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The A35 autoroute is a toll free highway in northeastern France.
The A36 autoroute is a toll motorway in northeastern France connecting the German border with Burgundy.
The A4 Autoroute, also known as autoroute de l'Est (English:Motorway of the East) is a French autoroute that travels between the cities of Paris and Strasbourg.
Albert I of Habsburg (Albrecht I.) (July 12551 May 1308), the eldest son of King Rudolf I of Germany and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenburg, was a Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 and King of Germany from 1298 until his assassination.
Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was a French-German theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
Alfred Kastler (3 May 1902 – 7 January 1984) was a French physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Alsace bossue (Alemannic and Frankish: S'Krumme Elsass, German: Krummes Elsass), is a territory of Bas-Rhin in Alsace, which includes the three former cantons of Sarre-Union, Drulingen and La Petite-Pierre (today all part of the canton of Ingwiller).
Alsace autonomist movement (Mouvement autonomiste alsacien) or (Elsässer autonome Bewegung) is a cultural, ideological and political regionalist movement for greater autonomy or outright independence of Alsace.
Alsace wine or Alsatian wine (in French: Vin d'Alsace) (German: Weinbau in Elsass) is produced in the Alsace region in France and is primarily white wine.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Alsatia was the name given to an area lying north of London's River Thames once privileged as a sanctuary.
Alsatian cuisine incorporates Germanic culinary traditions and is marked by the use of pork in various forms.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
Altorf is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France.
The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andermatt (italic) is a mountain village and municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland.
Andlau is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region of northeastern France.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Argentoratum or Argentorate was the ancient name of the city of Strasbourg.
The arrondissement of Altkirch is an arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Grand Est region.
The arrondissement of Colmar is a former arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Guebwiller is a former arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Haguenau is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Molsheim is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region.
The arrondissement of Mulhouse is an arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Grand Est region.
The arrondissement of Ribeauvillé is a former arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Saverne is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region.
The arrondissement of Sélestat-Erstein is an arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region.
The arrondissement of Strasbourg-Campagne is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Strasbourg-Ville is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Thann is a former arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
The arrondissement of Wissembourg is a former arrondissement of France in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.
Arsène Wenger (born 22 October 1949) is a French football manager and former player.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.
Émile Waldteufel (born Charles Émile Lévy, 9 December 183712 February 1915) was a French pianist, conductor and composer of dance and concert music.
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Baeckeoffe (English: "bake oven") is a casserole dish that is typical in the French region of Alsace, situated on the border with Germany.
The Ballon d'Alsace Elsässer Belchen (el. 1247 m.), sometimes also called the Alsatian Belchen to distinguish it from other mountains named "Belchen", is a mountain at the border of Alsace, Lorraine, and Franche-Comté.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Bas-Rhin (Alsatian: Unterelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks, who were fighting under Clovis I, and the Alamanni, whose leader is not known.
The Battle of Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution.
The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.
Bergheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
BioValley is the leading life science cluster in Europe, founded 1996.
Bischheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.
Blanche of France (Blanca; – 1 March 1305), a member of the House of Capet, was Duchess of Austria and Styria as consort to the Habsburg duke Rudolph III, eldest son of King Albert I of Germany.
Bredele (also referred to as Bredela, Bredle or Winachtsbredele) are biscuits or small cakes traditionally baked in Alsace and Moselle, France, especially during the Christmas period.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti.
is a 445 km (277 mi) long Autobahn in Germany.
Burgundy wine (Bourgogne or vin de Bourgogne) is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Canal de la Bruche is a canal in eastern France that originally connected Soultz-les-Bains, near Molsheim, to the city of Strasbourg.
The Canal de la Sarre, originally called Canal des Houillères de la Sarre, connects the Canal de la Marne au Rhin in Gondrexange to the canalised river Sarre (German: Saar) in Sarreguemines in northeastern France.
A cant (or cryptolect, or secret language) is the jargon or argot of a group, often employed to exclude or mislead people outside the group.
