257 relations: Admiral (Royal Navy), Admiral (United States), Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Adolf Hitler, AHQ Malta, Air chief marshal, Air vice-marshal, Airborne forces, Albert Kesselring, Alfredo Guzzoni, Algeria, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories, Allies of World War II, Amphibious warfare, Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew McNaughton, Army of the Po, Arthur Coningham (RAF officer), Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, Augusta, Sicily, Avola, Axis powers, Battle of Gela (1943), Battle of Kursk, Battle of Troina, Benito Mussolini, Bernard Montgomery, Bertram Ramsay, Biscari massacre, Brigadier (United Kingdom), Brigadier general (United States), Cagliari, Caltanissetta, Capitani Romani-class cruiser, Capo Passero, Carl Spaatz, Casablanca Conference, Catania, Chief of staff, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Colonel (United States), Combined Chiefs of Staff, Commander-in-chief, Commandos (United Kingdom), Conscription, Counterattack, Crown Colony of Malta, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, Douglas C-47 Skytrain, ..., Douglas Wimberley, DUKW, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Front (World War II), Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Ernst-Günther Baade, Erwin Rommel, Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, Field army, First Canadian Army, Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin, Friendly fire, Gela, General (United Kingdom), General (United States), General der Panzertruppe, General officer, Generalfeldmarschall, Generalleutnant, Generalmajor, Geoffrey Keyes, George F. Hopkinson, George S. Patton, Gerald Lathbury, Gerard Bucknall, Germany and the Second World War, Glider infantry, Greece, Gufo radar, Guy Simonds, Hans-Valentin Hube, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Henry Kent Hewitt, HMIS Sutlej, HMS Cleopatra (33), HMS Indomitable (92), HMS Orion (85), Horatio Pettus Mackintosh Berney-Ficklin, Hugh Joseph Gaffey, II Corps (United States), INS Jumna, Italian Campaign (World War II), Italy, James M. Gavin, John Cecil Currie, John Durnford-Slater, Junkers Ju 87, Junkers Ju 88, Keith Park, Kingdom of Italy, Lampedusa, Landing Ship, Tank, Landing zone, Lascaris Battery, Lewis H. Brereton, Licata, Lieutenant (British Army and Royal Marines), Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom), Lieutenant general (United States), Lieutenant-general (Canada), Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), Linosa, Lucian Truscott, Major general, Major general (United States), Major-general (United Kingdom), Manton S. Eddy, Matthew Ridgway, Mediterranean Air Command, Mediterranean Fleet, Mediterranean Sea, Messina, Middle East Command, Miles Dempsey, Military operation, Motor Torpedo Boat, Mount Etna, Naples, Nazi Germany, Ninth Air Force, No. 3 Commando, North African Campaign, Northwest African Air Forces, Northwest African Tactical Air Force, Noto, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Oberst, Office of Public Sector Information, Oliver Leese, Omar Bradley, Operation Barclay, Operation Chestnut, Operation Corkscrew, Operation Fustian, Operation Ladbroke, Operation Mincemeat, Operation Narcissus, Operation Scylla, Oran, Palermo, Pantelleria, Panzer division, Paratrooper, Pathfinder (military), Pelagie Islands, Pellaro, Philip Hugh Whitby Hicks, Platoon, Prime Minister of Canada, Prisoner of war, R boat, Reggio Calabria, Renault R35, Reuben Henry Tucker III, Richard Heidrich, Robert Laycock, Rodolfo Graziani, Roy Urquhart, Royal Air Force, Royal Indian Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Navy, Samuel Eliot Morison, Santo Stefano di Camastra, Sardinia, Savoia-Marchetti SM.79, Scoglitti, Sea lane, Second-in-command, Semovente da 90/53, Seventh United States Army, Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, Sicily, Sidney Kirkman, Sloop-of-war, South Staffordshire Regiment, Strait of Messina, Suez, Syracuse, Sicily, Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr., Tiger I, Troy H. Middleton, Tunisia, Twelfth Air Force, United Kingdom, United States, United States Air Forces Central Command, United States Army Air Forces, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Army Rangers, United States Eighth Fleet, United States Navy, Valletta, Vyvyan Evelegh, Walter Bedell Smith, War crime, Warship, William Lyon Mackenzie King, William Orlando Darby, Wiltshire Regiment, Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, World War II, World War II in Yugoslavia, XIII Corps (United Kingdom), XIV Panzer Corps, XXX Corps (United Kingdom), 13th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 15th Army Group, 15th Panzergrenadier Division (Wehrmacht), 180th Cavalry Regiment, 18th Infantry Regiment (United States), 1st Airborne Division (United Kingdom), 1st Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom), 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade, 1st Canadian Division, 1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring, 1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 1st Infantry Division (United States), 1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom), 1st Parachute Division (Germany), 1st Ranger Battalion (United States), 231st Brigade (United Kingdom), 26th Infantry Division Assietta, 28th Infantry Division Aosta, 29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 2nd Armored Division (United States), 2nd Special Service Brigade, 325th Infantry Regiment (United States), 376th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion, 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 3rd Division (United Kingdom), 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Ranger Battalion (United States), 45th Infantry Division (United States), 4th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters North East, 4th Infantry Division Livorno, 504th Infantry Regiment (United States), 505th Infantry Regiment (United States), 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division, 51st (Highland) Division, 52d Troop Carrier Wing, 54th Infantry Division Napoli, 5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 82nd Airborne Division, 9th Infantry Division (United States). 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Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank admiral of the fleet.
