234 relations: Acerno, Admiral (United States), Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Adolf Hitler, Adriatic Sea, Airborne forces, Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, Albert Kesselring, Allied Force Headquarters, Allied invasion of Italy order of battle, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Altavilla Silentina, Amphibious warfare, Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Angri, Apennine Mountains, Armistice of Cassibile, Army Group B, Asiatic-Pacific Theater, Avellino, Axis powers, Badoglio Proclamation, Bagnara Calabra, Balkans, Barbara Line, Bari, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Gela (1943), Battle of Monte Cassino, Benito Mussolini, Bernard Montgomery, Bernhardt Line, Brigade, Brigadier (United Kingdom), Brigadier general (United States), Calabria, Campobasso, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Capua, Carlo D'Este, Cerveteri, Charles Walter Allfrey, Chief of staff, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom), Colonel (United States), Commander-in-chief, Commandos (United Kingdom), Court-martial, ..., Cruiser, Destroyer, Distinguished Service Cross (United States), Division (military), Dornier Do 217, Douglas Graham (British Army officer), Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Front (World War II), Eberhard Rodt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Ernest J. Dawley, Erwin Rommel, Escort carrier, European theatre of World War II, Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, Fallschirmjäger (World War II), Fighter aircraft, Foggia, Force H, Four days of Naples, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fred L. Walker, Fritz X, Fritz-Hubert Gräser, General (United Kingdom), General (United States), General officer commanding, Generalfeldmarschall, George Erskine, George F. Hopkinson, George Marshall, Gerard Bucknall, German Army (Wehrmacht), Glider infantry, Guy Simonds, Hans-Valentin Hube, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz, Heinrich von Vietinghoff, Henry Kent Hewitt, Henry Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington, Hermann Balck, Historian, Italian battleship Andrea Doria, Italian Campaign (World War II), Italy, James M. Gavin, John Hawkesworth (British Army officer), John P. Lucas, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joseph Stalin, Landing craft, Larino, Lieutenant colonel (United States), Lieutenant general (United States), Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), Light infantry, LXXVI Panzer Corps, Major general, Major general (United States), Major-general (United Kingdom), Mark W. Clark, Matthew Ridgway, Maxwell D. Taylor, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Theater of Operations, Messina, Miles Dempsey, Military history of Italy during World War II, Minesweeper, Mountain pass, Naples, Napoleon, Naval gunfire support, Naval mine, No. 2 Commando, Nocera Inferiore, Non-commissioned officer, North African Campaign, OB Süd, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Achse, Operation Avalanche, Operation Baytown, Operation Boardman, Operation Overlord, Operation Slapstick, Paestum, Panzer division, Paratrooper, Pathfinder (military), Pisa, Pizzo, Calabria, Port, Premier of the Soviet Union, President of the United States, Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Rebecca/Eureka transponding radar, Red Army, Reuben Henry Tucker III, Richard McCreery, Robert Laycock, Roy Urquhart, Royal Hampshire Regiment, Royal Navy, Rudolf Sieckenius, Salerno, Salerno mutiny, Sant'Antonio Abate, Sele (river), Sicily, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, Soviet Union, Strait of Messina, Supermarine Seafire, Supreme Allied Commander, Taranto, Termoli, Traugott Herr, Troy H. Middleton, Tunisian Campaign, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Army North, United States Army Rangers, V Corps (United Kingdom), VI Corps (United States), Vice admiral (United States), Vichy France, Volturno, Volturno Line, Walter Fries, Washington Conference (1943), Wehrmacht, Wilhelm Schmalz, William Orlando Darby, Wind wave, Winston Churchill, Winter Line, World War II, X Corps (United Kingdom), XIII Corps (United Kingdom), XIV Panzer Corps, 10th Army (Wehrmacht), 128th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 141st Infantry Regiment (United States), 142nd Infantry Regiment (United States), 143rd Infantry Regiment (United States), 157th Field Artillery Regiment, 15th Army Group, 15th Panzergrenadier Division (Wehrmacht), 16th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 16th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 180th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Airborne Division (United Kingdom), 1st Canadian Division, 1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring, 1st King's Dragoon Guards, 1st Parachute Division (Germany), 1st Ranger Battalion (United States), 231st Brigade (United Kingdom), 23rd Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom), 23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 2nd Special Service Brigade, 325th Infantry Regiment (United States), 36th Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 3rd Ranger Battalion (United States), 40 Commando, 41 Commando, 45th Infantry Division (United States), 46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 4th Ranger Battalion (United States), 504th Infantry Regiment (United States), 505th Infantry Regiment (United States), 509th Infantry Regiment (United States), 56th (London) Infantry Division, 5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 82nd Airborne Division. 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Acerno, is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the region of Campania in south-western Italy.
