415 relations: A2 motorway (Switzerland), Acer pseudoplatanus, Adolf Hitler, Adriatic Sea, Aerial lift, African Plate, Aiguille Verte, Airolo, Albania, Albertville, Albrecht von Haller, Alemanni, Aletschhorn, Allgäu, Allobroges, Almabtrieb, Alphorn, Alpide belt, Alpine chough, Alpine climate, Alpine Convention, Alpine ibex, Alpine orogeny, Alpine salamander, Alpine states, Alpine transhumance, Alpine tundra, Altaussee, Amethyst, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Rome, Androsace alpina, Antelope, Aosta, Aosta Valley, Augustinians, Austria, Austroalpine nappes, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Avoriaz, Axis powers, Évian-les-Bains, Ötzi, Ötztal Alps, Bad Gastein, Barre des Écrins, Basel, Basement (geology), Bavaria, Bavarians, ..., Bündner schist, Bearded vulture, Beaufort cheese, Belle Époque, Bellinzona, Berchtesgaden, Berghof (residence), Bernese Alps, Bernina Range, Black Sea, Bodio, Bolzano, Brenner Pass, Brigantes, Brown bear, Brown trout, Canton (country subdivision), Canton of Bern, Canton of St. Gallen, Canton of Ticino, Canton of Uri, Canton of Valais, Capra (genus), Carnival, Carolingian Empire, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Celtic languages, Celts, Cenozoic, Central Switzerland, Chalet, Chamberlain (office), Chamois, Chamonix, Chandra Prakash Kala, Charlemagne, Charles Dickens, Charles VII of France, Chiasso, Chillon Castle, Cinnabar, Cistercians, Climate change, Col de l'Iseran, Col de Tende, Compressive stress, Conrad Gessner, Constantine the Great, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cowbell, Cretaceous, Crevasse, D. H. Lawrence, Danube, Dauphiné Alps, Davos, Décollement, Deciduous, Dent Blanche, Dent d'Hérens, Dirndl, Disentis, Dom (mountain), Drainage divide, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Alps, Edward Whymper, Eiger, Emmental, Ennstal Alps, Eritrichium nanum, Erstfeld, Etruscan language, Eurasian Plate, Europe, Fascism, Federal Charter of 1291, Figure skating, Finsteraarhorn, Flysch, Foehn wind, Fold (geology), Fondue, Foreland basin, France, Franco-Provençal language, Frankenstein, Franks, Fraxinus, Fréjus Rail Tunnel, Fréjus Road Tunnel, French Prealps, Gallic Wars, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Göschenen, Gebirgsjäger, Geneva, Gentiana acaulis, Gentius, Geosyncline, Germanic peoples, Germany, Gibraltar, Gneiss, Golden age of alpinism, Golden eagle, Gondwana, Gotthard Base Tunnel, Gotthard Pass, Gotthard Road Tunnel, Gotthard Tunnel, Graian Alps, Gran Paradiso, Grand Combin, Grandes Jorasses, Great north faces of the Alps, Great St Bernard Hospice, Great St Bernard Pass, Grenoble, Grindelwald, Habsburg Monarchy, Hahnenkamm, Kitzbühel, Hallstatt culture, Hannibal, Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, Helicigona, Helvetic nappes, Helvetii, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, High Tauern, Himalayas, Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, Hospice, House of Habsburg, House of Savoy, Hydroelectricity, Illyria, Indonesia, Inn (river), Innsbruck, Interlaken, International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, Italo-Celtic, Italy, J. 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The A2 (the Gotthard Motorway) is a motorway in Switzerland.
Acer pseudoplatanus, known as the sycamore in the United Kingdom and the sycamore maple in the United States, is a flowering plant species in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
An aerial lift is a means of cable transport in which cabins, cars, gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of one or more cables.
The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.
The Aiguille Verte, which is French for "Green Needle", is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps.
