177 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Aircraft, Alfred Wilm, Allotropes of iron, Allotropy, Alloy steel, Alloy wheel, Aluminium, Aluminium alloy, Amalgam (chemistry), Anatolia, Annealing (metallurgy), Antimony, Archimedes, Archimedes' principle, Armour, Atom, Atomic ratio, Austenite, Barrel, Bearing (mechanical), Bell, Benjamin Huntsman, Bessemer process, Bismuth, Blast furnace, Bloomery, Brass, Bronze, Bronze Age, Calcium, CALPHAD, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon steel, Carbonitriding, Case-hardening, Cast iron, Cementation process, Cementite, Chemical element, Chromium, Cinnabar, Cobalt, Colored gold, Copper, Corrosion, Crucible steel, Cupronickel, Deformation (engineering), ..., Density, Diffusion, Diffusionless transformation, Ductility, Duralumin, Edgar Bain, Egypt, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical steel, Electrum, Eutectic system, Extractive metallurgy, Ferromagnetism, Fineness, Flux (metallurgy), Gilding, Girder, Gold, Greenland, Hardness, Haynes International, Heat treating, Henry Bessemer, High-speed steel, Ideal solution, Incoloy, Inconel, Industrial espionage, Intermetallic, Interstitial compound, Inuit, Iron, Iron meteorite, Iron ore, Iron sulfide, Japanese swordsmithing, Jewellery, Lead, Liquid, Liquidus, List of alloys, Lithium, Magnesium, Magnesium alloy, Mangalloy, Manganese, Melting point, Mercury (element), Metal, Metallic bonding, Meteoric iron, Microstructure, Mirror, Mixture, Molybdenum, Mycenae, Nickel, Nitriding, Nucleation, Ore, Ornament (art), Oxide, Oxygen, Pattern welding, Pewter, Phase (matter), Phase diagram, Phosphorus, Pig iron, Platinum, Precipitation (chemistry), Precipitation hardening, Prehistory, Puddling (metallurgy), Qin dynasty, Quenching, Reactivity (chemistry), Recrystallization (metallurgy), Redox, Robert Forester Mushet, Robert Hadfield, Shear strength, Sheffield, Shinto, Silicon, Silver, Slag, Smelting, Sodium, Solder, Solid, Solid solution, Solidus (chemistry), Solubility, Solvent, Spiegeleisen, Spring steel, Stainless steel, Statue, Steel, Sterling silver, Stoichiometry, Strength of materials, Structural integrity and failure, Sulfur, Superalloy, Supersaturation, Syracuse, Sicily, Telluric iron, Temperature, Thermal conductivity, Tin, Titanium, Titanium alloy, Tool steel, Toughness, Tungsten, Ultimate tensile strength, Van Arkel–Ketelaar triangle, Vanadium, Wheel, William Chandler Roberts-Austen, Work hardening, Wrought iron, Young's modulus, Zinc, Zintl phase. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Alfred Wilm (25 June 1869 – 6 August 1937) was a German metallurgist who invented the alloy Al-3.5–5.5%Cu-Mg-Mn, now known as Duralumin which is used extensively in aircraft.
Iron represents perhaps the best-known example for allotropy in a metal.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.
In the automotive industry, alloy wheels are wheels that are made from an alloy of aluminium or magnesium.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic ratio is a measure of the ratio of atoms of one kind (i) to another kind (j).
Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
Benjamin Huntsman (4 June 170420 June 1776) was an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
A bloomery is a type of furnace once used widely for smelting iron from its oxides.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
CALPHAD stands for CALculation of PHAse Diagrams, a methodology which has been introduced in the previous century by Larry Kaufman.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
Carbonitriding is a metallurgical surface modification technique that is used to increase the surface hardness of a metal, thereby reducing wear.
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
The cementation process is an obsolete technology for making steel by carburization of iron.
Cementite (or iron carbide) is a compound of iron and carbon, more precisely an intermediate transition metal carbide with the formula Fe3C.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Pure gold is slightly reddish yellow in color, but colored gold in various other colors can be produced.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron (cast iron), iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A diffusionless transformation is a phase change that occurs without the long-range diffusion of atoms but rather by some form of cooperative, homogeneous movement of many atoms that results in a change in crystal structure.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, dural(l)ium, or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys.