Admiral (abbreviated as ADM) is a four-star commissioned naval flag officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-10.
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the British Royal Navy.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.
Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, & Bar (23 July 1883 – 17 June 1963), was a senior officer of the British Army.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
Allied Invasion of Italy Order of Battle is a listing of the significant Allied and Axis formations that were involved during the Allied invasion of Italy (the landings at Salerno, Reggio and Taranto) 3 September – 16 September 1943.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Altavilla Silentina (Cilentan: Autavìdda) is a town and comune located in the province of Salerno, Campania, some 100 km south of Naples, Italy.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963) was a senior officer of the British Royal Navy during the Second World War.
Angri is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, Campania, Italy.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.
The Asiatic-Pacific Theater, was the theater of operations of U.S. forces during World War II in the Pacific War during 1941–45.
Avellino is a town and comune, capital of the province of Avellino in the Campania region of southern Italy.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Badoglio Proclamation was a speech read on Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) at 19:42 on 8 September 1943 by Marshal Pietro Badoglio, Italian head of government, announcing that the Cassibile armistice between Italy and the Allies signed on 3 September had come into force.
Bagnara Calabra (or simply Bagnara) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in Calabria, southern Italy.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
During the Italian Campaign of World War II, the Barbara Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, some south of the Gustav Line, from Colli al Volturno to the Adriatic Coast in San Salvo and a similar distance north of the Volturno Line.
Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The amphibious Battle of Gela was the opening engagement of the United States portion of the Allied Invasion of Sicily.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
The Bernhardt Line (or Reinhard Line) was a German defensive line in Italy during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
Brigadier (Brig) is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Campobasso (Campobassan dialect Cambuàsce) is a city and comune in southern Italy, the capital of the region of Molise and of the province of Campobasso.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
Carlo D'Este (born 1938 in Oakland, California) is an American military historian and biographer, author of several books, especially on World War II.
Cerveteri is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome.
Lieutenant General Sir Charles Walter Allfrey, (24 October 1895 – 2 November 1964) was a senior British Army officer who served in both the world wars, most notably during the Second World War as General Officer Commanding of V Corps in North Africa and Italy from 1942 to 1944.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commandos also known as British Commandos were formed during the Second World War in June 1940, following a request from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, for a force that could carry out raids against German-occupied Europe.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Army (and previously the United States Air Force), for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
The Dornier Do 217 was a bomber used by the German Luftwaffe during World War II as a more powerful development of the Dornier Do 17, known as the Fliegender Bleistift (German: "flying pencil").
Major General Douglas Alexander Henry Graham, (26 March 1893 – 28 September 1971) was a senior British Army officer who fought with distinction in both world wars.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Eberhard Rodt (4 December 1895 – 14 December 1979) was a German general during World War II who command several divisions.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
Major General Ernest Joseph "Mike" Dawley (February 17, 1886 – December 10, 1973) was a senior officer of the United States Army, best known during World War II for commanding the VI Corps during Operation Avalanche, the Allied landings at Salerno, Italy, in 1943.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier (US hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy (USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, and the United States Navy in World War II.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
The Fallschirmjäger were the paratrooper (Fallschirmjäger) branch of the German Luftwaffe before and during World War II.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Foggia (Foggiano: Fògge) is a city and comune of Apulia, in southern Italy, capital of the province of Foggia.
Force H was a British naval formation during the Second World War.
The Four days of Naples (Italian: Quattro giornate di Napoli) refers to the popular uprising in the Italian city of Naples between 27 and 30 September 1943 against the German forces occupying the city during World War II.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Major General Fred Livingood Walker (June 11, 1887 – October 6, 1969) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II and was awarded with the second highest military decorations in both wars, the Distinguished Service Cross.
Fritz X was the most common name for a German guided anti-ship glide bomb used during World War II.
Fritz-Hubert Gräser (3 January 1888 – 4 November 1960) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
General Sir George Watkin Eben James Erskine (23 August 1899 – 29 August 1965) was a senior British Army officer who is most notable for having commanded the 7th Armoured Division from 1943 to 1944 during World War II.
