152 relations: Acetylcholine, Adderall, Adenylyl cyclase, Adipose tissue, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Agmatine, Agonist, Allosteric regulation, Alpha blocker, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Antihypertensive drug, Apraclonidine, Aripiprazole, Artery, Asenapine, Atipamezole, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autoreceptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Brainstem, Brimonidine, BRL-44408, Cannabigerol, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Chemical synapse, Cirazoline, Clonidine, Clozapine, Coronary arteries, Cramp, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Department of Health (Australia), Detomidine, ..., Dexmedetomidine, Efaroxan, Epidural administration, European Medicines Agency, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gi alpha subunit, Glucagon, Glycogen phosphorylase, Guanabenz, Guanfacine, Heart, Heterotrimeric G protein, Hippocampus, Hypertension, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Idazoxan, Imidazoline receptor, Imiloxan, Insulin, Intensive care unit, Intravenous therapy, Lipolysis, Locus coeruleus, Lofexidine, Lurasidone, Medetomidine, Medulla oblongata, Melperone, Methamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Mianserin, Midbrain, Mirtazapine, Mivazerol, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitric oxide synthase, NMDA receptor antagonist, Norepinephrine, Olanzapine, Opioid use disorder, Oxymetazoline, Paliperidone, Pancreas, Peripheral nervous system, Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine, Phosphorylase kinase, Piribedil, Platelet, Prefrontal cortex, Protein kinase A, Quetiapine, Rauwolscine, Receptor antagonist, Rilmenidine, Risperidone, Romifidine, Rotigotine, Salivary gland, SB-269970, Sedation, Septum, Setiptiline, Smooth muscle tissue, Solitary nucleus, Spasms, Sphincter, Spinal cord, Spiroxatrine, Stimulant, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse, Talipexole, TDIQ, Tetracyclic antidepressant, Tiamenidine, Tic, Tizanidine, Tolazoline, Tolonidine, Transdermal, UGT1A4, United States National Library of Medicine, Vascular smooth muscle, Vasoconstriction, Vein, Veterinary medicine, WebMD, Xylazine, Xylometazoline, Yohimbine, Ziprasidone, Zotepine, (R)-3-Nitrobiphenyline, 4-NEMD, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT3 receptor. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is an aminoguanidine that was discovered in 1910 by Albrecht Kossel.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the alpha-1C adrenergic receptor, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-1B adrenergic receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (α1D adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1D, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.
The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Apraclonidine (INN), also known under the brand name Iopidine, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Asenapine, sold under the trade names Saphris and Sycrest among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder.
Atipamezole (brand name Antisedan) is a synthetic α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist indicated for the reversal of the sedative and analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine in dogs.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Brimonidine is a drug used as eye drops under the brand names Alphagan and Alphagan-P to treat open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, and as a gel, Mirvaso, for facial skin redness in rosacea.
BRL-44408 is a drug used in scientific research which acts as a selective antagonist for the α2A adrenoreceptor.
Cannabigerol is one of some 560 cannabinoid compounds found in the plant genus Cannabis.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Cirazoline is a full agonist at the α1A adrenergic receptor, a partial agonist at both the α1B and α1D adrenergic receptors, and a nonselective antagonist to the α2 adrenergic receptor.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
A cramp is a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
The Department of Health is a department of the Government of Australia charged with overseeing the running of Australia's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical, pharmaceutical and hospital services, as well as helping people to stay healthy through health promotion, participation and exercise and other disease prevention activities.
Detomidine is an imidazole derivative and α2-adrenergic agonist, used as a large animal sedative, primarily used in horses.
Dexmedetomidine, sold under the trade name Precedex among others, is an anxiety reducing, sedative, and pain medication.
Efaroxan is an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist and antagonist of the imidazoline receptor.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glycogen phosphorylase is one of the phosphorylase enzymes.
Guanabenz (pronounced GWAHN-a-benz, sold under the trade name Wytensin) is an alpha agonist of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor that is used as an antihypertensive drug.
Guanfacine (trade names Estulic, Tenex, and, in extended release form, Intuniv) is a sympatholytic drug used to treat hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Idazoxan (INN) is a drug which is used in scientific research.