Admiral (abbreviated as ADM) is a four-star commissioned naval flag officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-10.
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the British Royal Navy.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Air Headquarters Malta (AHQ Malta or Air H.Q. Malta) was an overseas command of the Royal Air Force (RAF) established on 28 December 1941, by renaming RAF Mediterranean under Air Vice Marshal Hugh Lloyd.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Alfredo Guzzoni (12 April 1877 – 15 April 1965) was an Italian military officer who served in both World War I and World War II.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (originally abbreviated AMGOT, later AMG) was the form of military rule administered by Allied forces during and after World War II within European territories they occupied.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963) was a senior officer of the British Royal Navy during the Second World War.
General Andrew George Latta McNaughton (25 February 1887 – 11 July 1966) was a Canadian electrical engineer, scientist, army officer, cabinet minister, diplomat and President of the UN Security Council.
The Army of the Po (Italian Armata del Po), numbered the Sixth Army (6a Armata), was a field army of the Royal Italian Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II (1939–45).
Air Marshal Sir Arthur "Mary" Coningham, (19 January 1895 – presumably 30 January 1948) was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.
Augusta (Sicilian: Austa, Greek and Latin: Megara Hyblaea, Medieval: Augusta and Agosta) is a town and comune in the province of Syracuse, located on the eastern coast of Sicily (Italy).
Avola (Sicilian: Àvula or Àula) is a city and comune in the province of Syracuse, Sicily (Italy).
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The amphibious Battle of Gela was the opening engagement of the United States portion of the Allied Invasion of Sicily.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Troina was an important battle that took place between 31 July and 6 August 1943, as part of the Allied invasion of Sicily during World War II.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Admiral Sir Bertram Home Ramsay, KCB, KBE, MVO (20 January 1883 – 2 January 1945) was a Royal Navy officer.
The Biscari massacre was a war crime committed by members of the United States Army during World War II.
Brigadier (Brig) is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
Cagliari (Casteddu; Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
Caltanissetta (Nissa or Cartanisetta) is a comune in the central interior of Sicily, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Caltanissetta.
The Capitani Romani class was a class of flotilla leaders of the Italian navy.
Capo Passero or Cape Passaro (Greek: Πάχυνος; Latin: Pachynus or Pachynum) is a celebrated promontory of Sicily, forming the extreme southeastern point of the whole island, and one of the three promontories which were supposed to have given to it the name of "Trinacria." (Ovid, Fast. iv. 479, Met. xiii. 725; Dionys. Per. 467-72; Scyl. p. 4. § 13; Pol. i. 42; Strabo vi. pp. 265, 272, &c.; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 8; Mela, ii. 7. § 15.).
Carl Andrew Spaatz (born Spatz; June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974), nicknamed "Tooey", was an American World War II general.
The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
The Chiefs of Staff Committee (CSC) is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commandos also known as British Commandos were formed during the Second World War in June 1940, following a request from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, for a force that could carry out raids against German-occupied Europe.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
A counterattack is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games".
The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies (commonly known as the Crown Colony of Malta) was a British colony in the present-day Republic of Malta.
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938.
The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota (RAF designation) is a military transport aircraft developed from the civilian Douglas DC-3 airliner.
