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Allosteric regulation

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In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site. [1]

70 relations: Active site, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Agonist, Allosteric regulation, Antagonist, ASD (database), Bacteria, Benzodiazepine, Biochemistry, Brainstem, Cell (biology), Cell signaling, Cinacalcet, Competitive inhibition, Conformational change, Cooperative binding, Diazepam, Direct thrombin inhibitor, Effector (biology), Energy functional, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme kinetics, Epileptic seizure, Feed forward (control), Flumazenil, Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, Fructose 6-phosphate, G protein–coupled receptor, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, General anaesthetic, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glycine, Glycine receptor, Glycolysis, Greek language, Hemoglobin, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Mammal, Maraviroc, Molecular dynamics, Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, Morpheein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Negative feedback, ..., Neurotransmitter, Non-covalent interactions, Oxygen, Phosphofructokinase, Phosphorylation, Porphobilinogen synthase, Protein dynamics, Protein structure, Protein subunit, Receptor theory, Royal Society of Chemistry, Sequential model, Spinal cord, Statistical ensemble (mathematical physics), Strychnine, Substrate (chemistry), Supramolecular chemistry, Synapse, Synergy, 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (20 more) »

Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.

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ASD (database)

Allostery is the most direct and efficient way for regulation of biological macromolecule function induced by the binding of a ligand at an allosteric site topographically distinct from the orthosteric site.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cinacalcet (INN) is a drug that acts as a calcimimetic (i.e. it mimics the action of calcium on tissues) by allosteric activation of the calcium-sensing receptor that is expressed in various human organ tissues (Van Wagenen et al. (2001), U.S. Pat. 6,211,244).

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Competitive inhibition

Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.

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Conformational change

In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.

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Cooperative binding

Molecular binding is an interaction between molecules that results in a stable physical association between those molecules.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Direct thrombin inhibitor

Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are a class of medication that act as anticoagulants (delaying blood clotting) by directly inhibiting the enzyme thrombin (factor IIa).

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Effector (biology)

In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.

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Energy functional

The Energy functional is the total energy of a certain system, as a functional of the system's state.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.

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Enzyme kinetics

Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Feed forward (control)

Feed-forward, sometimes written feedforward, is a term describing an element or pathway within a control system that passes a controlling signal from a source in its external environment, often a command signal from an external operator, to a load elsewhere in its external environment.

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Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal.

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Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as Harden-Young ester, is fructose sugar phosphorylated on carbons 1 and 6 (i.e., is a fructosephosphate).

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Fructose 6-phosphate

Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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General anaesthetic

General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glucose 6-phosphate

Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.

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Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.

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Glycine receptor

The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.

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Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Jean-Pierre Changeux

Jean-Pierre Changeux (born 6 April 1936) is a French neuroscientist known for his research in several fields of biology, from the structure and function of proteins (with a focus on the allosteric proteins), to the early development of the nervous system up to cognitive functions.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Maraviroc (INN, brand-named Selzentry, or Celsentri outside the U.S.) is an antiretroviral drug in the CCR5 receptor antagonist class used in the treatment of HIV infection.

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Molecular dynamics

Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.

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Monod-Wyman-Changeux model

In biochemistry, the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model (MWC model, also known as the symmetry model) describes allosteric transitions of proteins made up of identical subunits.

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Morpheeins are proteins that can form two or more different homo-oligomers (morpheein forms), but must come apart and change shape to convert between forms.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.

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Negative feedback

Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Non-covalent interactions

A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Phosphofructokinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate in glycolysis.

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Porphobilinogen synthase

Porphobilinogen synthase (or ALA dehydratase, or aminolevulinate dehydratase) synthesizes porphobilinogen through the asymmetric condensation of two molecules of aminolevulinic acid.

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Protein dynamics

Proteins are generally thought to adopt unique structures determined by their amino acid sequences, as outlined by Anfinsen's dogma.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Protein subunit

In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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Receptor theory

Receptor theory is the application of receptor models to explain drug behavior.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Sequential model

The sequential model (also known as the KNF model) is a theory that describes cooperativity of protein subunitsKoshland, D.E., Némethy, G. and Filmer, D. (1966) Comparison of experimental binding data and theoretical models in proteins containing subunits.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Statistical ensemble (mathematical physics)

In mathematical physics, especially as introduced into statistical mechanics and thermodynamics by J. Willard Gibbs in 1902, an ensemble (also statistical ensemble) is an idealization consisting of a large number of virtual copies (sometimes infinitely many) of a system, considered all at once, each of which represents a possible state that the real system might be in.

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Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.

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Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.

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Supramolecular chemistry

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.

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2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid

2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (conjugate base 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate) (2,3-BPG), also known as 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (conjugate base 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) (2,3-DPG), is a three-carbon isomer of the glycolytic intermediate 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3-BPG).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allosteric_regulation

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