Major General George Frederick Hopkinson OBE MC (14 December 1895 – 9 September 1943) was a senior British Army officer who commanded the 1st Airborne Division during World War II, where he was killed in action in Italy.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
Lieutenant-General Gerard Corfield Bucknall CB, MC, DL (14 September 1894 – 7 December 1980) was a senior British Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II, where he commanded the 5th Infantry Division and later XXX Corps during the Battle of Normandy in mid-1944.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
Glider infantry (also referred to as airlanding infantry esp. in British usage) was a type of airborne infantry in which soldiers and their equipment were inserted into enemy-controlled territory via military glider rather than parachute.
Lieutenant-General Guy Granville Simonds (April 23, 1903 – May 15, 1974) was a senior Canadian Army officer who served with distinction during World War II, where he commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and II Canadian Corps.
Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890 – 21 April 1944) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
Diepold Georg Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz, Baron von Lüttwitz (6 December 1896 – 9 October 1969) was a Prussian Junker, Olympic equestrian, and German officer who served in both World Wars, retiring as a General der Panzertruppe.
Heinrich von Vietinghoff (6 December 1887 – 23 February 1952) was a German general (Generaloberst) of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Henry Kent Hewitt (February 11, 1887 – September 15, 1972) was the United States Navy commander of amphibious operations in north Africa and southern Europe through World War II.
Henry Valerian George Wellesley, 6th Duke of Wellington (14 July 1912 – 16 September 1943), styled Earl of Mornington between 1912 and 1934 and Marquess of Douro between 1934 and 1941, was a British peer and politician.
Hermann Balck (7 December 1893 – 29 November 1982) was a highly decorated officer of the German Army who served in both World War I and World War II, rising to the rank of General der Panzertruppe.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Andrea Doria was the lead ship of her class of battleships built by the Regia Marina (Royal Navy).
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Maurice "Jumpin' Jim" Gavin (March 22, 1907 – February 23, 1990) was a senior United States Army officer, with the rank of lieutenant general, who was the third Commanding General (CG) of the 82nd Airborne Division during World War II.
Lieutenant General Sir John Ledlie Inglis Hawkesworth, (19 February 1893 – 3 June 1945) was a senior British Army officer who served during both World Wars.
Major General John Porter Lucas (January 14, 1890 – December 24, 1949) was a senior officer of the United States Army who saw service in World War I and World War II.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing vessels such as boats, and barges, used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault.
Larino (Latin: Larinum, Campobassan dialect: Larìne) is a town and comune of approximately 8,100 inhabitants in Molise, province of Campobasso, southern Italy.
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
The LXXVI Panzer Corps (LXXVI Panzerkorps, 76th Armoured Corps) was a panzer corps of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Major general (Maj Gen), is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines.
Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.
General Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895 – July 26, 1993) was the 19th Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
General Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer and diplomat of the mid-20th century.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Mediterranean Theater of Operations, United States Army (MTOUSA), originally called the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA), was the American term for the theater of operations covering North Africa and Italy during World War II.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey, (15 December 1896 – 5 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served in both world wars.
The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Naval gunfire support (NGFS) (also known as shore bombardment) is the use of naval artillery to provide fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Nocera Inferiore (Nucere,; locally) is a city and comune in Campania, Italy, in the province of Salerno, at the foot of Monte Albino, east-south-east of Naples by rail.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The Commander in Chief in the South (Oberbefehlshaber Süd) (German: initials OB Süd) commanded all Luftwaffe units based in the Mediterranean and North African theatre in World War II.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Operation Achse (Fall Achse, "Case Axis"), originally called Operation Alaric (Unternehmen Alarich), was the codename for the German plan to forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces after the armistice with the Allies in 1943.
Operation Avalanche was the codename for the Allied landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy.
Operation Baytown was an Allied amphibious landing on the mainland of Italy that took place on 3 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, itself part of the Italian Campaign, during the Second World War.
During World War II, Operation Boardman was a deception operation that supported the Operation Avalanche invasion at Salerno, Italy.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Slapstick was the code name for a British landing from the sea at the Italian port of Taranto during the Second World War.
Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia (southern Italy).