Airolo (Airöö in its local dialect, Iriel) is a municipality in the district of Leventina in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albertville (Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Albrecht von Haller (also known as Albertus de Haller) (16 October 170812 December 1777) was a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
The Aletschhorn is a mountain in the Alps in Switzerland, lying within the Jungfrau-Aletsch region, which has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The Allgäu is a region in Swabia in southern Germany.
The Allobroges (Άλλόβριγες, Άλλόβρυγες, Άλλόβρoγες) were a Gallic tribe of ancient Gaul, located between the Rhône River and Lake Geneva in what later became Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais.
The Almabtrieb (in Switzerland: Alpabzug, Alpabfahrt, or in French speaking Switzerland: Désalpes; German language literally: drive from the mountain pasture) is an annual event in the alpine regions in Europe, referring to a cattle drive that takes place in late September or early October.
The alphorn or alpenhorn or alpine horn is a labrophone, consisting of a straight several-meter-long wooden natural horn of conical bore, with a wooden cup-shaped mouthpiece.
The Alpide belt or Alpine-Himalayan orogenic beltK.M. Storetvedt, K. M., The Tethys Sea and the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt; mega-elements in a new global tectonic system, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Volume 62, Issues 1–2, 1990, Pages 141–184 is a seismic belt and orogenic belt that includes an array of mountain ranges extending along the southern margin of Eurasia, stretching from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic.
The Alpine chough, or yellow-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus), is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
The Alpine Convention is an international territorial treaty for the sustainable development of the Alps.
The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), also known as the steinbock, bouquetin, or simply ibex, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
The alpine salamander (Salamandra atra) is a shiny black salamander found in the central, eastern and Dinaric Alps, at altitudes above.
The term Alpine states or Alpine countries refers to the territory of eight countries associated with the Alpine region, as defined by the Alpine Convention of 1991: Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.
Alpine transhumance is transhumance as practiced in the Alps, that is, a seasonal droving of grazing livestock between the valleys in winter and the high mountain pastures in summer (German Alpwirtschaft, Almwirtschaft from the term for "seasonal mountain pasture", Alp, Alm).
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
Altaussee is a municipality and spa town in the district of Liezen in Styria, Austria.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Androsace alpina, or Alpine rock-jasmine, is an alpine plant, endemic to the Alps.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Aosta (Aoste; Aoûta; Augusta Praetoria Salassorum; Augschtal; Osta) is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, north-northwest of Turin.
The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa (usual); Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austroalpine nappes are a geological nappe stack in the European Alps.
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (Ôvèrgne-Rôno-Ârpes, Auvèrnhe Ròse Aups, Alvernia-Rodano-Alpi) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014; it resulted from the merger of Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes.
Avoriaz (French and or) is a French mountain resort in the heart of the Portes du Soleil.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Évian-les-Bains or Évian is a commune in the northern part of the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
The Ötztal Alps (Alpi Venoste, Ötztaler Alpen) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps, in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
Bad Gastein (formerly Badgastein) is a spa town in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, in the Austrian state of Salzburg.
The Barre des Écrins (4,102 m) is a mountain in the French Alps with a peak at 4102m altitude.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
In geology, basement and crystalline basement are the rocks below a sedimentary platform or cover, or more generally any rock below sedimentary rocks or sedimentary basins that are metamorphic or igneous in origin.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.
The Bündner schist or Bündner slate (Bündnerschiefer; schistes lustrés) is a collective name for schistose rocks that form a number of geologic formations in the Penninic nappes of the Alps.
The bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), also known as the Lämmergeier or ossifrage, is a bird of prey and the only member of the genus Gypaetus.
Beaufort is a firm, raw cow's milk cheese associated with the gruyère family.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
Bellinzona (Bellinzone, Bellenz, Blizuna) is the capital of the canton Ticino in Switzerland.
Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps of southeastern Germany.
The Berghof was Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany.
The Bernese Alps (Berner Alpen, Alpes bernoises, Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland.