Major General Douglas Neil Wimberley, (15 August 1896 – 26 August 1983) was a British Army officer who, during the Second World War, commanded the 51st (Highland) Division for two years, from 1941 to 1943, notably at the Second Battle of El Alamein, before leading it across North Africa and in the Allied campaign in Sicily.
The DUKW (colloquially known as Duck) is a six-wheel-drive amphibious modification of the 2½ ton CCKW trucks used by the U.S. military during World War II and the Korean War.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
Ernst-Günther Baade (20 August 1897 – 8 May 1945) was a German general during World War II.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.
The First Canadian Army (1reArmée canadienne) was a field army and the senior formation of the Canadian Army that served on the Western Front from July 1944 until May 1945 during the Second World War.
Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin (4 September 1891 – 9 January 1963) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
Gela (Γέλα), is a city and comune in the Autonomous Region of Sicily, the largest for area and population in the island's southern coast.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
General der Panzertruppe (Literally: General of the Armoured Corps) was a General of the branch OF8-rank rank of German Army, introduced in 1935.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.
Lieutenant General Geoffrey T. Keyes (October 30, 1888 – September 17, 1967) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in Sicily and Italian Campaign during World War II.
Major General George Frederick Hopkinson OBE MC (14 December 1895 – 9 September 1943) was a senior British Army officer who commanded the 1st Airborne Division during World War II, where he was killed in action in Italy.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
General Sir Gerald William Lathbury, (14 July 1906 – 16 May 1978) was a senior British Army officer who fought during the Second World War, serving with distinction with the British Army's airborne forces, commanding the 1st Parachute Brigade in Sicily, Italy and Holland.
Lieutenant-General Gerard Corfield Bucknall CB, MC, DL (14 September 1894 – 7 December 1980) was a senior British Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II, where he commanded the 5th Infantry Division and later XXX Corps during the Battle of Normandy in mid-1944.
Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.
Glider infantry (also referred to as airlanding infantry esp. in British usage) was a type of airborne infantry in which soldiers and their equipment were inserted into enemy-controlled territory via military glider rather than parachute.
The Gufo radar was an Italian naval search radar developed during World War II by the Regio Istituto Elettrotecnico e delle Comunicazioni della Marina (RIEC).
Lieutenant-General Guy Granville Simonds (April 23, 1903 – May 15, 1974) was a senior Canadian Army officer who served with distinction during World War II, where he commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and II Canadian Corps.
Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890 – 21 April 1944) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
Henry Kent Hewitt (February 11, 1887 – September 15, 1972) was the United States Navy commander of amphibious operations in north Africa and southern Europe through World War II.
HMIS Sutlej (U95) was a modified Bittern-class sloop, later known as the ''Black Swan'' class, which served in the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) during World War II.
HMS Cleopatra was a ''Dido''-class cruiser of the Royal Navy.
HMS Indomitable (pennant number 92) was a modified of the Royal Navy.
HMS Orion was a ''Leander''-class light cruiser which served with distinction in the Royal Navy during World War II.
Major General Horatio Pettus Mackintosh Berney-Ficklin CB MC (13 June 1892 – 17 February 1961) was a British Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II.
Not to be Confused with Hugh Gaffney the Scottish Labour MP.
The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
HMIS Jumna (U21) was a sloop, which served in the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) during World War II.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Maurice "Jumpin' Jim" Gavin (March 22, 1907 – February 23, 1990) was a senior United States Army officer, with the rank of lieutenant general, who was the third Commanding General (CG) of the 82nd Airborne Division during World War II.
Brigadier John Cecil Currie (1898 – 26 June 1944) was a British Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II.
Brigadier John Frederick Durnford-Slater, DSO and bar (1909–5 February 1972) was a British Army officer who was credited with raising the first Army commando unit during the Second World War.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park, (15 June 1892 – 6 February 1975) was a New Zealand soldier, First World War flying ace and Second World War Royal Air Force commander.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Lampedusa (Lampidusa; Λοπαδούσσα Lopadoussa) is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
Landing Ship, Tank (LST), or tank landing ship, is the naval designation for ships built during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying tanks, vehicles, cargo, and landing troops directly onto shore with no docks or piers.
In military terminology a landing zone (LZ) is an area where aircraft can land.
Lascaris Battery (Batterija ta' Lascaris), also known as Fort Lascaris (Forti Lascaris) or Lascaris Bastion (Sur ta' Lascaris), is an artillery battery located on the east side of Valletta, Malta.
