239 relations: Abdominal pain, Adrenaline, Aerobiology, African Americans, Agriculture, Allergen, Allergen immunotherapy, Allergic conjunctivitis, Allergic contact dermatitis, Allergic rhinitis, American Board of Internal Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics, American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine, American Osteopathic Board of Pediatrics, Anaphylaxis, Ancient Greek, Angioedema, Antibiotic, Antigen, Antigen-presenting cell, Antihistamine, Antileukotriene, Applied kinesiology, Asian people, Aspirin, Asthma, Atopic dermatitis, Atopy, Autoimmune disease, Autonomic nervous system, B cell, Bacteria, Basophil, Beef, Beta-glucuronidase, Blister, Bloating, Blood, Bronchoconstriction, Caesarean section, Caucasian race, Chemotaxis, Cholinergic, Circulatory system, Clemens von Pirquet, Coevolution, Coma, Conjunctiva, Contact dermatitis, Corticosteroid, ..., Crustacean, Cutaneous condition, Cytokine, Cytotoxicity, Dairy, Death, Decongestant, Degranulation, Dermatitis, Dermis, Diarrhea, Diet (nutrition), Disease, Dust, Ear, Edema, Egg as food, ELISA, Enzyme, Enzyme potentiated desensitization, Eosinophil, Epidemiology, Epinephrine autoinjector, Ethiopia, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Europe, Eustachian tube, Extract, Family, Fc receptor, FCER1, Fecal–oral route, Fish, Food, Food allergy, Food intolerance, Foodborne illness, Gastrointestinal tract, Genealogy, General Medical Council, Genetic engineering, Genetics, Glucocorticoid, Granule (cell biology), Gut flora, Hapten, Helicobacter pylori, Helminthic therapy, Helminths, Hepatitis A, Heredity, Hispanic, Histamine, Histamine intolerance, Hives, Homeopathy, Homology (biology), Hookworm infection, Host (biology), House of Lords, Human digestive system, Human eye, Human migration, Human nose, Hydrolase, Hygiene hypothesis, Hypersensitivity, Hypotension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Immune response, Immune system, Immunoglobulin E, Immunology, Immunosuppressive drug, Immunotherapy, Industrialisation, Infant, Infant formula, Infection, Insect bites and stings, Insect sting allergy, Integral membrane protein, Interferon gamma, Interleukin, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 4, Internal medicine, Itch, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Kimishige Ishizaka, Lactose intolerance, Latex, Leukotriene, Lipopolysaccharide, List of allergens, Locus (genetics), Lung, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Mast cell, Mast cell stabilizer, Medication, Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, Microorganism, Milk, Mosquito, Mouth, Mucous membrane, Mucus, Mutualism (biology), Nasal irrigation, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Natural environment, Nerve, Neutrophil, Nonallergic rhinitis, Nut (fruit), Oral allergy syndrome, Papule, Paranasal sinuses, Parasitism, Patch test, Peanut, Pediatrics, Penicillin, Pet, Petasites, Philip George Houthem Gell, PLOS Medicine, Pollen, Pollution, Poppy seed, Proctocolitis, Prostaglandin, Protein, Psychological stress, Race (human categorization), Radioallergosorbent test, Radionuclide, Ragweed, Rash, Receiver operating characteristic, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Rhinitis, Rhinorrhea, Robin Coombs, Royal College of Physicians, Rural area, Seed, Sensitization (immunology), Sesame, Sex, Shortness of breath, Sinusitis, Skin, Skin allergy test, Smooth muscle tissue, Sneeze, Soybean, Specialist registrar, Statistics, T cell, T helper cell, Titration, Toll-like receptor, Toxicodendron diversilobum, Toxicodendron pubescens, Toxicodendron radicans, Toxicodendron vernix, Toxoplasma gondii, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Type IV hypersensitivity, Urban area, Urushiol, Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, Vasodilation, Vienna, Virus, Vomiting, Walnut, Water chlorination, WebMD, Western world, Wheat, Wheeze, White blood cell, Yolk. Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Aerobiology (from Greek ἀήρ, aēr, "air"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies.
Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane covering the white part of the eye) due to allergy.
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance; the other type being irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) is a non-profit, self-appointed physician evaluation organization which certifies physicians who practice internal medicine and its subspecialties.
The American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) was founded in 1933.
The American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine (AOBIM) is an organization that provides board certification to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) who specialize in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease in adults (internists).
The American Osteopathic Board of Pediatrics (AOBP) is an organization that provides board certification to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of medical diseases in infants, children, and adolescents (pediatricians).
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene-related enzyme inhibitor (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD.
Applied kinesiology (AK) is a technique in alternative medicine claimed to be able to diagnose illness or choose treatment by testing muscles for strength and weakness.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).
Atopy is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beta-glucuronidases are members of the glycosidase family of enzymes that catalyze breakdown of complex carbohydrates.
A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.
