448 relations: A Vlaicu III, Abdullah I of Jordan, Adjutant general, Admiral, Admiral (Royal Navy), Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy), Adolphe Guillaumat, Afonso Costa, Aide-de-camp, Alaska, Albert I of Belgium, Aleksei Brusilov, Aleksey Kuropatkin, Alexander Godley, Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Alexander Kolchak, Alexander of Greece, Alexander Samsonov, Alexander Trepov, Alexandre Ribot, Alexandru Averescu, Alfred William Robin, Allies of World War II, American entry into World War I, American Expeditionary Forces, Andranik, Andrei Eberhardt, Andrew Fisher, Andrew Hamilton Russell, Anglo-Japanese Alliance, António José de Almeida, Anto Gvozdenović, Antonio Salandra, Aram Manukian, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Archibald Murray, Aristide Briand, Armando Diaz, Armenia, Armenian fedayi, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian volunteer units, Army general (France), Arthur Balfour, Arthur Currie, Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austen Chamberlain, Australia, Australian Corps, Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, ..., Austria-Hungary, Ōkuma Shigenobu, Živojin Mišić, Balkans Campaign (World War I), Bangladesh, Battle of Bucharest, Battle of Cer, Battle of Kolubara, Battle of Liège, Battle of Mărășești, Battle of Mărăști, Battle of Turtucaia, Beauchamp Duff, Belgium, Belgium in World War I, Bernardino Machado, Bibliography of World War I, Billy Hughes, Black Tom explosion, Božidar Janković, Boris Stürmer, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil during World War I, Brigadier, Brigadier general, British Ceylon, British Empire, British Expeditionary Force (World War I), British Guiana, British Honduras, British Hong Kong, British Indian Army, British Malaya, British Raj, Canada, Canadian Corps, Canadian Expeditionary Force, Canadian Merchant Navy, Caucasus, Caucasus Campaign, Central America, Central Powers, Chakrabongse Bhuvanath, Charles de Broqueville, Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, Charles Tombeur, Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom), Chief of the Serbian General Staff, Collaborationism, Colonial Nigeria, Commander-in-chief, Commander-in-Chief, India, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Congress Poland, Constantin Prezan, Constantine I of Greece, Corfu Declaration, Crown colony, Cyprus, Czechoslovak Legion in France, Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro, David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty, David Henderson (British Army officer), David Lloyd George, Declaration of war, Desert Mounted Corps, Diplomatic history of World War I, Divisional general, Doctor of Medicine, Dominion, Dominion of New Zealand, Dominion of Newfoundland, Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Drastamat Kanayan, East Africa Protectorate, East African Campaign (World War I), East Prussia, Eastern Front (World War I), Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, Edward Carson, Edward Morris, 1st Baron Morris, Edwin Alderson, Edwin Montagu, Egyptian Expeditionary Force, Eleftherios Venizelos, Emirate of Nejd and Hasa, Emperor of India, Emperor of Japan, Emperor Taishō, Empire of Japan, Enns-class river monitor, Eremia Grigorescu, Eric Geddes, Eric John Eagles Swayne, Erich von Falkenhayn, Fahrpanzer, Falkland Islands, Félix Wielemans, Ferdinand Foch, Ferdinand I of Romania, Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu e Silva, Field marshal (Thailand), Field marshal (United Kingdom), First Army (Serbia), First Battle of Cobadin, First Brazilian Republic, First Czechoslovak Republic, First Lord of the Admiralty, First Portuguese Republic, First Republic of Armenia, First Sea Lord, Force Publique, France, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, French Army, French Third Republic, Galați shipyard, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gérard Cooreman, Gérard Leman, General (Australia), General (United Kingdom), General of the Artillery (Imperial Russia), General of the cavalry, General of the infantry, General officer, George V, Georges Clemenceau, German East Africa, German Empire, German South West Africa, Gibraltar, Gold Coast (British colony), Governor-General of India, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929), Grand Duke of Finland, Great power, Gun carriage, H. 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The A Vlaicu III was the world's first metal-built aircraft designed and built in Romania prior to World War I. It was the third powered aircraft designed by pioneering Romanian aviator Aurel Vlaicu.
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan (عبد الله الأول بن الحسين, Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951), born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886).
An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank admiral of the fleet.
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the British Royal Navy.
Marie Louis Adolphe Guillaumat (January 4, 1863 – Nantes, May 18, 1940) was a French Army general during World War I.
Afonso Augusto da Costa, GCTE, GCL (born in Seia, 6 March 1871; died in Paris, 11 May 1937) was a Portuguese lawyer, professor, and republican politician.
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albert I (8 April 1875 – 17 February 1934) reigned as the third King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934.
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Куропа́ткин; March 29, 1848January 16, 1925) was the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.
General Sir Alexander John Godley, (4 February 1867 – 6 March 1957) was a senior British Army officer.
Alexander I (– 9 October 1934), also known as Alexander the Unifier, served as a prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later became King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934 (prior to 1929 the state was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 189325 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death three years later, at the age of 27, from the effects of a monkey bite.
Aleksandr Vasilyevich Samsonov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Самсо́нов) was a career officer in the cavalry of the Imperial Russian Army and a general during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I.
Alexander Fyodorovitch Trepov (30 September 1862, Kiev – 10 November 1928, Nice) was the Prime Minister of the Russian Empire from 23 November 1916 until 9 January 1917.
Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (7 February 184213 January 1923) was a French politician, four times Prime Minister.