A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
In military organizations, a pathfinder is a specialized soldier inserted or dropped into place in order to set up and operate drop zones, pickup zones, and helicopter landing sites for airborne operation, air resupply operations, or other air operations in support of the ground unit commander.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Pizzo (Calabrian: U Pìzzu), also called Pizzo Calabro, is a seaport and comune in the province of Vibo Valentia (Calabria, southern Italy), situated on a steep cliff overlooking the Gulf of Santa Eufemia.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Rebecca/Eureka transponding radar was a short-range radio navigation system used for the dropping of airborne forces and their supplies.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Major General Reuben Henry Tucker III (January 29, 1911 – 6 January 1970) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer.
General Sir Richard Loudon McCreery (1 February 1898 – 18 October 1967), was a career soldier of the British Army, who was decorated for leading one of the last cavalry actions in the First World War.
Major-General Sir Robert Edward Laycock (18 April 1907 – 10 March 1968) was a senior British Army officer, most significant for his service with the British Commandos during the Second World War.
Major-General Robert Elliott "Roy" Urquhart CB DSO (28 November 1901 – 13 December 1988) was a British Army officer who saw service during World War II and Malayan Emergency.
The Hampshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, created as part of the Childers Reforms in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot and the 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Generalmajor Rudolf Sieckenius (16 May 1896 – 28 April 1945) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 16 Panzer Division during Operation Avalanche (Salerno Landings) in September 1943.
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
The Salerno mutiny was a rebellion during the Second World War by about 200 British soldiers who, on 16 September 1943, refused assignment to new units as replacements during the initial stages of the Allied invasion of Italy.
Sant'Antonio Abate (Sant'Antuono) is a commune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Naples in the Italian region Campania, located about 30 km southeast of Naples.
The Sele is a river in southwestern Italy.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in Burma, Ceylon, India, Thailand, Philippines, Indochina, Malaya and Singapore.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Strait of Messina (Stretto di Messina), is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily (Punta del Faro) and the western tip of Calabria (Punta Pezzo) in the south of Italy.
The Supermarine Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire adapted for operation from aircraft carriers.
Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
Termoli (Molisano: Térmle) is a town and comune (municipality) on the Adriatic coast of Italy, in the province of Campobasso, region of Molise.
Traugott Herr (16 September 1890 – 13 April 1976) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 14th Army and the 10th Army of the Wehrmacht.
Lieutenant General Troy Houston Middleton (12 October 1889 – 9 October 1976) was a distinguished educator and senior officer of the United States Army who served as a corps commander in the European Theatre during World War II and later as president of Louisiana State University (LSU).
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army North is a formation of the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Northern Command.
The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
V Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II.
The VI Corps was activated as VI Army Corps in August 1918 at Neufchâteau, France, serving in the Lorraine Campaign.
Vice admiral (abbreviated as VADM) is a three-star commissioned naval officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps, with the pay grade of O-9.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The Volturno (ancient Latin name Volturnus, from volvere, to roll) is a river in south-central Italy.
The Volturno Line (also known as the Viktor Line) was a German defensive position in Italy during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Walter Fries (22 April 1894 – 6 August 1982) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords.
The Third Washington Conference (codenamed Trident) was held in Washington, D.C from May 12 to May 25, 1943.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Wilhelm Schmalz (1 March 1901 – 14 March 1983) was a German general (Generalleutnant) in the Wehrmacht during World War II and a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves of Nazi Germany.
William O. Darby (8 February 1911 – 30 April 1945) was a career United States Army officer who fought in World War II, where he was killed in action in Italy.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X Corps was a corps of the British Army that served in the First World War on the Western Front before being disbanded in 1919.
XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.
XIV Panzer Corps (also: XIV Army Corps or XIV. Armeekorps) was a corps-level formation of the German Army which saw extensive action on both the Eastern Front and Italian Campaign.
The 10th Army (German: 10. Armee) was a World War II field army of Wehrmacht (Germany).
The 128th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army.
The 141st Infantry Regiment ("1st Texas Infantry") is an infantry regiment in the United States Army.
The 142nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the U.S. Army National Guard.
The 143rd Infantry Regiment is an airborne infantry formation in the Army National Guard and has one battalion active under the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team as part of the Associated Unit Program, aligning active and reserve units with one another for training and deployment.