Abdominal bloating is a symptom that can appear at any age, generally associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but can also appear alone.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clemens Peter Freiherr von Pirquet (12 May 187428 February 1929) was an Austrian scientist and pediatrician best known for his contributions to the fields of bacteriology and immunology.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme potentiated desensitization, or EPD, is a treatment for allergies developed in the 1960s by Dr.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
An epinephrine autoinjector is a medical device for injecting a measured dose or doses of epinephrine (adrenaline) by means of autoinjector technology.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
The high-affinity IgE receptor, also known as FcεRI, or Fc epsilon RI, is the high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody isotype involved in the allergy disorder and parasites immunity.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
The General Medical Council (GMC) is a public body that maintains the official register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
In cell biology, a granule is a small particle.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Haptens are minute molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Helminthic therapy, an experimental type of immunotherapy, is the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune disorders by means of deliberate infestation with a helminth or with the ova of a helminth.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Histamine intolerance, sometimes called histaminosis, is an over-accumulation of histamine in the human body.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.
In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infant formula, or baby formula, is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Insect bites and stings occur when an insect is agitated and seeks to defend itself through its natural defense mechanisms, or when an insect seeks to feed off the bitten person.
Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect.
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine is an open peer-reviewed medical journal.
is a Japanese scientist who discovered the antibody class IgE in 1966.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Mast cell stabilizers are chromone medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) is a postgraduate medical diploma in the United Kingdom (UK).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Nasal irrigation, or nasal lavage or nasal douche, is a personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to flush out mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Nonallergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inner part of the nose that is not caused by an allergy.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS), now known as Pollen-Food Allergy) is an allergic reaction in the mouth following eating food. It is a type of food allergy classified by a cluster of allergic reactions in the mouth in response to eating certain (usually fresh) fruits, nuts, and vegetables that typically develops in adults with hay fever. OAS is not a separate food allergy, but rather represents cross-reactivity between distant remnants of tree or weed pollen still found in certain fruits and vegetables. Therefore, OAS is only seen in people with seasonal pollen allergies, and mostly people who are allergic to tree pollen. It is usually limited to ingestion of only uncooked fruits or vegetables. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy. In adults up to 60% of all food allergic reactions are due to cross-reactions between foods and inhalative allergens. OAS is a Type 1 or IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, which is sometimes called a "true allergy". The body's immune system produces IgE antibodies against pollen; in OAS, these antibodies also bind to (or cross-react with) other structurally similar proteins found in botanically related plants. OAS can occur any time of the year but is most prevalent during the pollen season. Individuals with OAS usually develop symptoms within a few minutes after eating the food.
A papule is a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin with no visible fluid, varying in area from a pinhead to 1 cm.
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A patch test is a method used to determine whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of a patient's skin.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.
Petasites is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, that are commonly referred to as butterburs and coltsfoots.
Philip George Houthem Gell (20 October 1914 – 3 May 2001) was an immunologist working in postwar Britain.
PLOS Medicine (formerly styled PLoS Medicine) is a peer-reviewed weekly medical journal covering the full spectrum of the medical sciences.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).
Proctocolitis is a general term for inflammation of the rectum and colon.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a blood test using radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies, to determine the substances a subject is allergic to.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Ragweeds are flowering plants in the genus Ambrosia in the aster family, Asteraceae.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
In statistics, a receiver operating characteristic curve, i.e. ROC curve, is a graphical plot that illustrates the diagnostic ability of a binary classifier system as its discrimination threshold is varied.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
Robert Royston Amos ("Robin") Coombs (9 January 1921 – 25 January 2006), was a British immunologist, co-discoverer of the Coombs test (1945) used for detecting antibodies in various clinical scenarios, such as Rh disease and blood transfusion.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
In immunology, the term sensitization is used for the following concepts:Anderson DM, ed.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Skin allergy testing or Skin prick test is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to provoke a small, controlled, allergic response.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
A specialist registrar (SpR) is a doctor in the Republic of Ireland and in the United Kingdom who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field of medicine in order to eventually become a consultant.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
Toxicodendron diversilobum (syn. Rhus diversiloba), commonly named Pacific poison oak or western poison oak, is a woody vine or shrub in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae.
Toxicodendron pubescens (syn. Rhus pubescens), commonly known as Atlantic poison oak, is an upright shrub that can grow to 1 m (3 ft) tall.
Toxicodendron radicans, commonly known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is a poisonous Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant that is well-known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy, irritating, and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it.
Toxicodendron vernix, commonly known as poison sumac, is a woody shrub or small tree growing to 9 m (30 ft) tall.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urushiol is an oily mixture of organic compounds with allergic properties found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae, especially Toxicodendron spp. (e.g., poison oak, Lacquer Tree, poison ivy, poison sumac) and also in parts of the mango tree.
Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis (also called Toxicodendron dermatitis and Rhus dermatitis) is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil urushiol, which is contained in various plants, most notably those of the genus Toxicodendron: the Chinese lacquer tree, poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
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