Alexandru Averescu (3 April 1859 – 2 October 1938) was a Romanian marshal and populist politician.
Major General Sir Alfred William Robin, (12 August 1860 – 2 June 1935) was a New Zealand military leader.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.
The American Expeditionary Forces (A. E. F., A.E.F. or AEF) was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 5, 1917, in France under the command of Gen.
Andranik Ozanian, commonly known as Andranik (Անդրանիկ; 25 February 186531 August 1927) was an Armenian military commander and statesman, the best known fedayi and a key figure of the Armenian national liberation movement.
Andrei Augostovich Eberhardt (Андрей Августович Эбергард, occasionally transliterated as Ebergard) (9 November 1856 – 19 April 1919) was an Admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy of Swedish ancestry.
Andrew Fisher (29 August 186222 October 1928) was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, and from 1914 to 1915.
Major General Sir Andrew Hamilton Russell (23 February 1868 – 29 November 1960) was a New Zealand General during the First World War.
The first was signed in London at Lansdowne House, on 30 January 1902, by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London).
António José de Almeida, GCTE, GCA, GCC, GCSE (27 July 1866 in Penacova, São Pedro de Alva – 31 October 1929 in Lisbon), son of José António de Almeida and his wife Maria Rita das Neves, was a Portuguese political figure.
Anto Gvozdenović (Анто Гвозденовић; 26 January 1853 – 2 September 1935) was a Montenegrin, Russian, and French general, a member of the Imperial Russian Privy Council, and a diplomat and statesman.
Antonio Salandra (13 August 1853 – 9 December 1931) was a conservative Italian politician who served as the 33rd Prime Minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916.
Aram Manukian (Արամ Մանուկեան, reformed spelling: Արամ Մանուկյան), also referred to as simply Aram (19 March 187929 January 1919), was an Armenian revolutionary, statesman, and a leading member of the nationalist Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) party.
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
General Sir Archibald James Murray, (23 April 1860 – 21 January 1945) was a British Army officer who served in the Second Boer War and the First World War.
Aristide Briand (28 March 18627 March 1932) was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France during the French Third Republic and was a co-laureate of the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize.
Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory, (5 December 1861 – 28 February 1928) was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Fedayi (Western Ֆէտայի Fedayi; Eastern Ֆիդայի Fidayi), also known as the Armenian irregular units or Armenian militia, were Armenian civilians who voluntarily left their families to form self-defense units and irregular armed bands in reaction to the mass murder of Armenians and the pillage of Armenian villages by criminals, tribal Kurdish forces, and Hamidian guards during the reign of Abdul Hamid II in late 19th and early 20th centuries, known as the Hamidian massacres.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
The Armenian volunteer units (Հայ կամավորական ջոկատներ Hay kamavorakan jokatner) were units composed of Armenians within the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Composed of several groups at battalion strength, its ranks were primarily made up of Armenians from the Russian Empire, though there were also a number of Armenians from the Ottoman Empire.
A général d'armée (army general) is the highest active military rank of the French Army.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
General Sir Arthur William Currie, (5 December 1875 – 30 November 1933) was a senior officer of the Canadian Army who fought during World War I. He had the unique distinction of starting his military career on the very bottom rung as a pre-war militia gunner before rising through the ranks to become the first Canadian commander of the Canadian Corps.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Neville Chamberlain.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Corps was a World War I army corps that contained all five Australian infantry divisions serving on the Western Front.
The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) was a small volunteer force of approximately 2,000 men, raised in Australia shortly after the outbreak of the First World War to seize and destroy German wireless stations in German New Guinea in the south-west Pacific.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan and the 8th (June 30, 1898 – November 8, 1898) and 17th (April 16, 1914 – October 9, 1916) Prime Minister of Japan.
Field Marshal Živojin Mišić (Живојин Мишић) (19 July 1855 in Struganik – 20 January 1921 in Belgrade) was a Field Marshal who participated in all of Serbia's wars from 1876 to 1918.
The Balkans Campaign, or Balkan Theatre of World War I was fought between the Central Powers, represented by Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Allies, represented by France, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, and the United Kingdom (and later Romania and Greece, who sided with the Allied Powers) on the other side.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Battle of Bucharest, also known as the Argeş-Neajlov Defensive Operation in Romania, was an important battle of the Romanian Campaign in World War I, in which the Central Powers occupied the Romanian capital and forced the Romanian Government, as well as the remnants of the Romanian Army to retreat to Moldavia and re-establish its capital at Iaşi.
The Battle of Cer was a military campaign fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in August 1914 during the early stages of the Serbian Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle of Kolubara (Колубарска битка, Schlacht an der Kolubara) was a campaign fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in November and December 1914, during the Serbian Campaign of World War I. It commenced on 16 November, when the Austro-Hungarians under the command of Oskar Potiorek reached the Kolubara River during their third invasion of Serbia that year, having captured the strategic town of Valjevo and forced the Serbian Army to undertake a series of retreats.
The Battle of Liège (Bataille de Liège) was the opening engagement of the German invasion of Belgium and the first battle of the First World War.
The Battle of Mărășești (August 6, 1917 – September 8, 1917) was the last major battle between the German Empire and the Kingdom of Romania on the Romanian front during World War I. Romania was mostly occupied by the Central Powers, but the Battle of Mărășești kept the northeastern region of the country free from occupation.
The Battle of Mărăști was one of the main battles to take place on Romanian soil in World War I. It was fought between July 22 and August 1, 1917, and was an offensive operation of the Romanian and Russian Armies intended to encircle and destroy the German 9th Army.