The Bernina Range is a mountain range in the Alps of eastern Switzerland and northern Italy.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bodio is a municipality in the district of Leventina in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.
Bolzano (or; German: Bozen (formerly Botzen),; Balsan or Bulsan; Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
Brenner Pass (Brennerpass; Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass through the Alps which forms the border between Italy and Austria.
The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a European species of salmonid fish that has been widely introduced into suitable environments globally.
A canton is a type of administrative division of a country.
The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.
The canton of St.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Uri (German: Kanton) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Central Switzerland is the region of the Alpine foothills geographically the heart and historically the origin of Switzerland, with the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Lucerne and Zug.
A chalet (pronounced in British English; in American English usually), also called Swiss chalet, is a type of building or house, typical of the Alpine region in Europe.
A chamberlain (Medieval Latin: cambellanus or cambrerius, with charge of treasury camerarius) is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household.
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
Chandra Prakash Kala is an Indian ecologist and professor.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.
Chiasso (or commonly in Lombard: Ciass, English: Noise) is a municipality in the district of Mendrisio in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.
Chillon Castle (Château de Chillon) is an island castle located on Lake Geneva (Lac Léman), south of Veytaux in the canton of Vaud.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Col de l'Iseran (el.) is a mountain pass in France, the highest paved pass in the Alps.
Col de Tende (Colle di Tenda; elevation 1870 m) is a high mountain pass in the Alps, close to the border between France and Italy, although the highest section of the pass is wholly within France.
In long, slender structural elements — such as columns or truss bars — an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength.
Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Cortina d'Ampezzo (Ladin: Anpezo, Ampëz), commonly referred to as Cortina, is a town and comune in the heart of the southern (Dolomitic) Alps in the Veneto region of Northern Italy.
A cow bell or cowbell is a bell worn by freely roaming animals made to scare off any predators.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock.
Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dauphiné Alps (Alpes du Dauphiné) are a group of mountain ranges in southeastern France, west of the main chain of the Alps.
Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
Décollement (from the French décoller, 'to detach from') is a gliding plane between two rock masses, also known as a basal detachment fault.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The Dent Blanche is a mountain in the Pennine Alps, lying in the canton of Valais in Switzerland.
The Dent d'Hérens (4,174 m) is a mountain in the Pennine Alps, lying on the border between Italy and Switzerland.
A dirndl (Diandl) is the name of a traditional feminine dress worn in Austria, South Tyrol and Bavaria.
Disentis (German) or Mustér (Romansh), with its official name Disentis/Mustér is a village and a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Dom is a mountain of the Pennine Alps, located between Randa and Saas-Fee in the canton of Valais.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine valley up to the Splügen Pass at the Alpine divide and down the Liro River to Lake Como in the south.
Edward Whymper (27 April 1840 – 16 September 1911) was an English mountaineer, explorer, illustrator, and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865.
The Eiger is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais.
The Emmental is a valley in west central Switzerland, forming part of the canton of Bern.
The Ennstal Alps (German Ennstaler Alpen), the Alps of the Enns valley, are a mountain range of the Northern Limestone Alps System.
Eritrichium nanum, the arctic alpine forget-me-not or king-of-the-Alps, is a circumpolar alpine cushion plant which occurs in the North American Rocky mountains as well as the European Alps.
Erstfeld is a municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The Federal Charter or Letter of Alliance (Bundesbrief) documents the Eternal Alliance or League of the Three Forest Cantons (Ewiger Bund der Drei Waldstätten), the union of three cantons in what is now central Switzerland.
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.
The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland and the most prominent peak of Switzerland.
Flysch is a sequence of sedimentary rock layers that progress from deep-water and turbidity flow deposits to shallow-water shales and sandstones.
A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.
Fondue is a Swiss dish of melted cheese served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.
A foreland basin is a structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
The Fréjus Rail Tunnel (also called Mont Cenis Tunnel) is a rail tunnel of length in the European Alps, carrying the Turin–Modane railway through Mount Cenis to an end-on connection with the Culoz–Modane railway and linking Bardonecchia in Italy to Modane in France.