Lewis Hyde Brereton (June 21, 1890 – July 20, 1967) was a military aviation pioneer and lieutenant general in the United States Air Force.
Licata (Greek: Φιντίας; Latin: Phintias or Plintis; formerly also Alicata) is a city and comune located on the south coast of Sicily, at the mouth of the Salso River (the ancient Himera), about midway between Agrigento and Gela.
Lieutenant (Lt) is a junior officer rank in the British Army and Royal Marines.
Lieutenant colonel (Lt Col), is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.
In the Canadian Forces, the rank of lieutenant-general (LGen) (lieutenant-général or Lgén in French) is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a vice-admiral of the Navy.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
Linosa (Linusa) is one of the Pelagie Islands in the Sicily Channel of the Mediterranean Sea.
General Lucian King Truscott Jr. (January 9, 1895 – September 12, 1965) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer, who saw distinguished active service during World War II.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Major general (Maj Gen), is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines.
Lieutenant General Manton Sprague Eddy (May 16, 1892 – April 10, 1962) was a senior United States Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II.
General Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895 – July 26, 1993) was the 19th Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
The Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) was an Allied air force command active during 1943.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.
General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey, (15 December 1896 – 5 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served in both world wars.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.
Mount Etna, or Etna (Etna or Mongibello; Mungibeddu or â Muntagna; Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Ninth Air Force (9 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force's Air Combat Command (ACC).
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
Northwest African Air Forces (NAAF) was a component of the Allied Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) during February–December 1943.
The Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) was a component of the Northwest African Air Forces which itself reported to the Mediterranean Air Command (MAC).
Noto (Sicilian: Notu; Latin: Netum) is a city and comune in the Province of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Lieutenant General Sir Oliver William Hargreaves Leese, 3rd Baronet, (27 October 1894 – 22 January 1978) was a senior British Army officer who saw distinguished active service during both the world wars.
General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.
Operation Barclay was a World War II deception by the Allies in support of Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943.
During World War II, Operation Chestnut was a failed British raid by 2 Special Air Service, conducted in support of the Allied invasion of Sicily.
Operation Corkscrew was the code name for the Allied invasion of the Italian island of Pantelleria (between Sicily and Tunisia) on 11 June 1943, prior to the Allied invasion of Sicily during the Second World War.
Operation Fustian was an airborne forces operation undertaken during the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 in the Second World War.
Operation Ladbroke was a glider landing by British airborne troops during the Second World War near Syracuse, Sicily, that began on 9 July 1943 as part of Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily.
Operation Mincemeat was a successful British disinformation strategy used during the Second World War.
During World War II, Operation Narcissus was a raid by forty members of the Special Air Service on a lighthouse on the southeast coast of Sicily.
Operation Scylla (Italian: Operazione Scilla) was a successful Italian Navy attempt to transfer the light cruiser Scipione Africano from their bases in the Tyrrhenian Sea to Taranto, in the Ionian Sea, during the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943, in the course of World War II.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Pantelleria (Pantiddirìa), the ancient Cossyra (Arabic: قوصرة, Maltese: Qawsra, now Pantellerija, Ancient Greek Kossyra, Κοσσύρα), is an Italian island and Comune in the Strait of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, southwest of Sicily and east of the Tunisian coast.
A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
In military organizations, a pathfinder is a specialized soldier inserted or dropped into place in order to set up and operate drop zones, pickup zones, and helicopter landing sites for airborne operation, air resupply operations, or other air operations in support of the ground unit commander.
The Pelagie Islands (Isole Pelagie, Ìsuli Pilaggî), from the Greek πέλαγος, pélagos meaning "open sea", are the three small islands of Lampedusa, Linosa, and Lampione, located in the Mediterranean Sea between Malta and Tunisia, south of Sicily.
Pellaro is the southernmost quarter of the commune of Reggio Calabria, southern Italy.
Brigadier Philip Hugh Whitby Hicks CBE, DSO, MC (25 September 1895 – 8 October 1967) was an officer of the British Army during both the First and Second World Wars.
A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The R boats (Räumboote in German) were a group of small naval vessels built as minesweepers for the Kriegsmarine (German navy) before and during the Second World War.
Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
The Renault R35, an abbreviation of Char léger Modèle 1935 R or R 35, was a French light infantry tank of the Second World War.
Major General Reuben Henry Tucker III (January 29, 1911 – 6 January 1970) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer.