The Battle of Turtucaia (Batalia de la Turtucaia Битка при Тутракан, Bitka pri Tutrakan or Тутраканска епопея, Tutrakanska epopeya) in Bulgaria, was the opening battle of the first Central Powers offensive during the Romanian Campaign of World War I. The battle lasted for five days and ended with the capture of the fortress of Tutrakan (Turtucaia in Romanian) and the surrender of its Romanian defenders.
General Sir Beauchamp Duff (17 February 1855 – 20 January 1918) was a Scottish officer with a distinguished highly decorated military career in the British Indian Army, rising to political ranks ultimately serving as Commander-in-Chief of India during the First World War, he was one of the most senior general officers.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The history of Belgium in World War I traces Belgium's role between the German invasion in 1914, through the continued military resistance and occupation of the territory by German forces, known.
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães, GCTE, GCL (28 March 1851 – 29 April 1944), was a Portuguese political figure, the third and eighth President of Portugal (1915–17, 1925–26).
List of World War I books is a bibliography using APA style citations of a selection of books on World War I.
William Morris Hughes, (25 September 186228 October 1952) was an Australian politician who served as the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1915 to 1923.
The Black Tom explosion on July 30, 1916, in Jersey City, New Jersey, was an act of sabotage by German agents to destroy American-made munitions that were to be supplied to the Allies in World War I. This incident, which happened prior to American entry into World War I, is also notable for causing damage to the Statue of Liberty.
Božidar Janković (Божидар Јанковић; 7 December 1849 – 7 July 1920) was a Serbian army general commander of the Serbian Third Army during the First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire.
Baron Boris Vladimirovich Stürmer (Бори́с Влади́мирович Штю́рмер, Boris Vladimirovich Shtyurmer) (27 July 1848 – 9 September 1917) was a Russian lawyer, a Master of Ceremonies at the Russian Court, and a district governor.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
During World War I (1914–1918), Brazil initially adopted a neutral position, in accordance with the Hague Convention, in an attempt to maintain the markets for its export products, mainly coffee, latex and industrial manufactured items.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.
British Guiana was the name of the British colony, part of the British West Indies (Caribbean), on the northern coast of South America, now known as the independent nation of Guyana.
British Honduras was a British Crown colony on the east coast of Central America, south of Mexico, from 1862 to 1964, then a self-governing colony, renamed Belize in June 1973,, Caribbean Community.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
The Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) was the designation of the field force created by Canada for service overseas in the First World War.
Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created the Canadian Merchant Navy in a large-scale effort during World War II.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Chakrabongse Bhuvanath, Prince of Bishnulok, (จักรพงษ์ภูวนาถ;; 3 March 1883 – 13 June 1920), was the 40th child of King Chulalongkorn and the fourth child of Queen Sri Bajarindra.
Charles Marie Pierre Albert, Count de Broqueville (4 December 1860 – 5 September 1940) was the 20th Prime Minister of Belgium, serving during World War I.
Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, (20 June 1858 – 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy and Governor-General of India from 1910–16.
Lieutenant General Charles Tombeur (4 May 1867 – 2 December 1947) was a Belgian military officer and colonial civil servant.
Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.
The Chief of the General Staff (Начелник Генералштаба / Načelnik Generalštaba) is the chief of the General Staff and Serbian Armed Forces.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
Colonial Nigeria was the area of West Africa that later evolved into modern-day Nigeria, during the time of British rule in the 19th and 20th centuries.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Constantin Prezan (January 27, 1861 – August 27, 1943) was a Romanian general during World War I and a Marshal of Romania afterward.
Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.
The Corfu Declaration is the agreement that made the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia possible.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Enrollment of Czechoslovak volunteers in the French Foreign Legion started in Paris on August 21, 1914.
Danilo Aleksandar Petrović-Njegoš (29 June 1871 – 24 September 1939) was the Crown Prince of Montenegro.
Admiral of the Fleet David Richard Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty (17 January 1871 – 11 March 1936) was a Royal Navy officer.
Lieutenant General Sir David Henderson, (11 August 1862 – 17 August 1921) was the senior leader of British military aviation during the First World War, having previously established himself as the leading authority on tactical intelligence in the British Army.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
The Desert Mounted Corps was an army corps of the British Army during the First World War, of three mounted divisions renamed in August 1917 by General Edmund Allenby, from Desert Column.
The Diplomatic history of World War I covers the non-military interactions among the major players during World War I. For the domestic histories see Home front during World War I. For a longer-term perspective see International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) and Causes of World War I. For the following era see International relations (1919–1939).
Divisional general is a rank of general in command of a division.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
The Dominion of New Zealand was the historical successor to the Colony of New Zealand.
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.
Drastamat Kanayan (31 May 1884 8 March 1956), better known as Dro (Դրօ), was an Armenian military commander and politician, a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya (approximately) from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.
The East African Campaign in World War I was a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (GEA) and spread to portions of Portuguese Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Belgian Congo.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire), KC (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.
Edward Patrick Morris, 1st Baron Morris, KCMG, PC (May 8, 1859 – October 24, 1935) was a lawyer and Prime Minister of Newfoundland.
Lieutenant General Sir Edwin Alfred Hervey Alderson, KCB (8 April 1859 – 14 December 1927) was a senior British Army officer who served in several campaigns of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Edwin Samuel Montagu PC (6 February 1879 – 15 November 1924) was a British Liberal politician who served as Secretary of State for India between 1917 and 1922.