The Fréjus Road Tunnel is a tunnel that connects France and Italy.
The French Prealps (Préalpes) are a group of subalpine mountain ranges of medium elevation located immediately west of the French Alps.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany.
Göschenen (German, Casinotta, Caschanuttais) a village and municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland.
Gebirgsjäger are the light infantry part of the alpine or mountain troops (Gebirgstruppe) of Germany and Austria.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Gentiana acaulis, the stemless gentian, is a species of flowering plant in the family Gentianaceae, native to central and southern Europe, from Spain east to the Balkans, growing especially in mountainous regions, such as the Alps, Cevennes and Pyrenees, at heights of.
Gentius (Γένθιος, "Génthios"; 181–168 BC) was a king of the Ardiaei, a powerful tribe in Illyria.
Geosyncline originally called a geosynclinalŞengör (1982), p. 11 is an obsolete geological concept to explain orogens which was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries before the theory of plate tectonics was envisaged.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
The golden age of alpinism was the decade in mountaineering between Alfred Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major peaks in the Alps saw their first ascents.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
The Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT; Gotthard-Basistunnel, Galleria di base del San Gottardo, Tunnel da basa dal Son Gottard) is a railway tunnel through the Alps in Switzerland.
The Gotthard Pass or St.
The Gotthard Road Tunnel in Switzerland runs from Göschenen in the canton of Uri at its northern portal, to Airolo in Ticino to the south, and is in length below the St Gotthard Pass, a major pass of the Alps.
The Gotthard Tunnel (Gotthardtunnel, Galleria del San Gottardo) is a railway tunnel and forms the summit of the Gotthard Railway in Switzerland.
The Graian Alps (Alpi Graie; Alpes grées) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps.
The Gran Paradiso (Grand Paradis) is a mountain in the Graian Alps in Italy, located between the Aosta Valley and Piedmont regions.
The Grand Combin is a mountain massif in the western Pennine Alps in Switzerland.
The Grandes Jorasses (4,208 m; 13,806 ft) is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif, on the boundary between Haute-Savoie in France and Aosta Valley in Italy.
In mountaineering, the six great north faces of the Alps (also called the six 'classic north faces') are known for their difficulty and great height.
The Great St Bernard Hospice (Hospice du Grand St-Bernard), is a hospice or hostel for travellers in Switzerland, at 2469m altitude at the Great St Bernard Pass in the Pennine Alps.
Great St Bernard Pass (Col du Grand St-Bernard, Colle del Gran San Bernardo, Grosser Sankt Bernhard) is the third highest road pass in Switzerland.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
Grindelwald is a village and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Berne in Switzerland.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hahnenkamm is a mountain in Europe, directly southwest of Kitzbühel in the Kitzbühel Alps of Austria.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Hannibal's crossing of the Alps in 218 BC was one of the major events of the Second Punic War, and one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare.
Helicigona is a genus of medium-sized, air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Helicidae, the typical snails.
The Helvetic nappes (Helvetische Decken) are a series of nappes in the Northern part of the Alps and part of the Helvetic zone.
The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
The High Tauern (pl.; Hohe Tauern, Alti Tauri) are a mountain range on the main chain of the Central Eastern Alps, comprising the highest peaks east of the Brenner Pass.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Portrait of Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (after the picture by Juehl, in the Library at Geneva) Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Inn (Aenus; En) is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
Interlaken (lit.: between lakes) is a statistic town and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the Swiss canton of Bern.