Richard Heidrich (27 July 1896 – 22 December 1947) was a German paratroop general during World War II.
Major-General Sir Robert Edward Laycock (18 April 1907 – 10 March 1968) was a senior British Army officer, most significant for his service with the British Commandos during the Second World War.
Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
Major-General Robert Elliott "Roy" Urquhart CB DSO (28 November 1901 – 13 December 1988) was a British Army officer who saw service during World War II and Malayan Emergency.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Samuel Eliot Morison (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian noted for his works of maritime history and American history that were both authoritative and popular.
Santo Stefano di Camastra (Sicilian: Santu Stèfanu di Camastra) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 100 km east of Palermo and about 135 km west of Messina.
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (Italian for sparrowhawk) was a three-engined Italian medium bomber developed and manufactured by aviation company Savoia-Marchetti.
Scoglitti (Scugghitti) is a southern Italian fishing village and hamlet (frazione) of Vittoria, a municipality in the Province of Ragusa, Sicily.
A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
The second-in-command (2i/c or 2IC) is the deputy commander of any British Army or Royal Marines unit, from battalion or regiment downwards.
The Semovente da 90/53 was a heavy Italian self-propelled gun and tank destroyer, used by the Italian and German Armies during World War II.
The Seventh Army was a United States army created during World War II that evolved into the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) during the 1950s and 1960s.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force William Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside, (23 December 1893 – 29 October 1969) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
General Sir Sidney Chevalier Kirkman, (29 July 1895 – 29 October 1982) was a British Army officer, who served in both the First World War and Second World War.
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.
The South Staffordshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for only 68 years.
The Strait of Messina (Stretto di Messina), is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily (Punta del Faro) and the western tip of Calabria (Punta Pezzo) in the south of Italy.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. (April 1, 1888 – September 12, 1969) was a senior United States Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II.
The Tiger I is a German heavy tank of World War II deployed from 1942 in Africa and Europe, usually in independent heavy tank battalions.
Lieutenant General Troy Houston Middleton (12 October 1889 – 9 October 1976) was a distinguished educator and senior officer of the United States Army who served as a corps commander in the European Theatre during World War II and later as president of Louisiana State University (LSU).
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Twelfth Air Force (12 AF; Air Forces Southern, (AFSOUTH)) is a Numbered Air Force of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States Air Forces Central Command (USAFCENT/AFCENT) is a Named Air Force of the United States Air Force headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina. It is the Air Force Service Component of United States Central Command (USCENTCOM), a joint Department of Defense combatant command responsible for U.S. security interests in 27 nations that stretch from the Horn of Africa through the Persian Gulf region, into Central Asia. Activated as 9th Air Force on 8 April 1942, the command fought in World War II both in the Western Desert Campaign in Egypt and Libya and as the tactical fighter component of the United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF), engaging enemy forces in France, the Low Countries and in Nazi Germany. During the Cold War, it was one of two Numbered Air Forces of Tactical Air Command. Co-designated as United States Central Command Air Forces (CENTAF) on 1 January 1983, on 2009 as part of a complicated transfer of lineage, the lineage and history of the Ninth Air Force was bestowed on USAFCENT, and a new Ninth Air Force, which technically had no previous history, was activated. It has fought in the 1991 Gulf War, War in Afghanistan (OEF-A, 2001–present), the Iraq War (OIF, 2003–2010), as well as various engagements within USCENTCOM.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
The United States Eighth Fleet was a fleet of the United States Navy established 15 March 1943 from Northwest African Force.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.
Major General Vyvyan Evelegh, (14 December 1898 – 27 August 1958) was a senior officer of the British Army during the Second World War, commanding the 78th Infantry Division (otherwise known as the Battleaxe Division) and the 6th Armoured Division in Tunisia and Italy.
General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (5 October 1895 – 9 August 1961) was a senior officer of the United States Army who served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) during the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 during World War II.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950), also commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s.
William O. Darby (8 February 1911 – 30 April 1945) was a career United States Army officer who fought in World War II, where he was killed in action in Italy.
The Wiltshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment of Foot and the 99th Duke of Edinburgh's (Lanarkshire) Regiment of Foot.
Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 – 12 July 1945) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) during World War II.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Military operations in World War II in Yugoslavia began on 6 April 1941, when the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was swiftly conquered by Axis forces and partitioned between Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and client regimes.
XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.