The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) was a British Empire military formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.
The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa was the first iteration of the third Saudi state from 1902 to 1921.
Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912 until his death in 1926.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Enns-class river monitors were built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy during the mid-1910s.
Eremia Grigorescu (28 November 1863 – 21 July 1919) was a Romanian artillery General during World War I, and Minister of War in the Constantin Coandă cabinet (October–November 1918).
Sir Eric Campbell Geddes (26 September 1875 – 22 June 1937) was a British businessman and Conservative politician.
Sir Eric John Eagles Swayne (14 May 1863 – 9 September 1929) was a British army officer and colonial administrator.
General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916.
The Fahrpanzer was a mobile artillery piece made prior to World War I in Germany, implemented in several German fortifications from 1890 onwards and exported to several foreign military powers prior to the outbreak of hostilities.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
Lieutenant-General Félix Maximilien Eugène Wielemans (10 January 1863 – 5 January 1917) was the Chief of Staff of the Belgian Army during the First World War.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927), nicknamed Întregitorul ("the Unifier"), was King of Romania from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927.
Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu e Silva (13 May 1856 in Tomar, Portugal – 24 November 1924 in Lisbon, Portugal) was a cavalry officer and general of the Portuguese Army.
Chom Phon (จอมพล, จอมพลทหารบก) or Field Marshal of Thailand is a military rank of the Royal Thai Army, considered the equivalent to a Field Marshal or General of the Army (although the former is more widely used).
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The Serbian First Army (Српска Прва Армија / Srpska Prva Armija) was a Serbian field army that fought during World War I.
The First Battle of Cobadin, also known as the First Battle of the Rasova - Cobadin - Tuzla Line was a battle fought from 17 to 19 of September 1916 between the Bulgarian Third Army and the Romanian-Russian Army of the Dobrogea.
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha ("Old Republic") is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services.
The First Portuguese Republic (Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May ''coup d'état'' of 1926.
The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages.
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service.
The Force Publique ("Public Force"; Openbare Weermacht) was a gendarmerie and military force in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885 (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of Belgian colonial rule (Belgian Congo – 1908 to 1960).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, (12 August 1868 – 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Governor of Queensland from 1905 to 1909, Governor of New South Wales from 1909 to 1913, and Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921, where he was responsible for the creation of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Galați shipyard (Șantierul naval Galați), formally Damen Shipyards Galați, is a shipyard located on the Danube in Galați, a city located in the Moldavia region of Romania.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gérard (Gerard) François Marie Cooreman (25 March 1852 – 2 December 1926) was a Belgian Catholic Party politician.
Gerard Mathieu Joseph Georges, count Leman (8 January 1851 Liège – 17 October 1920 Liège) was a Belgian general.
General (abbreviated GEN) is the second-highest rank, and the highest active rank, of the Australian Army and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of general; it is also considered a four-star rank.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
In the Imperial Russian army, General of the Artillery was the second-highest possible rank, below Generalissimo of Russia or General-Fieldmarshal, produced by splitting General-in-Chief into service branches.
General of the Cavalry (General der Kavallerie) was a General officer rank in the cavalry in various states of which the modern states of German and Austria are successors or in other armies which used the German model.
General of the Infantry is a military rank of a General officer in the infantry and refers to.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus.
Grand Duke of Finland or the Grand Prince of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas, Storfurste av Finland), was from around 1580 to 1809 a title in use by most Swedish monarchs.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.
was a Japanese politician and the 10th Prime Minister of Japan from 29 September 1918 until his assassination on 4 November 1921.
General Sir Henry George Chauvel, (16 April 1865 – 4 March 1945), more usually known as Sir Harry Chauvel, was a senior officer of the Australian Imperial Force who fought at Gallipoli and during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the First World War.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Bradwardine Jackson, (21 January 1855 – 14 December 1929) was a Royal Navy officer.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
During World War I, the German Empire was one of the Central Powers that lost the war.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was one of the Allied Powers during the First World War of 1914–1918, fighting against the Central Powers (the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Bulgaria).
The home front during World War I covers the domestic, economic, social and political histories of countries involved in that conflict.
Hovhannes Kajaznuni, or Hovhannes Katchaznouni (1 February 1868 – 1938), was the first Prime Minister of the First Republic of Armenia from June 6, 1918 to August 7, 1919.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force.
The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.
The Hungarian–Romanian War was fought between the First Hungarian Republic and the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the Kingdom of Romania.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
The Idrisid Emirate of Asir was a state located on the Arabian Peninsula.
The Imperial Munitions Board (IMB) was the Canadian branch of the British Ministry of Munitions, set up in Canada under the chairmanship of Joseph Wesley Flavelle.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Imperial War Cabinet was the British Empire's wartime coordinating body.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army during World War I contributed a large number of divisions and independent brigades to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded.
An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.
Ion I. C. Brătianu (also known as Ionel Brătianu; 20 August 1864 – 24 November 1927) was a Romanian politician, leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL), Prime Minister of Romania for five terms, and Foreign Minister on several occasions; he was the eldest son of statesman and PNL leader Ion Brătianu, the brother of Vintilă and Dinu Brătianu, and the father of Gheorghe I. Brătianu.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Logginovich Goremykin (Ива́н Лóггинович Горемы́кин, Ivan Logginovič Goremykin; 8 November 183924 December 1917) was a conservative Russian politician who served as Prime Minister in 1906, and from 1914–1916, during World War I. He was the last person to have the civil rank of Active Privy Councillor, 1st class.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher.