The 157th Field Artillery Regiment (First Colorado) is a United States Army Regimental System field artillery parent regiment of the United States Army National Guard, represented in the Colorado Army National Guard by the 3rd Battalion, 157th Field Artillery Regiment, part of the 169th Field Artillery Brigade at Colorado Springs. The regiment was first constituted in 1917 during World War I from the 1st Colorado Infantry Regiment. The regiment was an infantry regiment as part of the 40th Infantry Division. It was again an infantry regiment of the 45th Infantry Division during and after World War II. In 1950 it was relieved from assignment from the 45th Division and after the Korean War assigned to the artillery. During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the regiment operated the M110 howitzer. The retirement of the M110 system left many National Guard units without a mission. In 2002, the battalions transitioned to the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System, and later in 2009 to the M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) system. 1st and 2nd Battalions (MLRS), 157th Field Artillery Regiment were disbanded in 2006 during the U.S. Army's restructuring from divisional organizations to the modular Brigade Combat Team model. Members from the two battalions were reorganized to form the 3rd Battalion (HIMARS), 157th Field Artillery (3-157 FA), part of the 169th Field Artillery Brigade of the Colorado Army National Guard. Meanwhile, the 1st Battalion, 157th Infantry Regiment was reconstituted, also in the Colorado Army National Guard. The 157th Infantry was constituted on 1 October 2007, and activated on 1 September 2008; it is technically a completely new regiment with no lineage connection to the 157th Field Artillery, though it inherits campaign participation credit and a decoration from Colorado field artillery units. As of 30 October 2016 1st Battalion, 157th Infantry Regiment was reassigned to the 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain), Vermont National Guard, itself aligned with the 10th Mountain Division. It was also redesignated as a Mountain Battalion, becoming one of only three Mountain Infantry battalions in the Army National Guard.
The 15th Army Group was an Army Group consisted by the British Eighth and the U.S. Fifth Armies, which apart troops from British Empire and U.S.A., also had whole units from other allied countries/regions; like 2 of their Corps (from free France and Poland), 1 Division (from Brazil) and 7 Brigades (6 Italians and one Greek), besides supporting and being supported by the local Italian partisans.
15th Panzergrenadier Division was a mobile division of the German Army in World War II.
The 16th Infantry Division of the German Army was formed in 1934.
The 16th Panzer Division (16.) was a formation of the German Army in World War II.
The 1st Squadron, 180th Cavalry Regiment is a formation of the United States Army, headquartered in McAlester, Oklahoma.
The 1st Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1.
The 1st King's Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army.
The 1st Parachute Division (1.) was an elite German military parachute-landing division that fought during World War II.
The 1st Ranger Battalion, currently based at Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah, Georgia, United States, is the first of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.
The 231st Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in both World War I and World War II.
The 23rd Armoured Brigade, originally formed as the 23rd Army Tank Brigade, was an armoured brigade of the British Army that saw service during the Second World War.
The German 23rd Infantry Division was a military unit operational during World War II.
The 29th Infantry Division was a unit of the German army created in the fall of 1936.
The 2nd Special Service Brigade was formed in late 1943 in the Middle East and saw service in Italy, the Adriatic, the landings at Anzio and took part in operations in Yugoslavia.
The 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment is a light infantry parachute insertion fighting force of the United States Army.
The 36th Infantry Division ("Arrowhead"), also known as the "Panther Division" or "Lone Star Division,", history.army.mil, last updated 20 May 2011, last accessed 23 January 2017 is an infantry division of the United States Army and part of the Texas Army National Guard.
The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.
The 3rd Ranger Battalion, currently based at Fort Benning, Georgia, is the third of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.
40 Commando RM is a battalion-sized formation of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.
41 Commando or No.
The 45th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army, part of the Oklahoma Army National Guard, from 1920 to 1968.
The 46th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army raised in 1939 that saw distinguished service during World War II, fighting in the Battle of France and the Battle of Dunkirk where it was evacuated and later in North Africa, Italy and Greece.
Activated on 29 May 1943 in Tunisia, 4th Ranger Battalion was a Ranger unit in the United States Army during World War II.
The 504th Infantry Regiment, originally the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment (504th PIR), is an airborne forces regiment of the United States Army, part of the 82nd Airborne Division, with a long and distinguished history.
The 505th Infantry Regiment, originally the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment (505th PIR), is an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army, one of four infantry regiments of the 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army, with a long and distinguished history.
The 509th Infantry Regiment is an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army.
The 56th (London) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army, which served under several different titles and designations.
The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.
The 7th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II, where its exploits in the Western Desert Campaign gained it the Desert Rats nickname.
The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas.