222 relations: 'Phags-pa script, A Is for Aardvark, Abecedarium, Abjad, Abjad numerals, Abkhaz language, Abugida, Acrophony, Ahiram sarcophagus, Aksara, Albanian alphabet, Aleph, Algonquian languages, Alpha, Alphabet book, Alphabet effect, Alphabet song, Alphabetical order, Amharic, Ancient Egypt, Ancient South Arabian script, Arabic alphabet, Arabic script, Aramaic alphabet, Archaic Greek alphabets, Armenian alphabet, Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Belarusian alphabet, Bet (letter), Beta, Bopomofo, Bosnian language, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Braille, Bronze Age, Bulgarian alphabet, Bulgarian language, Butterfly Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, Canaanite languages, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, Categorization, Central Kurdish, Character encoding, China, Chinese characters, Clement of Ohrid, Collation, Consonant, ..., Constructed script, Coptic alphabet, Croatian language, Cuneiform script, Cyrillic alphabets, Cyrillic script, Danish language, Danish orthography, Demotic (Egyptian), Devanagari, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Digraph (orthography), Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elder Futhark, Elision, English alphabet, English language, Eth, ʻOkina, Featural writing system, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, French language, Ge'ez script, German language, Germanic languages, Glagolitic script, Glen Bowersock, Gothic alphabet, Grapheme, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Hangul, Hanunó'o alphabet, Hawaiian alphabet, Hawaiian Braille, Hebrew alphabet, Hindi, Hiragana, Hunminjeongeum, Icelandic language, Ilia Chavchavadze, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Italic languages, James R. Russell, Kabardian language, Kana, Katakana, Khmer alphabet, Khmer language, Korea, Kurdish alphabets, Kurdish languages, Language, Late Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Linear B, Linguistics, Lipogram, List of writing systems, Logogram, Macedonian alphabet, Mater lectionis, Merriam-Webster, Michael Everson, Middle English, Modern Greek, Mongol Empire, Morpheme, Multigraph (orthography), Mycenaean Greece, Nasal vowel, NATO phonetic alphabet, Norwegian orthography, Old Church Slavonic, Old English, Old Hungarian alphabet, Old Italic script, Oleg Grabar, Orthography, Ou (ligature), Oxford University Press, Pahlavi scripts, Palaeography, Pangram, Papyrus, Persian alphabet, Peter Brown (historian), Peter T. Daniels, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Pinyin, Pollard script, Proto-Canaanite alphabet, Proto-Sinaitic script, Romance languages, Romanization, Romanized Popular Alphabet, Rotokas alphabet, Royal Spanish Academy, Runes, Russian alphabet, Russian language, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Samaritan alphabet, Sandhi, Sanskrit, Schweich Lectures on Biblical Archaeology, Sejong the Great, Semi-syllabary, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Silent letter, Sinai Peninsula, Sindhi language, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Somali language, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Spelling, Spelling reform, Spoken language, Standard Chinese, Standard Zhuang, Syllabary, Syllable, Symbol, Syriac alphabet, Taiwan, Tetragraph, Thai alphabet, Thai language, Thorn (letter), Thoth, Tibetan alphabet, Tigrinya language, Tone (linguistics), Transliteration, Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian, Trigraph (orthography), Turkey, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Typographic ligature, Ugarit, Ugaritic alphabet, Ukrainian alphabet, Unicode, University of Maryland, College Park, Urdu alphabet, Uyghur Arabic alphabet, Vietnamese alphabet, Virama, Vowel, W, Wiley-Blackwell, Writing system, Written Chinese, Y, Yale University Press, Younger Futhark, Z, Zero consonant. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.
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A Is for Aardvark
A Is For Aardvark was a Canadian informational television series which aired on CBC Television in 1954.
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An abecedarium (or abecedary) is an inscription consisting of the letters of an alphabet, almost always listed in order.
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An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
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The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values.
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Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
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An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
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Acrophony (Greek: ἄκρος akros uppermost + φωνή phone sound) is the naming of letters of an alphabetic writing system so that a letter's name begins with the letter itself.
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The Ahiram sarcophagus (also spelled Ahirom) was the sarcophagus of a Phoenician king of Byblos (c. 1000 BC), discovered in 1923 by the French excavator Pierre Montet in tomb V of the royal necropolis of Byblos.
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Aksara (also akshara, Devanagari अक्षर, IAST akṣara) is a Sanskrit term translating to "imperishable, indestructible, fixed, immutable" (i.e. from a- "not" and kṣar- "melt away, perish").
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The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
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Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
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The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
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Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
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An alphabet book is a book primarily designed for young children.
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The alphabet effect is a group of hypotheses in communication theory arguing that phonetic writing, and alphabetic scripts in particular, have served to promote and encourage the cognitive skills of abstraction, analysis, coding, decoding, and classification.
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An alphabet song is any of various songs used to teach children the alphabet.
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Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
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Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
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Ancient South Arabian script
The Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian 𐩣𐩯𐩬𐩳 ms3nd; modern المُسنَد musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC.
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The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
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The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
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The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
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Archaic Greek alphabets
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
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The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
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Association of Academies of the Spanish Language
The Association of Academies of the Spanish Language (Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, ASALE) is an entity whose end is to work for the unity, integrity, and growth of the Spanish language.