Janko Vukotić (Јанко Вукотић; 18 February 1866 – 4 February 1927) was a Serdar, general in the armies of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro in the Balkan Wars and World War I.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895.
João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa (30 December 1883 – 15 December 1948), commonly known as João Tamagnini Barbosa, or Tamagnini Barbosa, was a Portuguese military officer and politician of the Portuguese First Republic (1910–1926).
Sir John Chalker Crosbie (11 September 1876 – 5 October 1932) was a merchant and politician from the Dominion of Newfoundland.
John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, (25 January 1841 – 10 July 1920), commonly known as Jacky or Jackie Fisher, was a British admiral known for his efforts at naval reform.
Field Marshal John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, (28 September 1852 – 22 May 1925), known as Sir John French from 1901 to 1916, and as The Viscount French between 1916 and 1922, was a senior British Army officer.
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was a senior United States Army officer.
Admiral of the Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, (5 December 1859 – 20 November 1935) was a Royal Navy officer.
General Sir John Monash, (27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931) was a civil engineer and an Australian military commander of the First World War.
General Sir John Eccles Nixon, GCMG, KCB (16 August 1857 – 15 December 1921) was senior commander of the British Indian Army.
José Augusto Alves Roçadas (6 April 1865 in Vila Real, Portugal - 28 June 1926) was an officer of the Portuguese Army and a colonial administrator.
José César Ferreira Gil (1 November 1858 in Celorico da Beira, Portugal - 15 August 1922 in Lisbon, Portugal) was a Portuguese Army general and a military historian.
José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos, GCTE, GCL (March 23, 1867 in Ponte de Lima, Portugal – January 3, 1955 in Ponte de Lima) was a Portuguese general and politician.
José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque (13 September 1885 in Cabaceiras – 16 August 1959 in Rio de Janeiro) was a military officer, who became a Marshal in the Brazilian Army.
Sir Joseph Cook, (7 December 1860 – 30 July 1947) was an Australian politician who served as Prime Minister of Australia from 1913 to 1914.
Sir Joseph Wesley Flavelle, 1st Baronet (February 15, 1858 – March 7, 1939) was a Canadian businessman.
Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.
Josephus Daniels (May 18, 1862 – January 15, 1948) was a progressive Democrat, and newspaper editor and publisher from North Carolina who became active in politics.
Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, (11 September 1862 – 6 June 1935) was a British Army officer who served as Governor General of Canada, the 12th since Canadian Confederation.
German Cameroon (Kamerun) was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon.
was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, who commanded the Allied land forces during the Siege of Tsingtao in World War I.
Baron was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I. His brother, Katō Yasuhisa, was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and his adoptive son was the biological son of Admiral Dewa Shigetō.
was a Japanese admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War I.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The King of the Romanians (Romanian: Regele Românilor) or King of Romania (Romanian: Regele României), was the title of the monarch of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947, when Romania was proclaimed the Romanian People's Republic following Michael I's forced abdication.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz (المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāzyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East ruled by the Hashemite dynasty.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice.
The Hindu Kingdom of Nepal (नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha (गोर्खा अधिराज्य), was a Hindu kingdom formed in 1768 by the unification of Nepal.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
Krsto Popović (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Крсто Поповић; 13 September 1881 – 14 March 1947) was one of the leaders of 1919 Christmas Uprising in Montenegro against the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty, organized by the Greens (Zelenaši), followers of dethroned King Nikola and the Montenegrin Petrović-Njegoš dynasty.
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a Russian-leased territory (1898–1905), then a Japanese-leased territory (1905–1945) in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in the Republic of China that existed from 1898 to 1945.
Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов,; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general of Siberian Cossack origin in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
This is list of defence ministers of Thailand.
Approximately 98 people have been head of the Russian government since its establishment in 1726.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
The following is a list of Polish brigade and division-sized military units during World War I and the subsequent Russian Civil War.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This is an archontological list of Serbian monarchs, containing monarchs of the medieval principalities, to heads of state of modern Serbia.
Louis Botha (27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state.
Louis Félix Marie François Franchet d'Espèrey (25 May 1856 – 8 July 1942) was a French general during World War I. As commander of the large Allied army based at Salonika, he conducted the successful Macedonian campaign, which caused the collapse of the Southern Front and contributed to the armistice.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, (4 September 1850 – 21 December 1928) was an Italian General and Marshal of Italy, most famous for being the Chief of Staff of the Italian Army during the first part of World War I.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Major general (abbreviated MAJGEN) is a senior rank of the Australian Army, and was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of major general.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mareșal (Marshal) is the highest rank in the Army of Romania, the Romanian Armed Forces.
Mason Mathews Patrick (December 13, 1863 – January 29, 1942) was a general officer in the United States Army who led the United States Army Air Service during and after World War I and became the first Chief of the Army Air Corps when it was created on July 2, 1926.
Maurice-Paul-Emmanuel Sarrail (6 April 1856 – 23 March 1929) was a French general of the First World War.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom, and comprises the seagoing commercial interests of UK-registered ships and their crews.
The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Milan Rastislav Štefánik (21 July 1880 – 4 May 1919) was a Slovak politician, diplomat and astronomer.
A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security, when the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance.
The Minister of Militia and Defence was the federal government minister in charge of the volunteer army units in Canada, the Canadian Militia, before the creation of the Canadian Army.