The International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, commonly known by its French name Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA, lit. International Union of Alpine Clubs) was founded in August 1932 in Chamonix, France when 20 mountaineering associations met for an alpine congress.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Julie, or the New Heloise (Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse) is an epistolary novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Marc-Michel Rey in Amsterdam.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Jungfrau ("maiden, virgin"The name Jungfrau ("maiden, virgin") of the peak is most likely derived from the name Jungfrauenberg given to Wengernalp, so named for the nuns of Interlaken Monastery, its historical owner, but the "virgin" peak was heavily romanticized as "goddess" or "priestess" in late 18th to 19th century Romanticism; after the first ascent in 1811 by Swiss alpinist Johann Rudolf Meyer, the peak was jokingly referred to as "Mme Meyer" (Mrs. Meyer).) at is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Bern and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch.
The Jungfrau Railway (Jungfraubahn, JB) is a metre gauge (gauge) rack railway which runs from Kleine Scheidegg to the highest railway station in Europe at Jungfraujoch, between the Bernese Highlands and the Valais in Switzerland.
Jungfraujoch is a notable saddleSwiss and Austro-Bavarian German Joch (lit. "yoke") is a term for "ridge between two higher peaks" recorded in the 14th century (Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch "bereits im 14. jahrh. als ortsname: des gotzhus zwing und ban vahet an Rotenhalden und denne die roten bachtalen uf unz an den grat, und den grat obnan hin ob Grüblen hin iemerme, unz an Joch. und ab Joch unz an Stoerben. weisth. 1, 4 (Zürich)").
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Karl Blodig (16 October 1859 – 7 September 1956) was an Austrian mountaineer, optician, and writer.
The Königssee is a natural lake in the extreme southeast Berchtesgadener Land district of the German state of Bavaria, near the Austrian border.
Kitzbühel is a small medieval town situated in the Kitzbühel Alps along the river Kitzbüheler Ache in Tyrol, Austria, about 100 kilometers (62 mi) east of the state capital Innsbruck and is the administrative centre of the Kitzbühel district (Bezirk).
The Kleine Scheidegg (Little Scheidegg) is a mountain pass at an elevation of, situated below and between the Eiger and Lauberhorn peaks in the Bernese Oberland region of Switzerland.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lac d'Émosson is a reservoir in the canton of Valais, Switzerland.
The Lagginhorn (4,010 m) is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland.
Lake Constance (Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.
Lapse rate is the rate at which Earth's atmospheric temperature decreases with an increase in altitude, or increases with the decrease in altitude.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Lauberhorn is a mountain in the Bernese Alps of Switzerland, located between Wengen and Grindelwald, north of the Kleine Scheidegg.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.
Lauterbrunnen is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
The Lötschberg Base Tunnel (LBT) is a half-completed railway base tunnel on the BLS AG's Lötschberg line cutting through the Bernese Alps of Switzerland some below the existing Lötschberg Tunnel.
The Lötschberg Tunnel is a long railway tunnel on the Lötschberg Line, which connects Spiez and Brig at the northern end of the Simplon Tunnel cutting through the Bernese Alps of Switzerland.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
Leontopodium nivale, commonly called edelweiss (English pronunciation), is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the daisy or sunflower family, Asteraceae.
Les Menuires is a ski resort in the Belleville valley of Les Trois Vallées between Saint-Martin-de-Belleville and Val Thorens.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This list contains all of the 128 summits and subsidiary tops of or more above sea level in the Alps in France, Italy and Switzerland as defined by the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA).
This is a list of the highest paved roads in Europe.
This is a list of highest passenger railways in operation in Europe.
The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807December 14, 1873) was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Lucerne (Luzern; Lucerne; Lucerna; Lucerna; Lucerne German: Lozärn) is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country.
Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Maddalena Pass (Italian: Colle della Maddalena French: Col de Larche, historically Col de l'Argentière) (elevation 1996 m.) is a high mountain pass between the Cottian Alps and the Maritime Alps, located on the border between Italy and France.
Manfred: A dramatic poem is a closet drama written in 1816–1817 by Lord Byron.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Martigny (Martinach; Octodurum) is the capital of the district of Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
The Matterhorn (Matterhorn; Cervino; Mont Cervin) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy.
