89 relations: Acute-phase protein, Allele, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, Alpha globulin, Alpha helix, Antibody, Antigen, Antithrombin, Arginine, Arthralgia, Asparagine, Autoantibody, Beta sheet, Biomarker, Biomolecular structure, Bleeding diathesis, Blood, Blood donation, Blood plasma, Blood test, Carl-Bertil Laurell, Chromosome, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cirrhosis, Connective tissue, Covalent bond, Cysteine, Disulfide, Duodenum, Elastase, Elasticity (physics), Elastin, Electric current, Electrophoresis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Epitope, Europe, Fucose, Gel electrophoresis of proteins, Gene, Genetic disorder, Genotype, Globulin, Glutamic acid, Glycan, Glycosylation, Inflammation, ..., Isocyanic acid, Isoelectric focusing, Liver, Lung, Lysine, Medical research, Medication, Medicine, MEROPS, Methionine, Mutation, Neutrophil, Neutrophil elastase, Pediatrics, Periodic acid–Schiff stain, PH, Phenotype, Polymer, Protease, Protease inhibitor (biology), Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Proteasome, Protein, Protein isoform, Pulmonology, Recombinant DNA, Rheumatoid arthritis, Serpin, Serum albumin, Sialyl-Lewis X, Synovial fluid, Tissue (biology), Trypsin, Trypsin inhibitor, Turbidimetry, Unified atomic mass unit, UniProt, Valine, Zygosity. Expand index (39 more) » « Shrink index
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (symbol α1AC, A1AC, or a1ACT) is an alpha globulin glycoprotein that is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or AATD) is a genetic disorder that may result in lung disease or liver disease.
Alpha globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are highly mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
In medicine (hematology), bleeding diathesis (h(a)emorrhagic diathesis) is an unusual susceptibility to bleed (hemorrhage) mostly due to hypocoagulability, in turn caused by a coagulopathy (a defect in the system of coagulation).
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components).
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Carl-Bertil Laurell (born 28 June 1919 in Uppsala, dead 18 September 2001 in Malmö) was a Swedish medical doctor and researcher.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (peptidases) that break down proteins.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fucose is a hexose deoxy sugar with the chemical formula C6H12O5.
Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure water but dissolve in dilute salt solutions.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Isocyanic acid is a chemical compound with the formula HNCO, discovered in 1830 by Liebig and Wöhler.
Isoelectric focusing (IEF), also known as electrofocusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by differences in their isoelectric point (pI).
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
MEROPS is an on-line database for peptidases (also known as proteases, proteinases and proteolytic enzymes) and their inhibitors.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Neutrophil elastase (leukocyte elastase, ELANE, ELA2, elastase 2, neutrophil, elaszym, serine elastase, subtype human leukocyte elastase (HLE)) is a serine proteinase in the same family as chymotrypsin and has broad substrate specificity.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
In biology and biochemistry, protease inhibitors are molecules that inhibit the function of proteases (enzymes that aid the breakdown of proteins).
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Serpins are a superfamily of proteins with similar structures that were first identified for their protease inhibition activity and are found in all kingdoms of life.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Sialyl LewisX, also known as sialyl LeX or SLeX, is a tetrasaccharide carbohydrate with the sequence Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ- that is usually attached to O-glycans on the surface of cells.
Synovial fluid, also called synovia,help 1 is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
A trypsin inhibitor is a type of serine protease inhibitor that reduces the biological activity of trypsin.
Turbidimetry (the name being derived from turbidity) is the process of measuring the loss of intensity of transmitted light due to the scattering effect of particles suspended in it.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
1-antitrypsin, 1antitrypsin, A1AT, A1at, ATC code B02AB02, ATCvet code QB02AB02, Alfa1 antitrypsin, Alpha 1 antitrypsin, Alpha 1-antitrypsin, Alpha-1-Antitrypsin, Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor, Alpha-antitrypsin gene, Alpha1-antiproteinase, Antitrypsin, Aralast, Prolastin, SERPINA1, SERPINA1 (gene), Serum trypsin inhibitor, Zemaira, Α1-antitrypsin.