The Ministry of Defence of Republic of Serbia (Министарство одбране / Ministarstvo odbrane) is the ministry in the Government of Serbia which is in the charge of defending the Republic of Serbia from internal and external military threats.
The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional, hereditary, and popular monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians (Koning(in) der Belgen, Roi / Reine des Belges, König(in) der Belgier) and serves as the country's head of state.
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically as the King of Siam; พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Movses Silikyan (Movses Silikov) (1862 – 10 December 1937) was an Armenian general and national hero of World War I. He served as a major general in the Russian Imperial Army before the Bolshevik Revolution.
Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi (1876–1920) founded and ruled the Idrisid Emirate of Asir.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Schism (Εθνικός Διχασμός, Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) was a series of disagreements between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos regarding the foreign policy of Greece in the period of 1910–1922 of which the tipping point was whether Greece should enter World War I. Venizelos was in support of the Allies and wanted Greece to join the war on their side, while the pro-German King wanted Greece to remain neutral, which would favor the plans of the Central Powers.
The New Zealand Division was an infantry division of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force raised for service in the First World War.
The New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) was the title of the military forces sent from New Zealand to fight alongside other British Empire and Dominion troops during World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945).
Newton Diehl Baker Jr. (December 3, 1871December 25, 1937) was an American lawyer, Georgist,Noble, Ransom E. "Henry George and the Progressive Movement." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol.
Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš (Никола I Петровић-Његош; – 1 March 1921) was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikola Pašić (Никола Пашић,; 18 December 1845 – 10 December 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat who was the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, the leader of the People's Radical Party who, among other posts, was twice a mayor of Belgrade (1890–91 and 1897) several times Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbia (1891–92, 1904–05, 1906–08, 1909–11, 1912–18) and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918, 1921–24, 1924–26.) He was an important politician in the Balkans, who, together with his counterparts like Eleftherios Venizelos in Greece, managed to strengthen their small, still emerging national states against strong foreign influences, most notably those of Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire.
Nikolai Ottovich (von) Essen (Николай Оттович фон Эссен) (11(23) December 1860, Saint Petersburg – 7(20) May 1915, Reval) was a Russian naval commander and admiral from the Baltic German Essen family.
Prince Nikolai Dmitriyevich Golitsyn (Никола́й Дми́триевич Голи́цын; 12 April 1850 – 2 July 1925) was of Russian nobility and was the last prime minister of Imperial Russia.
Nikolai Iudovich Ivanov (Никола́й Иу́дович Ива́нов; 1851 – 27 January 1919) was a Russian artillery general in the Imperial Russian Army.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo.
Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia.
Nyasaland, or the Nyasaland Protectorate, was a British Protectorate located in Africa, which was established in 1907 when the former British Central Africa Protectorate changed its name.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Conferences of American States, commonly referred to as the Pan-American Conferences, were meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade.
Panagiotis Danglis (Παναγιώτης Δαγκλής; 30 August 1853 – 9 March 1924) was a Greek Army general and politician.
Paolo Boselli (8 June 1838 – 10 March 1932) was an Italian politician who served as the 34th Prime Minister of Italy during World War I.
Paolo Camillo Thaon, Marquess of Revel (10 June 1859 – 24 March 1948), laterly titled by Benito Mussolini with the honorary title of 1st Duke of the Sea, was an Italian admiral of the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during World War I and later a politician.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
This is a list of countries that participated in World War I, sorted by alphabetical order.
Paul Painlevé (5 December 1863 – 29 October 1933) was a French mathematician and statesman.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Paul Georg Edler von Rennenkampf(f) (Russified into Павел-Георг Карлович (фон) Ренненкампф, Pavel-Georg Karlovich (von) Rennenkampf; – 1 April 1918) was an Baltic German nobleman and military leader of Baltic German extraction, General of the Cavalry (1910), General-Adjutant (1912), who served in the Imperial Russian Army.
Pavle Jurišić Šturm KCMG (Павле Јуришић Штурм; August 8, 1848 – January 13, 1922) was a Serbian general most known for commanding the Serbian 3rd Army in World War I. Born in Prussian Silesia, of ethnic Sorb (Slavic) origin, he and his brother moved to Serbia and joined the Serbian army.
Pedro Max Fernando Frontin (8 February 1867 — 7 April 1939) was an Admiral from the Brazilian Navy.
Field Marshal Petar Bojović (16 July 1858 in Miševići, Nova Varoš – 19 January 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian military commander who fought in the Serbo-Turkish War, the Serbo-Bulgarian War, the First Balkan War, the Second Balkan War, World War I and World War II.
Peter I (Petar/Петар; – 16 August 1921) reigned as the last King of Serbia (1903–1918) and as the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1921).
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP, Portuguese: Corpo Expedicionário Português) was the main military force from Portugal that fought in the Western Front, during World War I. Portuguese neutrality ended in 1916 after the seizure of German merchant ships resulted in Germany declaring war.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the Portuguese Republic (Presidente da República Portuguesa) is the executive head of state of Portugal.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of Armenia is the head of government and most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to "determine the main directions of policy of the Government, manage the activities of the Government and coordinate the work of the members of the Government." Also, according to the constitution, the Prime Minister heads the Security Council, which prescribes the main directions of the country's defense policy.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
The Prime Minister of Belgium (Eerste minister van België; Premier ministre de Belgique; Premierminister von Belgien) or the Premier of Belgium is the head of the federal government in the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
The is the head of government of Japan.