Maurienne is one of the provinces of Savoy, corresponding to the arrondissement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in France.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
The Männlichen is a mountain in the Swiss Alps located within the Canton of Berne.
The Mönch (German: "monk") at is a mountain in the Bernese Alps, in Switzerland.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a payload scientific instrument built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite.
The term "molasse" refers to sandstones, shales and conglomerates that form as terrestrial or shallow marine deposits in front of rising mountain chains.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Mondsee (Moon Lake) is a lake in the Upper Austrian part of the Salzkammergut and near the larger Attersee.
Mont Aiguille is a mountain in the Vercors Plateau of the French Prealps, located south of Grenoble, in the commune of Chichilianne, and the département of Isère.
Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.
Mont Blanc: Lines Written in the Vale of Chamouni is an ode by the Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Mont Cenis (Moncenisio) is a massif (el. 3,612 m / 11,850 ft) and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie (France), which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps.
Mont Ventoux (Ventor in Provençal) is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km northeast of Carpentras, Vaucluse.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
The Monte Rosa (or synonymously used as a pleonasm: Monte Rosa massif (massiccio del Monte Rosa; Monte Rosa-Massiv; massif du Mont Rose) is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland (Valais) and Italy (Piedmont and Aosta Valley). Monte Rosa is the second highest mountain in the Alps and western Europe.John Ball, A Guide to the Western Alps, pp. 308-314 Monte Rosa is a huge ice-covered mountain in the Alps, located on the watershed between central and southern Europe. Its main summit, named Dufourspitze in honor of the surveyor Guillaume-Henri Dufour, culminates at above sea level and is followed by the five nearly equally high subsidiary summits of Dunantspitze, Grenzgipfel, Nordend, Zumsteinspitze and Signalkuppe. Monte Rosa is the highest mountain of both Switzerland and the Pennine Alps and is also the second-highest mountain of the Alps and Europe outside the Caucasus. The north-west side of the central Monte Rosa massif, with its enormous ice slopes and seracs, constitutes the boundary and upper basin of the large Gorner Glacier, which descends towards Zermatt and merges with its nowadays much larger tributary, the Grenzgletscher (Border Glacier), right below the Monte Rosa Hut on the lower end of the visible western wing. The Grenzgletscher is an impressive glacier formation between the western wing of the mountain and Liskamm, a ridge on its southwestern side on the Swiss-Italian border. On the eastern side, in Italy, the mountain falls away in an almost vertical wall of granite and ice, the biggest in Europe, overlooking Macugnaga and several smaller glaciers. Monte Rosa was studied by pioneering geologists and explorers, including Leonardo da Vinci in the late fifteenth century and Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the late eighteenth century. Following a long series of attempts beginning in the early nineteenth century, Monte Rosa's summit, then still called Höchste Spitze (Highest Peak), was first reached in 1855 from Zermatt by a party of eight climbers led by three guides. The great east wall was first climbed in 1872, from Macugnaga. Each summer a large number of climbers set out from the Monte Rosa Hut on the mountain's west wing for one of its summits via the normal route or for the Margherita Hut on the Signalkuppe (Punta Gnifetti), used as a research station. Many tourists and hikers also come each year to the Gornergrat on the north-west side of the massif, to see the panorama that extends over the giants of the Alps, from Monte Rosa to the Matterhorn.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
In geology, a nappe or thrust sheet is a large sheetlike body of rock that has been moved more than or above a thrust fault from its original position.
Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized looting of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Ober Gabelhorn (4063 m) is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland, located between Zermatt and Zinal.
Oberammergau, or Upper Ammer Vale, is a municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria, Germany.
Obersalzberg is a mountainside retreat situated above the market town of Berchtesgaden in Bavaria, Germany.
Oberstdorf is a municipality and skiing and hiking town in southwest Germany, located in the Allgäu region of the Bavarian Alps.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Organisms can live at high altitude, either on land, in water, or while flying.