Edgar Collins Bain (September 14, 1891 – November 27, 1971) was an American metallurgist and member of the National Academy of Sciences, who worked for the US Steel Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical steel (lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is a special steel tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability.
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
A girder is a support beam used in construction.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Haynes International, Inc., headquartered in Kokomo, Indiana, is one of the world’s largest producers of high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt-based alloys in flat product form such as sheet, coil and plate forms; it also manufactures alloys in seamless and welded tubulars, and in slab, bar, billet and wire forms.
Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor, whose steelmaking process would become the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century for almost one century from year 1856 to 1950.
High-speed steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels, commonly used as cutting tool material.
In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases.
Incoloy refers to a range of superalloys produced by the Special Metals Corporation group of companies.
Inconel is a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.
Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.
An interstitial compound, or interstitial alloy, is a compound that is formed when an atom with a small enough radius sits in an interstitial “hole” in a metal lattice.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Iron sulfide or Iron sulphide can refer to a range of chemical compounds composed of iron and sulfur.
Japanese swordsmithing is the labour-intensive bladesmithing process developed in Japan for forging traditionally made bladed weapons (nihonto) including katana, wakizashi, tantō, yari, naginata, nagamaki, tachi, uchigatana, nodachi, ōdachi, kodachi, and ya (arrow).
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
The liquidus temperature, TL or Tliq specifies the temperature above which a material is completely liquid, and the maximum temperature at which crystals can co-exist with the melt in thermodynamic equilibrium.
This is a list of named alloys grouped alphabetically by base metal.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium alloys are mixtures of magnesium with other metals (called an alloy), often aluminum, zinc, manganese, silicon, copper, rare earths and zirconium.
Mangalloy, also called manganese steel or Hadfield steel, is an alloy steel containing an average of around 13% manganese.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.
Microstructure is the very small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface.
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pattern welding is the practice in sword and knife making of forming a blade of several metal pieces of differing composition that are forge-welded together and twisted and manipulated to form a pattern.
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening or particle hardening, is a heat treatment technique used to increase the yield strength of malleable materials, including most structural alloys of aluminium, magnesium, nickel, titanium, and some steels and stainless steels.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Puddling was one step in one of the most important processes of making the first appreciable volumes of high-grade bar iron (malleable wrought iron) during the Industrial Revolution.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Recrystallization is a process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of defects-free grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Robert Forester Mushet (8 April 1811 – 29 January 1891) was a British metallurgist and businessman, born on 8 April 1811, in Coleford, in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, England.
Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield, 1st Baronet FRS (28 November 1858 in Sheffield – 30 September 1940 in Surrey) was an English metallurgist, noted for his 1882 discovery of manganese steel, one of the first steel alloys.
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Spiegeleisen (literally "mirror-iron", —mirror or specular; —iron) is a ferromanganese alloy containing approximately 15% manganese and small quantities of carbon and silicon.
Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
A statue is a sculpture, representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), free-standing (as opposed to a relief) and normally full-length (as opposed to a bust) and at least close to life-size, or larger.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
Structural integrity and failure is an aspect of engineering which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load (weight, force, etc...) without breaking, and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Telluric iron, also called native iron, is iron that originated on Earth, and is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools.
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Bond triangles or van Arkel–Ketelaar triangles (named after Anton Eduard van Arkel and J. A. A. Ketelaar) are triangles used for showing different compounds in varying degrees of ionic, metallic and covalent bonding.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
Sir William Chandler Roberts-Austen KCB, (3 March 1843 in Kennington – 22 November 1902, London), was an English metallurgist noted for his research on the physical properties of metals and their alloys.
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
In chemistry, a Zintl phase is the product of a reaction between a group 1 (alkali metal) or group 2 (alkaline earth) and any post-transition metal or metalloid (i.e. from group 13, 14, 15 or 16).
Alloy Metals, Alloy metal, Alloy of metal, Alloyage, Alloyed, Alloyer, Alloying, Alloying elements, Alloys, Binary alloy, Denary alloy, Metal alloy, Modern alloys, Nonary alloy, Novenary alloy, Octonary alloy, Prealloy, Quaternary alloy, Quinary alloy, Senary alloy, Septenary alloy, Substitutional alloy, Substitutional element, Ternary alloy, Unalloyed.