121 relations: Actinide, Actinium, Acute radiation syndrome, Alexander Litvinenko, Alpha, Alpha decay, Antimatter, Antistatic device, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Beryllium-8, Beta decay, Beta particle, Bladder cancer, Bohr model, Boson, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cancer, Cell (biology), Chromosome, Classical physics, Cosmic ray, Coulomb's law, Cyclotron, David J. Darling, Delta ray, Dynamic random-access memory, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric spark, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronvolt, Elementary charge, Energy, Epsilon radiation, Ernest Marsden, Ernest Rutherford, Federal Security Service, Fissile material, Fundamental interaction, Gamma ray, Geiger–Marsden experiment, Greek alphabet, Hans Geiger, Helion (chemistry), Helium-3, ..., Helium-4, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Intel, Ion, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Isotope, Isotopes of polonium, Isotopes of radium, J. J. Thomson, John Wiley & Sons, Lead, List of alpha emitting materials, Lung cancer, Mass number, Micrometre, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nature (journal), Neoplasm, Neutron, Neutron radiation, Niels Bohr, Nuclear fission, Nuclear force, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear transmutation, Nucleon, Nuclide, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Particle radiation, Paul Ulrich Villard, Penetration depth, Phys.org, Plum pudding model, Plutonium-238, Potential well, Proton, Quantum tunnelling, Radiation damage, Radioactive decay, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Radionuclide, Radium, Radium bromide, Radon, Relative biological effectiveness, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, Rutherford scattering, Science (journal), Skin, Smoke detector, Soft error, Space probe, Spontaneous fission, STAR detector, Static cling, Synchrotron, Tellurium, Ternary fission, Thomas Royds, Thorium, Thorotrast, Transuranium element, Triple-alpha process, United States Department of Energy, Unsealed source radiotherapy, Uranium, W. H. Freeman and Company, Zinc sulfide. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (p; 30 August 1962 (at WebCite)(at WebCite) (Or 4 December 1962 by father's account – 23 November 2006) was a British naturalised Russian defector and former officer of the Russian FSB secret service who specialised in tackling organised crime. According to US diplomats, Litvinenko coined the phrase Mafia state. In November 1998, Litvinenko and several other FSB officers publicly accused their superiors of ordering the assassination of the Russian tycoon and oligarch Boris Berezovsky. Litvinenko was arrested the following March on charges of exceeding the authority of his position. He was acquitted in November 1999 but re-arrested before the charges were again dismissed in 2000. He fled with his family to London and was granted asylum in the United Kingdom, where he worked as a journalist, writer and consultant for the British intelligence services. During his time in London, Litvinenko wrote two books, Blowing Up Russia: Terror from Within and Lubyanka Criminal Group, wherein he accused the Russian secret services of staging the Russian apartment bombings and other terrorism acts in an effort to bring Vladimir Putin to power. He also accused Putin of ordering the murder in October 2006 of the Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya. On 1 November 2006, Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised in what was established as a case of poisoning by radioactive polonium-210; he died from the poisoning on 23 November. He became the first known victim of lethal polonium 210-induced acute radiation syndrome. The events leading up to this are a matter of controversy, spawning numerous theories relating to his poisoning and death. A British murder investigation pointed to Andrey Lugovoy, a former member of Russia's Federal Protective Service, as the prime suspect. Britain demanded that Lugovoy be extradited, which is against the Constitution of Russia, which directly prohibits extradition of Russian citizens. Russia denied the extradition, leading to the cooling of relations between Russia and the United Kingdom. After Litvinenko's death, his widow, Marina, pursued a vigorous campaign on behalf of her husband through the Litvinenko Justice Foundation. In October 2011, she won the right for an inquest into her husband's death to be conducted by a coroner in London; the inquest was repeatedly set back by issues relating to examinable evidence. A public inquiry began on 27 January 2015, and concluded in January 2016 that Litvinenko's murder was an FSB operation, that was probably personally approved by Vladimir Putin.
Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
An antistatic device is any device that reduces, dampens, or otherwise inhibits electrostatic discharge; the buildup or discharge of static electricity, which can damage electrical components such as computer hard drives, and even ignite flammable liquids and gases.
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Beryllium-8 is an isotope of beryllium with 4 neutrons and 4 protons, and four electrons when its oxidation state is 0.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
David Darling (born 29 July 1953 in Glossop, Derbyshire) is an English astronomer, freelance science writer, and musician.
A delta ray is a secondary electron with enough energy to escape a significant distance away from the primary radiation beam and produce further ionization", and is sometimes used to describe any recoil particle caused by secondary ionization.
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Epsilon radiation is tertiary radiation caused by secondary radiation (e.g., delta radiation).
Sir Ernest Marsden (19 February 1889 – 15 December 1970) was an English-New Zealand physicist.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The Geiger–Marsden experiment(s) (also called the Rutherford gold foil experiment) were a landmark series of experiments by which scientists discovered that every atom contains a nucleus where all of its positive charge and most of its mass are concentrated.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Geiger (30 September 1882 – 24 September 1945) was a German physicist.
A helion is a short name for the naked nucleus of helium, a doubly positively charged helium ion.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of theory and design of electron devices.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The following are among the principal radioactive materials known to emit alpha particles.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.
Paul Ulrich Villard (28 September 1860 – 13 January 1934) was a French chemist and physicist.
Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material.
Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.
The plum pudding model is one of several scientific models of the atom.
Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.
A potential well is the region surrounding a local minimum of potential energy.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
This article deals with Radiation damage due to the effects of ionizing radiation on physical objects.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radium bromide is the bromide salt of radium, with the formula RaBr2.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In radiobiology, the relative biological effectiveness (often abbreviated as RBE) is the ratio of biological effectiveness of one type of ionizing radiation relative to another, given the same amount of absorbed energy.
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built.
Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
In electronics and computing, a soft error is a type of error where a signal or datum is wrong.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
The STAR detector (for Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) is one of the four experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in Brookhaven National Laboratory, United States.
Static cling is the tendency for light objects to stick (cling) to other objects owing to static electricity.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Ternary fission is a comparatively rare (0.2 to 0.4% of events) type of nuclear fission in which three charged products are produced rather than two.
Thomas Royds (April 11, 1884 – May 1, 1955) was a Solar physicist who worked with Ernest Rutherford on the identification of alpha radiation as the nucleus of the helium atom, and who was Director of the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thorotrast is a suspension containing particles of the radioactive compound thorium dioxide, ThO2, that was used as a radiocontrast agent in medical radiography in the 1930s and 1940s.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
Unsealed source radiotherapy (also known as unsealed source radionuclide therapy (RNT) or molecular radiotherapy) uses radioactive substances called radiopharmaceuticals to treat medical conditions, particularly cancer.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
A-particle, A-particles, Alpha Particle, Alpha Radiation, Alpha Ray, Alpha emitter, Alpha particles, Alpha radication, Alpha ray, Alpha rays, Alpha-Particle Emission, Alpha-particle, Alpha-particles, Anti-alpha particle, Helium Nucleus, Helium nuclei, Helium nucleus, Helium-4 nucleus, Α particle, Α particles, Α-particle, Α-particles.