The Prime Minister of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Premijer Crne Gore) (Premier of Montenegro), is the head of the Government of Montenegro.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand (Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is the head of government of New Zealand.
Prime Minister (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro) is the current title of the head of government of Portugal.
The Prime Minister of Serbia (Премијер Србије / Premijer Srbije), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Serbia (Председник Владе Републике Србије / Predsednik Vlade Republike Srbije), is the head of the Government of Serbia.
The Prime Minister of South Africa (Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika) was the head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi (29 January 1873 – 18 March 1933) was a Spanish mountaineer and explorer, briefly Infante of Spain as son of Amadeo I of Spain, member of the royal House of Savoy and cousin of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Field Marshal Radomir Putnik (Радомир Путник;; 24 January 1847 – 17 May 1917) was the first Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian army in the Balkan Wars and in the First World War.
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani (8 November 18637 September 1925) was a French politician of the Third Republic, who served as Prime Minister for the first year of World War I. He was born in Sidi Bel Abbès, in French Algeria.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Sir Robert Laird Borden, (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the eighth Prime Minister of Canada, in office from 1911 to 1920.
Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe, (12 January 185820 June 1945), known as The Lord Houghton from 1885 to 1895 and as The Earl of Crewe from 1895 to 1911, was a British Liberal politician, statesman and writer.
Robert Georges Nivelle (15 October 1856 – 22 March 1924) was a French artillery officer who served in the Boxer Rebellion, and the First World War.
Admiral of the Fleet Rosslyn Erskine Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss, (12 April 1864 – 24 May 1933), known as Sir Rosslyn Wemyss between 1916 and 1919, was a Royal Navy officer.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Sir Samuel Hughes, (January 8, 1853 – August 23, 1921) was the Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence during World War I. He was notable for being the last Liberal-Conservative cabinet minister, until he was dismissed from his cabinet post.
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
The Second Army was a field army of the Romanian Land Forces, created on 18 August 1916.
The Serbian Second Army (Српска Друга Армија / Srpska Druga Armija) was a Serbian field army that fought during the Balkan Wars and World War I. During the First Balkan War, the Second Army participated in the Battle of Kumanovo (23 - October 24, 1912) along with the Serbian First Army and the Serbian Third Army and was deployed in the area around Kyustendil.
The Second Battle of Oituz was a confrontation between Romanian and, to a lesser extent, Russian forces on one side and German and Austro-Hungarian forces on the other, during the Romanian Campaign of World War I. The battle took place primarily in the Oituz valley in Bacău County, Romania, between August 8 and August 20, 1917.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.
The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a British cabinet-level position, first held by Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794).
The phrase "separate peace" refers to a nation's agreement to cease military hostilities with another, even though the former country had previously entered into a military alliance with other states that remain at war with the latter country.
The Serbian Army (Копнена Војска / Kopnena Vojska, lit.) is the land-based component of the Serbian Armed Forces, responsible for defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia from foreign hostiles; participating in peacekeeping operations; and providing humanitarian aid and disaster relief.
Serdar (سردار; from Persian "Sardar") was a military rank in the Ottoman Empire and a noble rank in Montenegro and Serbia.
Sergei Dmitryevich Sazonov GCB (Russian: Сергей Дмитриевич Сазонов; 10 August 1860 in Ryazan Governorate 25 December 1927) was a Russian statesman and diplomat who served as Foreign Minister from November 1910 to July 1916.
The Kingdom of Siam, now known as Thailand, is possibly one of the least well-known participants in World War I. Siam fought against the Central Powers by an active contribution, whatever the actual military value, to one of the most gruelling and critical campaigns of the war.
The Siamese Expeditionary Force consisted of the Royal Siamese Army sent to Europe under the command of Major General Phraya Pichai Charnyarit in 1917 to help fight World War I.
Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais (CavC OA CavA; 1 May 1872, in Caminha – 14 December 1918, in Lisbon) was a Portuguese politician, military officer, and diplomat, who served as the fourth President of the First Portuguese Republic in 1918.
The Siege of Tsingtao, sometimes Siege of Tsingtau, was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao (Qingdao) in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom.
General Sir Charles Carmichael Monro, 1st Baronet, (15 June 1860 – 7 December 1929) was a senior British Army officer who served during the Second Boer War and the First World War and became Commander-in-Chief, India for the latter part of the conflict.
Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, (5 May 1864 – 22 June 1922) was one of the most senior British Army staff officers of the First World War and was briefly an Irish unionist politician.
Field Marshal Sir William Robert Robertson, 1st Baronet, (29 January 1860 – 12 February 1933) was a British Army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) – the professional head of the British Army – from 1916 to 1918 during the First World War.
The Somaliland Campaign, also called the Anglo-Somali War or the Dervish War, was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in the Horn of Africa, pitting the Dervishes led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (nicknamed the "Mad Mullah", although he "was neither mad nor a mullah") against the British.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
The South West Africa Campaign was the conquest and occupation of German South West Africa (Namibia) by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the beginning of the First World War.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Field Marshal Stepan "Stepa" Stepanović (Степан Степа Степановић,; – 29 April 1929) was a Serbian military commander who fought in the Serbo-Turkish War, the Serbo-Bulgarian War, the First Balkan War, the Second Balkan War and World War I. Having joined the Serbian military in 1874, he fought against the forces of the Ottoman Empire in 1876.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
Taiwan under Japanese rule is the period between 1895 and 1945 in which the island of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Gensui Count, GCB (5 February 1852 – 3 November 1919), was a Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Théophile Figeys Sr was a Belgian Major General who fought in the First World War.