Ortler (Ortles) is, at above sea level, the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range.
Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Parnassius is a genus of northern circumpolar and montane (alpine and Himalayan) butterflies usually known as Apollos or snow Apollos.
The Pennine Alps (Walliser Alpen, Alpes Pennines, Alpi Pennine, Alpes Poeninae), also known as the Valais Alps, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps.
The Penninic nappes or the Penninicum are one of three nappe stacks and geological zones in which the Alps can be divided.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Pinus mugo, known as creeping pine, dwarf mountainpine, mugo pine, mountain pine, scrub mountain pine or Swiss mountain pine, is a species of conifer, native to high elevation habitats from southwestern to Central Europe.
Piz Bernina or Pizzo Bernina is the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, the highest point of the Bernina Range, and the highest peak in the Rhaetian Alps.
Piz Roseg (pronounced as peetse rawzech) is a mountain of the Bernina Range, overlooking the Val Roseg in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Piz Zupò (3,996 m) is a mountain in the Bernina Range of the Alps, located on the border between Switzerland and Italy.
Placidus a Spescha (December 8, 1752 – August 14, 1833) was a Benedictine monk and early Alpine explorer born in Trun, near Disentis, in the valley of the upper Rhine in Graubünden.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
A rack railway (also rack-and-pinion railway, cog railway, or cogwheel railway) is a steep grade railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
Ranunculus glacialis, the glacier buttercup or glacier crowfoot, is a plant of the family Ranunculaceae.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
The Rhône Glacier (Rhonegletscher, Walliser German: Rottengletscher, le glacier du Rhône, ghiacciaio del Rodano) is a glacier in the Swiss Alps and the source of the river Rhône and one of the primary contributors to Lake Geneva in the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rhododendron ferrugineum (sometimes called alpenrose, snow-rose, or rusty-leaved alpenrose) is an evergreen shrub that grows just above the tree line in the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and northern Apennines, on acid soils.
Rhododendron hirsutum, the hairy alpenrose is one of the species of Rhododendron native to the mountains of Europe.
The Rimpfischhorn (4,199 m) is a mountain in the Pennine Alps of Switzerland.
Rocciamelone (Ròcia-mlon, Rochemelon or Roche Melon) is a 3,538 m high mountain in Piedmont, Italy, near the border between Italy and France.
The stone carvings of Val Camonica (Camonica Valley) are located in the Province of Brescia, Italy, and constitute the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Rosalia longicorn (Rosalia alpina) or Alpine longhorn beetle, is a large longicorn (family Cerambycidae) that is distinguished by its distinctive markings.
Saalbach-Hinterglemm is a municipality in the district of Zell am See (Pinzgau region), in the Austrian state of Salzburg.
A salt mine is a mine from which halite, commonly known as rock salt, is extracted from evaporite formations.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
The Schreckhorn (4,078 m) is a mountain in the Bernese Alps.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
For the town of the same name, see Semmering, Austria. Semmering is a mountain pass in the Eastern Northern Limestone Alps connecting Lower Austria and Styria, between which it forms a natural border.
The Similaun is a mountain in the Schnalskamm group of the Ötztal Alps.
The Simplon Pass (Col du Simplon; Simplonpass; Passo del Sempione) is a high mountain pass between the Pennine Alps and the Lepontine Alps in Switzerland.
Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The small blue (Cupido minimus) is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Snow flea is a common name for several arthropods, not including true fleas.
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface.
Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," also known as a "snow cannon", on ski slopes.
The Southern Alps are a geological subdivision of Alps that are found south of the Periadriatic Seam, a major geological faultzone across the Alps.
The Splügen Pass (German: Splügenpass; Italian: Passo dello Spluga; el. 2,115 m) is a high mountain pass which marks the boundary between the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, respectively part of the Western and Eastern Alps.
The Stelvio Pass (Passo dello Stelvio, Giogo dello Stèlvio; Stilfser Joch) is a mountain pass in northern Italy, at an elevation of above sea level.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
In genetics, a subclade is a subgroup of a haplogroup.