The canton of Basel-Landschaft (Kanton Basel-Landschaft, canton of Basel-Country, canton de Bâle-Campagne, Cantone di Basilea Campagna; informally: Baselland, Baselbiet), is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland.
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
Castroville is a city in Medina County, Texas, United States.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the German unification.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Cernay is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Champagne-Ardenne is a former administrative region of France, located in the northeast of the country, bordering Belgium.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Adolphe Wurtz (26 November 1817 – 10 May 1884) was an Alsatian French chemist.
Charles Eugene Vicomte de Foucauld de Pontbriand (15 September 1858 – 1 December 1916) was a French Catholic religious and priest living among the Tuareg in the Sahara in Algeria.
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe.
Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.
Charles Friedel (12 March 1832 – 20 April 1899) was a French chemist and mineralogist.
Charles Munch (born Charles Münch; 26 September 1891 – 6 November 1968) was an Alsacian, German-born symphonic conductor and violinist.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).
Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar (May 5, 1785 – March 12, 1870) was a French inventor and entrepreneur best known for designing, patenting and manufacturing the first commercially successful mechanical calculator, the Arithmometer, and for founding the insurance companies Le Soleil and L'aigle which, under his leadership, became the number one insurance group in France at the beginning of the Second Empire.
The Château d'Andlau is a medieval ruined castle in the commune of Andlau, in the Bas-Rhin département of France.
Château de Fleckenstein is a ruined castle in the commune of Lembach, in the Bas-Rhin département of France.
The Château de Hohbarr (French: Haut-Barr; Burg Hohbarr) is a medieval castle, first built in 1100, above the city of Saverne in what is now the French département of Bas-Rhin.
The Château du Pflixbourg (from the German Blicksburg.
The Château de Ramstein is a ruined castle in the commune of Scherwiller, in the Bas-Rhin département of France.
The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (Hohkönigsburg) is a medieval castle located in the commune of Orschwiller in the Bas-Rhin département of France,Ministry of Culture: - Ministry of Culture: in the Vosges mountains just west of Sélestat.
Choucroute garnie (French for dressed sauerkraut) is a famous Alsatian recipe for preparing sauerkraut with sausages and other salted meats and charcuterie, and often potatoes.
A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt (literally: Baby Jesus Market), Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, Christkindlimarkt, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas during the four weeks of Advent.
Cité de l’Automobile, Musée national de l’automobile, Collection Schlumpf is an automobile museum located in Mulhouse, France, and built around the Schlumpf Collection of classic automobiles.
The Cité du Train (English: City of the Train or Train City), situated in Mulhouse, France, is one of the ten largest railway museums in the world.
Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, sometimes spelled de l'Isle or de Lile (10 May 1760 – 26 June 1836), was a French army officer of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Claude Rich (8 February 1929 – 20 July 2017) was a French stage and screen actor.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
The Col de Saverne (Pass of Saverne or Saverne Pass) is a natural pass in the north of the Vosges mountains, near Saverne, which permits travel between the ''département'' of Bas-Rhin, ''région'' Alsace and the ''département'' of Moselle, région Lorraine.
Colmar (Alsatian: Colmer; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris.
Conrad (25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the only son of Emperor Frederick II from his second marriage with Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.
Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Domfessel is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Swabia (German: Herzogtum Schwaben) was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Easter Bunny (also called the Easter Rabbit or Easter Hare) is a folkloric figure and symbol of Easter, depicted as a rabbit bringing Easter eggs.
Ebersmunster (Ebersmünster) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Eguisheim (Egisheim) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Elsässisches Fahnenlied (the "Hymn to the Alsatian Flag") was written by Emil Woerth (1870-1926) in German when Alsace-Lorraine was part of the German Empire (1871-1918).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Entzheim is a commune, in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Epfig is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg IATA airport 3-letter codes for the French area, the Swiss area, and the metropolitan area is an international airport northwest of the city of Basel, Switzerland, southeast of Mulhouse in France, and south-southwest of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
There are a range of European institutions in Strasbourg (France), the oldest of which dates back to 1815.
