102 relations: Acepromazine, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Alfuzosin, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amphetamine, Anorectic, Anorexia (symptom), Antidepressant, Antihypotensive agent, Antipsychotic, Apnea, Arotinolol, Auditory cortex, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Blood vessel, Brain, Bronchiole, Calcium, Cardiac muscle, Carvedilol, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Cirazoline, Decongestant, Doxazosin, Ejaculation, Etilefrine, Fight-or-flight response, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gluconeogenesis, Glutamic acid, Glycogenolysis, Gq alpha subunit, Heart failure, Heterocyclic compound, Heterotrimeric G protein, Hypertension, Hypertensive emergency, Hypoglossal nucleus, Indoramin, Inositol trisphosphate, Inotrope, Iris dilator muscle, Kidney, Labetalol, Liver, Membrane potential, ..., Metaraminol, Methoxamine, Midodrine, Mitogen, Moxisylyte, Na+/K+-ATPase, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine, Obesity, Orthostatic hypotension, Oxymetazoline, Peripheral nervous system, Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Phospholipase C, Postsynaptic potential, Potassium, Prazosin, Proximal tubule, Pseudoephedrine, Quetiapine, Renal artery, Risperidone, Salivary gland, Seminal tract, Side effect, Silodosin, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium, Sodium–hydrogen antiporter 3, Sphincter, Sweat gland, Synephrine, Tamsulosin, Temporal lobe, Terazosin, Tetryzoline, Tiamenidine, Tolazoline, Trazodone, Trimazosin, Urapidil, Ureter, Urethral sphincters, Urinary bladder, Urination, Uterus, Vasoconstriction, Xylometazoline. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
Acepromazine, acetopromazine or acetylpromazine (more commonly known as ACP, Ace, or by the trade names Atravet or Acezine 2, number depending on mg/ml dose) is a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic drug.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antihypotensive agent, also known as a vasopressor agent or pressor, is any medication that tends to raise reduced blood pressure.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Arotinolol (INN, marketed under the tradename Almarl) is a medication in the class of mixed alpha/beta blockers.
The primary auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Carvedilol, sold under the brand name Coreg among others, is a medication used for treating mild to severe congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) following heart attack in people who are otherwise stable, and for treating high blood pressure.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cirazoline is a full agonist at the α1A adrenergic receptor, a partial agonist at both the α1B and α1D adrenergic receptors, and a nonselective antagonist to the α2 adrenergic receptor.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
Doxazosin mesylate, a quinazoline compound sold by Pfizer under the brand names Cardura and Carduran, is an α1-selective alpha blocker used to treat high blood pressure and urinary retention associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
Etilefrine is a cardiac stimulant used as an antihypotensive. It is a sympathomimetic amine of the 3-hydroxy-phenylethanolamine series used in treating orthostatic hypotension of neurological, cardiovascular, endocrine or metabolic origin. Intravenous infusion of this compound increases cardiac output, stroke volume, venous return and blood pressure in man and experimental animals, suggesting stimulation of both α and β adrenergic receptors. However, in vitro studies indicate that etilefrine has a much higher affinity for β1 (cardiac) than for β2 adrenoreceptors. Intravenous etilefrine increases the pulse rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure of healthy individuals. Peripheral vascular resistance falls during the infusion of 1–8 mg etilefrine but begins to rise at higher dosage. Marked falls in pulse rate, cardiac output, stroke volume and peripheral bloodflow, accompanied by rises in mean arterial pressure, occur when etilefrine is infused after administration of intravenous propranolol 2,5 mg. These findings indicate that etilefrine has both β1 and α1 adrenergic effects in man.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
The hypoglossal nucleus is a cranial nerve nucleus, and it extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline.
Indoramin (trade names Baratol and Doralese) is a piperidine antiadrenergic agent.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
The iris dilator muscle (pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, radial muscle of iris, radiating fibers), is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Labetalol is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
Metaraminol (INN; trade names Aramine, Metaramin, and Pressonex), also known as metaradrine, a stereoisomer of ''meta''-hydroxynorephedrine (3,β-dihydroxyamphetamine), is a potent sympathomimetic amine used in the prevention and treatment of hypotension, particularly as a complication of anesthesia.
Methoxamine is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, somewhat similar in structure to butaxamine and 2,5-DMA.
Midodrine (brand names Amatine, ProAmatine, Gutron, Bramox) is a vasopressor/antihypotensive agent.
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.
Moxisylyte, also known as thymoxamine, is a drug used in urology for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Naphazoline (in the hydrochloride form) is the common name for 2-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Oxymetazoline is a selective α1 adrenergic receptor agonist and α2 adrenergic receptor partial agonist.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Phenoxybenzamine (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is a non-selective, irreversible alpha blocker.
Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
Postsynaptic potentials are changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Prazosin, trade names Minipress, Vasoflex, Lentopres and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
The seminal tract is a part of the male reproductive system and consists of Seminiferous tubules (Tubuli seminiferi recti, Rete testis, Efferent ducts), Epididymis (Appendix), Vas deferens (Ampulla) and Ejaculatory duct.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium–hydrogen antiporter 3 also known as sodium–hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) or solute carrier family 9 member 3 (SLC9A3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3 gene.
A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Synephrine, or, more specifically, p-synephrine, is an alkaloid, occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine.
Tamsulosin, sold under the trade name Alna ® / Flomax ®, is a medication used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis, help with the passage of kidney stones, and for urinary retention along with other measures.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Terazosin (marketed as Hytrin or Zayasel) is a selective alpha-1 antagonist used for treatment of symptoms of an enlarged prostate (BPH).
Tetryzoline (INN; also known as tetrahydrozoline), a derivative of imidazoline, is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays.
Tiamenidine (BAN, USAN, INN, also known as thiamenidine, Hoe 440) is a imidazoline compound that shares many of the pharmacological properties of clonidine.
Tolazoline is a non-selective competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
Trimazosin is a sympatholytic alpha blocker.
Urapidil is a sympatholytic antihypertensive drug.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
The urethral sphincters are two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Xylometazoline, also spelled xylomethazoline, is a medication which is used to improve symptoms of nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis.
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