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act.
Imiloxan is a drug which is used in scientific research.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Lofexidine, sold under the brand name Lucemyra among others, is a medication historically used to treat high blood pressure, but more commonly used to help with the physical symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013.
Medetomidine is a synthetic drug used as both a surgical anesthetic and analgesic.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Melperone (Bunil (PT), Buronil (AT, BE, CZ, DK, FL†, NL†, NO†, SE), Eunerpan (DE)) is an atypical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class, making it structurally related to the typical antipsychotic haloperidol.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Mianserin, sold under the brand name Tolvon among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used in the treatment of depression in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Mivazerol is an alpha-adrenergic agonist.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
Oxymetazoline is a selective α1 adrenergic receptor agonist and α2 adrenergic receptor partial agonist.
Paliperidone, sold under the trade name Invega among others, is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class of medications.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Phenoxybenzamine (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is a non-selective, irreversible alpha blocker.
Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase which activates glycogen phosphorylase to release glucose-1-phosphate from glycogen.
Piribedil (trade names Pronoran, Trivastal Retard, Trastal, Trivastan, Clarium and others) is an antiparkinsonian agent and piperazine derivative which acts as a D2 and D3 receptor agonist.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Rauwolscine, also known as isoyohimbine, α-yohimbine, and corynanthidine, is an alkaloid found in various species within the genera Rauwolfia and Pausinystalia (formerly known as Corynanthe).
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Rilmenidine is a prescription medication for the treatment of hypertension.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Romifidine is a drug that is used in veterinary medicine as a sedative mainly in large animals such as horses, although it may be used in a wide variety of species.
Rotigotine (Neupro) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
SB-269970 is a drug and research chemical developed by GlaxoSmithKline used in scientific studies.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
Setiptiline (brand name Tecipul), also known as teciptiline, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA) which acts as a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA).
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata.
Spasms is a 1983 Canadian horror film directed by William Fruet and starring Peter Fonda, Oliver Reed, and Kerrie Keane.
A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spiroxatrine is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist at both the 5-HT1A receptor and the α2C adrenergic receptor.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Talipexole (B-HT920, Domnin) is a dopamine agonist that is marketed as a treatment for Parkinson's Disease in Japan by Boehringer Ingelheim; it was introduced in 1996.
TDIQ (also known as 6,7-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline or MDTHIQ) is a drug used in scientific research, which has anxiolytic and anorectic effects in animals.
Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) are a class of antidepressants that were first introduced starting in the 1970s.
Tiamenidine (BAN, USAN, INN, also known as thiamenidine, Hoe 440) is a imidazoline compound that shares many of the pharmacological properties of clonidine.
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Tizanidine (trade names Zanaflex (Acorda Therapeutics), Sirdalud (Novartis), Relentus (Beximco Pharma) Is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist used as a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant. It is also prescribed for some symptoms of fibromyalgia. Tizanidine has been found to be as effective as other antispasmodic drugs and is more tolerable than baclofen and diazepam. Tizanidine can be very strong even at the 2 mg dose and may cause hypotension, so caution is advised when it is used in patients who have a history of orthostatic hypotension, or when switching from gel cap to tablet form and vice versa. Tizanidine can occasionally cause acute liver failure. Clinical trials show that up to 5% of patients treated with tizanidine had elevated liver function test values, though symptoms disappeared upon withdrawal of the drug. Care should be used when first beginning treatment with tizanidine with regular liver tests for the first six months of treatment. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is US$100200.
Tolazoline is a non-selective competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
Tolonidine is an antihypertensive.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor.
Xylometazoline, also spelled xylomethazoline, is a medication which is used to improve symptoms of nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.
Zotepine (brand names: Losizopilon (JP), Lodopin (ID, JP), Setous (JP), Zoleptil (CZ, PT, TR, UK†); where † indicates a formulation that has been discontinued) is an atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for acute and chronic schizophrenia.
(R)-3-Nitrobiphenyline is a drug which acts as an α2-adrenergic agonist, selective for the α2C subtype, as well as being a weak antagonist at the α2A and α2B subtypes.
4-NEMD is a potent sedative drug which acts as a selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
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