EuroVelo is a network of long-distance cycling routes (currently 14) criss-crossing Europe, in various stages of completion.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Ferrette (German) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Fischer was a brewery in Schiltigheim, France.
Fleischschnackas() (alsatian word) are an Alsatian dish made from cooked meat stuffing (usually the remainders of pot-au-feu), eggs, onions, parsley, salt, pepper rolled in a fresh egg pasta.
A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.
François Christophe Kellermann or de Kellermann, 1st Duc de Valmy (28 May 1735 – 23 September 1820) was a French military commander, later the Général d'Armée, a Marshal of France and a freemason.
François Joseph Westermann (5 September 1751 – 5 April 1794) was a French general of the Revolutionary Wars and political figure of the French Revolution.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franche-Comté (literally "Free County", Frainc-Comtou dialect: Fraintche-Comtè; Franche-Comtât; Freigrafschaft; Franco Condado) is a former administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.
The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often simply called the Dutch War (Guerre de Hollande; Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (2 April 1834 – 4 October 1904) was a French sculptor who is best known for designing Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France (and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra) for a five-year term.
Regional elections in were held in France on 21 and 28 March 2004.
The French Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
"Gallic Empire" (Imperium Galliarum) or Gallic Roman Empire are two names for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274.
The Gau Baden, renamed Gau Baden–Elsass (Gau Baden-Elsaß) in 1941, was a de facto administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Baden and, from 1940 onwards, in Alsace (Elsaß).
The Gau Westmark (English: Western March) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Georg Franck von Franckenau (3 May 1643 in Naumburg (Saale) – 17 June 1704 in Copenhagen) was a German physician and botanist.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (27 March 180911 January 1891), was a prefect of the Seine Department of France chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris that is commonly referred to as Haussmann's renovation of Paris.
Gerard (– 14 April 1070), also known as Gerard the Great, was a Lotharingian nobleman.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
The German orthography reform of 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.
Below is a list of German language exonyms for towns and village in the Alsace region of France (German: Elsass) used from 1870 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1944, when Alsace was annexed to Germany.
Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety, used in white wines, and performs best in cooler climates.
Gingerbread refers to a broad category of baked goods, typically flavored with ginger, cloves, nutmeg or cinnamon and sweetened with honey, sugar or molasses.
Gottfried von Strassburg (died c. 1210) is the author of the Middle High German courtly romance Tristan, an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend.
In geology, a graben is a depressed block of the Earth's crust bordered by parallel faults.
The Grand Ballon or Great Belchen is the highest mountain of the Vosges, located northwest of Mulhouse, France.
Grand Est (Great East, Großer Osten — both in the Alsatian and the Lorraine Franconian dialect), previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (ACAL or less commonly, ALCA), is an administrative region in eastern France.
Guebwiller (Guebwiller,; Alsatian: Gàwiller) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est currently in north-eastern France.
Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (6 January 1832 – 23 January 1883) was a French artist, printmaker, illustrator, comics artist, caricaturist and sculptor who worked primarily with wood engraving.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Haguenau (Haguenau,; Alsatian: Hàwenau or Hàjenöi; and historically in English: Hagenaw) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department of France, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Hartmannswillerkopf, also known as the Vieil Armand (French) or Hartmannsweiler Kopf (German; English: Hartmansweiler Head) is a pyramidal rocky spur in the Vosges mountains of the Grand Est region, France.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Haut-Rhin (Alsatian: Owerelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the river Rhine.
Hœrdt is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Heineken N.V. (at times self-styled as HEINEKEN) is a Dutch brewing company, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Amsterdam.
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (15 September 1834 – 28 April 1896) was a German historian, political writer and National Liberal member of the Reichstag during the time of the German Empire.
Hermann and Dorothea is an epic poem, an idyll, written by German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe between 1796 and 1797, and was to some extent suggested by Johann Heinrich Voss's Luise, an idyll in hexameters, which was first published in 1782-84.
