholarship, but most prominently advocated by American evangelicals since the 1990s.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
Arab Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Arabs.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
(ال), also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic, is the definite article in the Arabic language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite.
Arabic Presentation Forms-A is a Unicode block encoding contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Basmala (بسملة), also known by its incipit Bismillah (بسم الله, "In the name of God"), is the name of the Islamic phrase بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ "In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".
Bábism (بابیه, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith (Persian:, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible GodBrowne, E.G., p. 15 who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (Arabic). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biblical Aramaic is the form of Aramaic that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Christianity is Indonesia's second-largest religion, after Islam.
In the small Mediterranean island nation of Malta the predominant religion is Roman Catholicism.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters and sounds.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Daily Express is an English-language newspaper in Sabah, Malaysia and the sister newspaper of the Overseas Chinese Daily News (OCDN).
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Dhikr (also Zikr, Zekr, Zikir, Jikir, and variants; ḏikr; plural أذكار aḏkār, meaning "mentioning") is the name of devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited silently within the mind or aloud.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
Elohim (Hebrew: ’ĕlōhîm) is one of the many names or titles for God in the Hebrew Bible; the term is also used in the Hebrew Bible to refer to other gods.
The Emblem of Iran (نشان رسمی ایران, neshān-e rasmi-ye Irān) since the 1979 Iranian Revolution features the Arabic word ''Allah'' ("God"), rendered in stylized characters from the Persian alphabet.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Francis Edward Peters (born June 23, 1927, New York City), who generally publishes as F.E. Peters, is Professor Emeritus of History, Religion and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at New York University (NYU).
Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") was an Arab kingdom, founded by descendants of the Azd tribe from Yemen who immigrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region, where some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition of a god, Yahweh, that revealed himself to the prophet Abraham.
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Government of Malaysia officially the Federal Government of Malaysia (Kerajaan Persekutuan Malaysia) based in the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and the federal executive based in Putrajaya.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, FBA (2 January 1895 – 22 October 1971), known as H. A. R. Gibb, was a Scottish historian on Orientalism.
Abū Saʿīd b. Abi ’l-Ḥasan Yasār al-Baṣrī, often referred to as Ḥasan of Basra (Arabic: حسن البصري, Ḥasan al-Baṣrī; 642 - 15 October 728) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ḥasan al-Baṣrī in Sunni Islam, was an early Muslim preacher, ascetic, theologian, exegete, scholar, judge, and mystic.
The High Courts in Malaysia are the third-highest courts in the hierarchy of courts, after the Federal Court and the Court of Appeal.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit; each person itself being God.
Hubal (هُبَل) was a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Kaaba in Mecca.
Dato' Sri Idris Jala (born 21 August 1958) was a former Malaysian cabinet minister.
(إله; plural: آلهة) is an Arabic term meaning "deity" or "god".
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
ʾIn shāʾa llāh (إن شاء الله, ʾin shāʾa llāh), also inshallah, in sha Allah or insha'Allah, is the Arabic language expression for "God willing" or "if God wills".
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jane Dammen McAuliffe (born 1944) is a prominent American educator, internationally known scholar of Islam and the inaugural Director of National and International Outreach at the Library of Congress.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Julius Wellhausen (17 May 1844 – 7 January 1918) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Marshall Goodwin Simms Hodgson (April 11, 1922 – June 10, 1968), was an Islamic studies academic and a world historian at the University of Chicago.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Miscellaneous Symbols is a Unicode block (U+2600–U+26FF) containing glyphs representing concepts from a variety of categories: astrological, astronomical, chess, dice, musical notation, political symbols, recycling, religious symbols, trigrams, warning signs, and weather, among others.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being.The English word "God" (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms "god" and "God".
According to a hadith, there are at least 99 names of God in Islam, known as the (Beautiful Names of God).
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rahman or Rehman (رحمن) is an Arabic male name meaning Gracious.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Shaddah (شَدّة " emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate).
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Siegfried August Mahlmann (May 13, 1771 – December 16, 1826) was a German poet and editor.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The principal Sikh scripture is the Adi Granth (First Scripture), more commonly called the Guru Granth Sahib.
Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as son of God, son of a god or son of heaven.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
A synalepha or synaloepha is the merging of two syllables into one, especially when it causes two words to be pronounced as one.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Takbīr (تَكْبِير), also transliterated Tekbir or Takbeer, is the Arabic phrase (الله أكبر), usually translated as "God is greatest".
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tanûkhids (التنوخيون) or Tanukh (تنوخ) were originally from the Nabataean confederation of Arab tribes, sometimes characterized as Saracens.
Tasbīḥ (تَـسْـبِـيْـح) is a form of dhikr that involves the repetitive utterances of short sentences in the praise and glorification of Allah in Islam, by saying Subḥānallāh (سُـبْـحَـانَ ٱلله, meaning "God is perfect (free of any errors/defects)").
The Borneo Post, established in 1978, is the largest and widest read English newspaper daily in East Malaysia.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Herald is a Malaysian Catholic weekly newspaper.
The Star is an English-language, tabloid-format newspaper in Malaysia.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Tor Julius Efraim Andræ (9 July 1885 in Vena – 24 February 1947 in Linköping) was a Swedish scholar of comparative religion and bishop of Linköping from 1936.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Umm el-Jimal (Arabic: ام الجمال, "Mother of Camels"), also known as Umm ej Jemāl, Umm al-Jimal or Umm idj-Djimal, is a village in Northern Jordan approximately 17 kilometers east of Mafraq.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
The 18-point agreement, or the 18-point memorandum, was a hypothetical list of 18 points drawn up by Sarawak, proposing terms to form Malaysia, during negotiations prior to the creation of the new federation in 1963.
The 20-point agreement, or the 20-point memorandum, is a list of 20 points drawn up by North Borneo, proposing terms for its incorporation into the new federation as the State of Sabah, during negotiations prior to the formation of Malaysia.
ALLAH, Alaha, Allaah, Allah (word), Allahu, Allakh, Allâh, Allāh, Audhu billah, God (Arabic), God in Arabic, God of the Koran, God of the Quran, Llah, Llāh, Ollah, The Name Of Allah (llh), The Name Of Allah (الله), ا ﷲ, الله, اللہ, اﷲ, ﷲ, ﷲ:.