The Third Army (Трећа армија/Treća armija) was a field army of the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia that fought during the Balkan Wars and World War I.
Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa from 1884 to 1914, encompassing what is now the nation of Togo and most of what is now the Volta Region of Ghana, approximately 77,355 km2 (29,867 sq mi) in size.
Tovmas Nazarbekian (Armenian: Թովմաս Նազարբէկեան; 4 April 1855 – 19 February 1931), also known as Foma Nazarbekov (Фома Назарбеков), was an Armenian general in the Russian Caucasus Army and later promoted to commander-in-chief of the First Republic of Armenia.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Bucharest of 1916 was signed between Romania and the Entente Powers on 4 (Old Style)/17 (New Style) August 1916 in Bucharest.
The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty between Romania on one side and the Central Powers on the other, following the stalemate reached after the campaign of 1916–17 and Romania's isolation after Russia's unilateral exit from World War I (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).
The Treaty of Darin, or the Darin Pact, of 1915 was between the United Kingdom and Abdul-Aziz Al Saud (sometimes called Ibn Saud) ruler of Nejd, who would go on to found the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Triple Alliance was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The British Protectorate of Uganda was a protectorate of the British Empire from 1894 to 1962.
On, the Sfatul Țării, or National Council, of Bessarabia proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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The 1917 United States declaration of war on Austria-Hungary, officially House Joint Resolution 169, was a resolution adopted by the United States Congress declaring that a state of war existed between the United States of America and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked a special joint session of the United States Congress for a declaration of war against the German Empire.
The United States homefront during World War I saw a systematic mobilization of the country's entire population and economy to produce the soldiers, food supplies, ammunitions and money necessary to win the war.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Secretary of the Navy (or SECNAV) is a statutory officer and the head (chief executive officer) of the Department of the Navy, a military department (component organization) within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรเมนทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Phra Bat Somdet Phra Ramathibodi Si Sinthra Maha Vajiravudh Phra Mongkut Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระรามาธิบดีศรีสินทรมหาวชิราวุธฯ พระมงกุฎเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama VI (1 January 1880 – 26 November 1925), was the sixth monarch of Siam under the Chakri dynasty, ruling from 1910 until his death.
Venceslau Brás Pereira Gomes (26 February 1868 – 15 May 1966) was a Brazilian politician who served as ninth President of Brazil between 1914 and 1918, during the First Brazilian Republic.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Vintilă Ion Constantin Brătianu (16 September 1867 – 22 December 1930) was a Romanian politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania between 24 November 1927 and 9 November 1928.
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (19 May 1860 – 1 December 1952) was an Italian statesman, known for representing Italy in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood, (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a British Army officer.
Sir William Frederick Lloyd (December 17, 1864 – June 13, 1937) was a newspaper editor and Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1918 to 1919.
Major General William Holmes (12 September 1862 – 2 July 1917) was a senior Australian Army officer during the First World War.
William Ferguson Massey (26 March 1856 – 10 May 1925), commonly known as Bill Massey, was an Irish-born politician in New Zealand who served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from May 1912 to May 1925.
General Sir William Eliot Peyton, (7 May 1866 – 14 November 1931) was a British Army officer who served as Military Secretary to the British Expeditionary Force from 1916 to 1918.
William Sowden Sims (October 15, 1858 – September 25, 1936) was an admiral in the United States Navy who fought during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to modernize the navy.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was more than 41 million: there were over 18 million deaths and 23 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.
Yugoslav Committee (Jugoslavenski odbor) was a political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yugoslavism (Jugoslavizam / Југославизам, Jugoslavizem) or Yugoslavdom (Jugoslovenstvo / Југословенство, Jugoslovanstvo) refers to the nationalism or patriotism associated with South Slavs and Yugoslavia.
The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note or Zimmerman Cable) was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event that the United States entered World War I against Germany.
The Obuzierul Krupp, caliber 105 mm, model 1912 was a Romanian upgrade of the German 10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 howitzer used extensively during World War I. After two years of planning and experimentation by Romanian officers, the final design was approved and the required modifications were performed at Arsenalul Armatei in Bucharest.
The 1st Army (translit) was an army-level command of the Russian Imperial Army created during World War I. The First Army, commanded by General Paul Rennenkampf, invaded East Prussia at the outbreak of war in 1914 along with the Second Army commanded by General Alexander Samsonov.
The 1st Infantry Division Dacica was one of the major units of the Romanian Land Forces, with its headquarters located in Bucharest.
The Russian 2nd Army (2-я армия, 2А) was an army-level command of the Imperial Russian Army in World War I. It was formed just prior to the outbreak of hostilities from the units of Warsaw Military District and was mobilized in August 1914.
The was a fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) created as a mobile strike force in response to hostilities with Russia, and saw action in every IJN military operation until the end of World War II.
Allied Forces of WWI, Allied Forces of World War I, Allied Powers (World War I), Allied Powers of WWI, Allied Powers of World War I, Allied and Associated Powers, Allied forces (World War I), Allied forces of WWI, Allied forces of World War I, Allied powers of WWI, Allied powers of World War I, Allied soldiers, Allies (WWI), Allies (World War I), Allies of WWI, Allies of World War 1, Allies of World War One, Allies of world war i, Entente forces, Principal Allied Powers, World War I Allies.