Herrad of Landsberg (Herrada Landsbergensis; 1130 – July 25, 1195) was a 12th-century Alsatian nun and abbess of Hohenburg Abbey in the Vosges mountains.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Hohneck is, at the third highest summit of the Vosges Mountains (after Grand Ballon and Storkenkopf) and the highest point of Lorraine.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
In physical geography and geology, a horst is a raised fault block bounded by normal faults.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Hunawihr (Hunaweier) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours) marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Hunspach is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France.
Illkirch-Graffenstaden is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Illzach is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
Innenheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
Jacques Peirotes (1869, Strasbourg - 1935) was a French and German politician, mayor of Strasbourg from 1919 to 1929.
Jakob Ammann (also Jacob Amman, Amann) (12 February 1644 – between 1712 and 1730) was an Anabaptist leader and namesake of the Amish religious movement.
Jakob Wimpfeling (25 July 1450 – 17 November 1528) was a Renaissance humanist and theologian.
Jean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper.
General Count Jean Rapp (27 April 1771 – 8 November 1821) was a French Army officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean-Baptiste Kléber (9 March 1753 – 14 June 1800) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Jean-Jacques Henner (15 March 1829 – 23 July 1905) was a French painter, noted for his use of sfumato and chiaroscuro in painting nudes, religious subjects, and portraits.
Jean-Marie Lehn (born 30 September 1939) is a French chemist.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Johann, or Jean, Hermann, or Herrmann, (December 31, 1738 in Barr, Alsace – October 4, 1800 in Strasbourg) was a French physician and naturalist.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".
Karlsberg is one of the largest breweries in Germany; the Karlsberg Group also owns various other beer brands.
Kaysersberg (German) is a former commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in northeastern France.
Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kochersberg is a natural region of the French département of Bas-Rhin in Alsace and is a part of the hills found along the eastern side of the Vosges mountains.
Kronenbourg Brewery (Brasseries Kronenbourg) is a brewery founded in 1664 by Geronimus Hatt in the Free Imperial City of Straßburg (today Strasbourg, France).
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.
The Landgericht (plural: Landgerichte), also called the Landtag in Switzerland, was a regional magistracy or court in the Holy Roman Empire that was responsible for high justice within a territory, such as a county (Grafschaft), on behalf of the territorial lord (e.g. the count).
France has one official language, the French language.
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lautenbach is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Le Bioscope is a former theme park at Ungersheim, in the Upper Rhine (the Haut-Rhin département) of France.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
The Ligne à Grande Vitesse Est européenne (English: East European High Speed Line), typically shortened to LGV Est, is a French high-speed rail line that connects Vaires-sur-Marne (near Paris) and Vendenheim (near Strasbourg).
The LGV Rhin-Rhône (Ligne à Grande Vitesse) is a high-speed railway line, the first in France to be presented as an inter-regional route rather than a link from the provinces to Paris, though it actually is used by some trains to/from Paris.
Lingolsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
This is an incomplete list of well-known Alsatians and Lorrainians (people from the region of Alsace and the region of Lorraine).
These persons were bishop, archbishop or prince-bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg (including historically Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg).
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word.
This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted.
The territory of the former Alsace-Lorraine, legally known as Alsace-Moselle, is a region in the eastern part of France, bordering with Germany.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province (''Polish'': województwo dolnośląskie), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
The term Malgré-nous (“against our will”) refers to men of the Alsace-Moselle region who were conscripted into the German Wehrmacht or in the Waffen-SS, during the Second World War.
Marcel Marceau (born Marcel Mangel, 22 March 1923 – 22 September 2007) was a French actor and Mime artist most famous for his stage persona as "Bip the Clown".
Mariastein Abbey (Kloster Mariastein) is a Benedictine monastery in Metzerlen-Mariastein in the Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland.
Anna Maria "Marie" Tussaud (née Grosholtz; 1 December 1761 – 16 April 1850) was a French artist known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum she founded in London.
Marlenheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
Marmoutier is a commune in the Bas-Rhin département in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Canal de la Marne au Rhin (Marne-Rhine Canal) is a canal in north-eastern France.
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
Martin Schongauer (c. 1445, Colmar – 2 February 1491, Breisach), also known as Martin Schön ("Martin beautiful") or Hübsch Martin ("pretty Martin") by his contemporaries, was an Alsatian engraver and painter.