In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tages-Anzeiger, also abbreviated Tagi or TA, is a Swiss German-language national daily newspaper published in Zurich, Switzerland.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth.
The Prisoner of Chillon is a 392-line narrative poem by Lord Byron.
Thin-skinned deformation is a style of deformation in plate tectonics at a convergent boundary which occurs with shallow thrust faults that only involves cover rocks (typically sedimentary rocks), and not deeper basement rocks.
A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.
The river Ticino (Tisín; French and Tessin; Ticīnus) is the most important perennial left-bank tributary of the Po.
In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it.
Tracht refers to traditional garments in German-speaking countries.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Trentino-Alto Adige,; Trentino-Südtirol; Trentin-Südtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy.
Trento (anglicized as Trent; local dialects: Trènt; Trient) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tyrol (historically the Tyrole, Tirol, Tirolo) is a historical region in the Alps; in northern Italy and western Austria.
Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.
The Unteraargletscher, literally "Lower Aare-Glacier", is the larger of the two sources of the Aare river in the Bernese Alps.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae.
The Vercors caves are a set of long, narrow caves situated in the Alps, in South-Eastern France.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Woods (Wienerwald) are forested highlands that form the northeastern foothills of the Northern Limestone Alps in the states of Lower Austria and Vienna.
The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.
A vole is a small rodent.
Walpurgis Night, an abbreviation of Saint Walpurgis Night (from the German Sankt Walpurgisnacht), also known as Saint Walpurga's Eve (alternatively spelled Saint Walburga's Eve), is the eve of the Christian feast day of Saint Walpurga, an 8th-century abbess in Francia, and is celebrated on the night of 30 April and the day of 1 May.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Weisshorn (German, lit. white peak/mountain) is a major peak of the Swiss Alps, culminating at above sea level.
The Weissmies is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in the canton of Valais in Switzerland near the village of Saas-Fee.
Wengen is a mountain village in the Bernese Oberland of central Switzerland.
The Western Alps are the western part of the Alpine range including the southeastern part of France (i.e. Savoie), the whole of Monaco, the northwestern part of Italy and the southwestern part of Switzerland (i.e. Valais).
William Tell (in the four languages of Switzerland: Wilhelm Tell; Guillaume Tell; Guglielmo Tell; Guglielm Tell) is a folk hero of Switzerland.
William Tell (Wilhelm Tell) is a drama written by Friedrich Schiller in 1804.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
Wolf spiders are members of the family Lycosidae, from the Ancient Greek word "λύκος" meaning "wolf".
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland.
The Zillertal Alps (Alpi Aurine; Zillertaler Alpen) are a mountain range of the Central Eastern Alps on the border of Austria and Italy.
The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York.
The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games (Les Iers Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France.
The 1928 Winter Olympics, officially known as the II Olympic Winter Games (Les IIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver; Olympische Winterspiele 1928; II Giochi olimpici invernali; Gieus olimpics d'enviern 1928), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 11–19, 1928 in St. Moritz, Switzerland.
The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1936), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany.
The 1948 Winter Olympics, officially known as the V Olympic Winter Games (Les Ves Jeux olympiques d'hiver; Olympische Winterspiele 1948; V Giochi olimpici invernali; Gieus olimpics d'enviern 1948), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in 1948 in St. Moritz, Switzerland.
The 1956 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les VIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Italian: VII Giochi olimpici invernali), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy.
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games (Les XXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and commonly known as Turin 2006 or italic, was a winter multi-sport event which was held in Turin, Piedmont, Italy from February 10 to 26, 2006.
Alpe, Alpine Mountains, Alpine nations, Alps mountains, Central European Alps, European Alps, German Alps, Italian Alps, Mountain Region of the Alps, Peaks and passes of the Alps, Pre-Alpine, The Alps, Tourism in the Alps.