XIV Panzer Corps (also: XIV Army Corps or XIV. Armeekorps) was a corps-level formation of the German Army which saw extensive action on both the Eastern Front and Italian Campaign.
XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 13th Infantry Brigade was a regular infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service during both World War I and World War II.
The 15th Army Group was an Army Group consisted by the British Eighth and the U.S. Fifth Armies, which apart troops from British Empire and U.S.A., also had whole units from other allied countries/regions; like 2 of their Corps (from free France and Poland), 1 Division (from Brazil) and 7 Brigades (6 Italians and one Greek), besides supporting and being supported by the local Italian partisans.
15th Panzergrenadier Division was a mobile division of the German Army in World War II.
The 1st Squadron, 180th Cavalry Regiment is a formation of the United States Army, headquartered in McAlester, Oklahoma.
The 18th Infantry Regiment ("Vanguards") is an Army Infantry regiment.
The 1st Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 1st Airlanding Brigade was an airborne infantry brigade of the British Army during the Second World War and the only glider infantry formation assigned to the 1st Airborne Division, serving alongside the 1st and 4th Parachute Brigades.
The 1st Canadian Army Tank Brigade, later known as 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade, was an armoured brigade of the Canadian Army, raised during the Second World War.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1.
The 1st Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army with a very long history.
The 1st Infantry Division is a combined arms division of the United States Army, and is the oldest continuously serving in the Regular Army.
The 1st Parachute Brigade was an airborne forces brigade formed by the British Army during the Second World War.
The 1st Parachute Division (1.) was an elite German military parachute-landing division that fought during World War II.
The 1st Ranger Battalion, currently based at Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah, Georgia, United States, is the first of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.
The 231st Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in both World War I and World War II.
The 26th Infantry Division Assietta was a mountain infantry Division (formed 6 August 1935) of the Italian Army during World War II.
After the end of World War I the ''Aosta'' Infantry Brigade moved to Sicily and was garrisoned in the city of Palermo.
The 29th Infantry Division was a unit of the German army created in the fall of 1936.
The 2nd Armored Division ("Hell on Wheels") was an armored division of the United States Army.
The 2nd Special Service Brigade was formed in late 1943 in the Middle East and saw service in Italy, the Adriatic, the landings at Anzio and took part in operations in Yugoslavia.
The 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment is a light infantry parachute insertion fighting force of the United States Army.
The 376th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (376th PFAB) (later redesignated the 376th Airborne Field Artillery Battalion) is an inactive airborne field artillery battalion of the United States Army.
The 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade was a formation of the Canadian Army in both World War I and World War II.
The 3rd (United Kingdom) Division, known at various times as the Iron Division, 3rd (Iron) Division, Monty's Iron Sides or as Iron Sides;Delaforce is a regular army division of the British Army.
The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.
The 3rd Ranger Battalion, currently based at Fort Benning, Georgia, is the third of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.
The 45th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army, part of the Oklahoma Army National Guard, from 1920 to 1968.
4th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters North East (The Black Rats), previously known as 4th Mechanized Brigade (The Black Rats) is a brigade formation of the British Army, currently based in Catterick, North Yorkshire as part of 1st (United Kingdom) Division.
The 4th Infantry Division Livorno was a mountain Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 504th Infantry Regiment, originally the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment (504th PIR), is an airborne forces regiment of the United States Army, part of the 82nd Airborne Division, with a long and distinguished history.
The 505th Infantry Regiment, originally the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment (505th PIR), is an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army, one of four infantry regiments of the 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army, with a long and distinguished history.
The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw distinguished service in the Second World War.
The 51st (Highland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War from 1915 to 1918.
The 52d Troop Carrier Wing (52 TCW) is a disbanded unit of the United States Air Force.
The 54th Infantry Division Napoli was a regular infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.
The 78th Infantry Division, also known as the Battleaxe Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War II that fought, with great distinction, in Tunisia, Sicily and Italy from late 1942–1945.
The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas.
The 9th Infantry Division ("Old Reliables") was created as the 9th Division during World War I, but never deployed overseas.
1943 Sicilian campaign, 1943 invasion of Sicily, Allied Invasion of Sicily, Allied invasion of sicily, Allied landings in Sicily, Battle of Sicily, Battle of sicily, Invasion of Sicily, Landing In Sicily, Landing in Sicily, Operation HUSKY, Operation Husky, Sicily 1943, Sicily Campaign, Sicily in World War II, Sicily, 1943, US invasion of Sicily.