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The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic.
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Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
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Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
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Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
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The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
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Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
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The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
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Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
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The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language.
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The Butterfly Alphabet is a photographic artwork by the Norwegian naturalist Kjell Bloch Sandved.
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
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Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) used to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families.
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Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.
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Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.
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Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
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Clement of Ohrid
Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian, Macedonian: Свети Климент Охридски,, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας, Slovak: svätý Kliment Ochridský / Sloviensky) (ca. 840 – 916) was a medieval Bulgarian saint, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs.
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Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
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A constructed script is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script.
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The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
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Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
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Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
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Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.
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The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
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Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
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Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
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Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
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The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
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A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
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Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
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The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
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In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
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The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.
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The okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.
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Featural writing system
In a featural writing system, the shapes of the symbols (such as letters) are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they represent.
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Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
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Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
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Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
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The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
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Glen Warren Bowersock (born January 12, 1936 in Providence, Rhode Island) is a historian of ancient Greece, Rome and the Near East.
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The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
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In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
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Great Vowel Shift
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
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The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
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Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
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Hanunó’o is one of the indigenous suyat scripts of the Philippines and is used by the Mangyan peoples of southern Mindoro to write the Hanunó'o language.
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The Hawaiian alphabet (in ka pīʻāpā Hawaiʻi) is an alphabet used to write Hawaiian.
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Hawaiian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Hawaiian language.
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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
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Hunminjeongeum (lit. The Correct/Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People) is a document describing an entirely new and native script for the Korean language.
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Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
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Prince Ilia Chavchavadze (ილია ჭავჭავაძე; 8 November 1837 — 12 September 1907) was a Georgian writer, political figure, poet, and publisher who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia.
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
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The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
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James R. Russell
James Robert Russell (born in October, 1953, New York City) is a scholar and professor in Ancient Near Eastern, Iranian and Armenian Studies.
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Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
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are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
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The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
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Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
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The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
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Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
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The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
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Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
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A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
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Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
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A lipogram (from λειπογράμματος, leipográmmatos, "leaving out a letter") is a kind of constrained writing or word game consisting of writing paragraphs or longer works in which a particular letter or group of letters is avoided—usually a common vowel, and frequently E, the most common letter in the English language.
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List of writing systems
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.
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In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
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The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
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In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.
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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
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Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is an American and Irish linguist, script encoder, typesetter, font designer, and publisher.
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Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
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Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
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A multigraph (or pleongraph) is a sequence of letters that behaves as a unit and is not the sum of its parts, such as English or French.
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Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
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A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
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NATO phonetic alphabet
The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.
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Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
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Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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Old Hungarian alphabet
The Old Hungarian script (rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.
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Old Italic script
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
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Oleg Grabar (November 3, 1929 – January 8, 2011) was a French-born art historian and archeologist, who spent most of his career in the United States, as a leading figure in the field of Islamic art and architecture.
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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
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Ou (Majuscule: Ȣ, Minuscule: ȣ) is a ligature of the Greek letters ο and υ which was frequently used in Byzantine manuscripts.
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Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
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Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.
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Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
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A pangram (παν γράμμα, pan gramma, "every letter") or holoalphabetic sentence is a sentence using every letter of a given alphabet at least once.
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Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
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The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
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Peter Brown (historian)
Peter Robert Lamont Brown, FBA, (born 26 July 1935) is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University.
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Peter T. Daniels
Peter T. Daniels (born December 11, 1951, currently living in New Jersey) is a scholar of writing systems, specializing in typology.
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The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
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In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
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The Pollard script, also known as Pollard Miao (Chinese: 柏格理苗文 Bó Gélǐ Miao-wen) or Miao, is an abugida loosely based on the Latin alphabet and invented by Methodist missionary Sam Pollard.
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Proto-Canaanite is the name given to.
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Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
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Romanized Popular Alphabet
The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language.
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The modern Rotokas alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of only 12 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet with no diacritics: It is the smallest alphabet in use today.
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Royal Spanish Academy
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
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Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
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The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
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Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
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Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
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The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic.
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SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
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Schweich Lectures on Biblical Archaeology
The Schweich Lectures on Biblical Archaeology are a series of lectures delivered and published under the auspices of the British Academy.
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Sejong the Great
Sejong the Great (7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea.
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A semi-syllabary is a writing system that behaves partly as an alphabet and partly as a syllabary.
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Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
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Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
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In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
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The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
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Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
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Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
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The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.
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Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
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A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
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A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
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Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
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Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
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A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
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A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
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The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
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A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
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Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
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Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
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Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
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Thoth (from Greek Θώθ; derived from Egyptian ḏḥw.ty) is one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
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The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
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Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
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Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
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Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian
In the field of Egyptology, transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Demotic counterparts.
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A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
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The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
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Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
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In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
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Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
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The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
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The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
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University of Maryland, College Park
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
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The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
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Uyghur Arabic alphabet
The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China.
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The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
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Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
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W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
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Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
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Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
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Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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In orthography, a zero consonant, silent initial, or null-onset letter is a consonant letter that does not correspond to a consonant sound, but is required when a word or syllable starts with a vowel (i.e. has a null onset).
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