The Master of the Drapery Studies (Meister der Gewandstudien), also known as Master of the Coburg Roundels (Meister der Coburger Rundblätter) is the notname given to the "very productive" and "multifaceted" late 15th-century author of some 30 surviving paintings and over 150 surviving drawings.
In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.
This is a list of mayors of Strasbourg.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mehdi Baala (مهدي بعلة; born 17 August 1978 in Strasbourg) is a French, middle-distance runner competing mainly in the 1500 metres event.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Ministerialis (plural ministeriales; a post-classical Latin word, used in English, meaning originally "servitor" or "agent", in a broad range of senses) were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility.
Molsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Montbéliard (traditional) is a city in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France, about from the border with Switzerland.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Morteau sausage (French: saucisse de Morteau; also known as the Belle de Morteau) is a traditional smoked sausage from the Morteau region of France (in the department of Doubs in Franche-Comté).
Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department.
Mulhouse (Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse,;; i.e. mill house) is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders.
Murbach is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Musée alsacien (Alsatian museum) is a museum in Strasbourg in the Bas-Rhin department of France.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) south west of the city of Strasbourg.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neuf-Brisach is a fortified town and commune of the department of Haut-Rhin in the French region of Alsace.
Neuwiller-lès-Saverne (Neuweiler bei Zabern) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Niederhaslach is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Niedermorschwihr (Niedermorschweier) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
North Gyeongsang Province (경상북도; RR: Gyeongsangbuk-do), also known as Gyeongbuk, is a province in eastern South Korea.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northern Vosges Regional Natural Park (French: Parc naturel régional des Vosges du Nord) is a protected area of woodland, wetland, farmland and historical sites in the region Grand Est in northeastern France.
November 1918 was the period of transition when the region of Alsace-Lorraine passed from German to French sovereignty at the end of World War I. During this month, international events were linked to domestic troubles, particularly the German Revolution.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
The Oñate treaty of 29 July 1617 was a secret treaty between the Austrian and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg.
Obernai (Alsatian: Owernah; Oberehnheim) commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
Saint Odile of Alsace, also known as Odilia and Ottilia, born c. 662 - c. 720 at Mont Sainte-Odile), is a saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. The current Roman Catholic liturgical calendar does not officially commemorate her feast day of 13 December, but she is commemorated on this day in the Orthodox Church. She is a patroness saint of good eyesight, and of Alsace.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Oradour-sur-Glane (Orador de Glana) is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in west-central France, and the name of main village within the commune.
The Organic Articles (French: "Les Articles Organiques") was a law administering public worship in France.
The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.
Ottmarsheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France, on Highway 9 just across the Rhein River from its terminus at the German Autobahn Steinenstadt interchange.
Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ouvrage Schoenenbourg is a Maginot Line fortification.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
Pain d'épices or pain d'épice (loosely translated as gingerbread) is a French cake or quick bread.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Philip James de Loutherbourg RA (31 October 174011 March 1812), whose name is sometimes given in the French form of Philippe-Jacques, the German form of Philipp Jakob, or with the English-language epithet of the Younger, was a Franco-British painter who became known for his large naval works, his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon".
Philipp Jakob Spener (13 January 1635 – 5 February 1705), was a German Lutheran theologian who essentially founded what would become to be known as Pietism.
Baron Philippe Friedrich Dietrich (Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Dietrich) born 14 November 1748 in Strasbourg, and guillotined on 29 December 1793 in Paris, was a scholar and Alsatian politician.
Philippe Richert (born 22 May 1953) is a French politician of The Republicans party (known as the Union for a Popular Movement until 2015), president of the regional council of Grand Est from 2016 to 2017.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Pope Leo IX (21 June 1002 – 19 April 1054), born Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg, was Pope from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.
The Protestant Church of the Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine (Église protestante de la Confession d’Augsbourg d’Alsace et de Lorraine, EPCAAL; Protestantische Kirche Augsburgischen Bekenntnisses von Elsass und Lothringen, Kirche A.B. von Elsass und Lothringen) is a Lutheran church of public-law corporation status (établissement public du culte) in France.
The Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine (Église protestante réformée d'Alsace et de Lorraine; EPRAL) is a Reformed denomination in Alsace and Northeastern Lorraine (Département Moselle), France.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Alsace Regional Council was the Conseil régional of Alsace (France) from 1982-2015.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
A regional park is an area of land preserved on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, recreational use or other reason, and under the administration of a form of local government.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
A Reichsgau (plural Reichsgaue) was an administrative subdivision created in a number of areas annexed to Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1945.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A revolutionary republic is a form of government whose main tenets are popular sovereignty, rule of law, and representative democracy.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Canal du Rhône au Rhin is one of the important watershed canals of the French waterways, connecting the Rhine to the Saône and the Rhône and thereby the North Sea and the Mediterranean.
Ribeauvillé (Alsatian: Rappschwihr) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Alsatian ried consists of meadows liable to flooding, and of gallery forests, the vegetation of which is lush.
Riesling is a white grape variety which originated in the Rhine region.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
Riquewihr (Reichenweier) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rosheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Rouffach (German and Alsatian: Rufach) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Route Romane d'Alsace (Romanesque Road of Alsace) is a tourist itinerary designed by the Association Voix et Route Romane to link both the well-known and the more secret examples of Romanesque architecture of Alsace, in an itinerary of 19 stages, linking churches, abbeys and fortresses, that range from the first Romanesque structures of Alsace at the abbey church of Saint Trophime, Eschau, into the 13th century, and the beginning of Gothic architecture in Alsace.
Rudolf of Habsburg (– 3/4 July 1307), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria (as Rudolf III) from 1298 as well as King of Bohemia and titular King of Poland (as Rudolf I) from 1306 until his death.
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saint-Dié-des-Vosges (Sankt Didel), commonly referred to as Saint-Dié, is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Saint-Louis (Sankt Ludwig) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
Saverne (Saverne,; Alsatian: Zàwere; (German)) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Sébastien Érard (born Sebastian Erhard, 5 April 1752 – 5 August 1831) was a French instrument maker of German origin who specialised in the production of pianos and harps, developing the capacities of both instruments and pioneering the modern piano.
Sébastien Loeb (born 26 February 1974) is a French professional rally, racing, and rallycross driver.
Sélestat (Alsatian: Schlettstàdt; German: Schlettstadt) is a commune in the northeast region of France.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schiltigheim (and sometimes by non-local speakers of French; Alsatian: Schelige) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Schirmeck is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Conrad Schlumberger (2 October 1878 in Guebwiller (Alsace) – 9 May 1936 in Stockholm) and Marcel Schlumberger (21 June 1884 in Guebwiller – 9 May 1953 in Val-Richer) were brothers from the Alsace in France.
Schnapps or schnaps is a type of alcoholic beverage that may take several forms, including distilled fruit brandies, herbal liqueurs, infusions, and "flavored liqueurs" made by adding fruit syrups, spices, or artificial flavorings to neutral grain spirits.
Sebastian Brant (also Brandt) (1457 – 10 May 1521) was a German humanist and satirist.
In France, secondary education is in two stages.
Seebach is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
The Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) was a non-departmental public body of the Government of the United Kingdom which existed from 1 April 2006 until 7 October 2013.
Sigismund (26 October 1427 – 4 March 1496), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1439 (elevated to Archduke in 1477) until his death.
Sigolsheim is a former commune in the Haut-Rhin department in north-eastern France.
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.
Soultz-Haut-Rhin (Sulz/Oberelsaß) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin département in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
The "Spanish Road" was a military supply/trade route used from 1567–1620, which stretched from Northern Italy to the Low Countries.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A stem duchy (Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.
Sir Stephen Sedley (born 9 October 1939) is a British lawyer.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.
The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Strasbourg Cathedral or the Cathedral of Our Lady of Strasbourg (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, or Cathédrale de Strasbourg, Liebfrauenmünster zu Straßburg or Straßburger Münster), also known as Strasbourg Minster, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
The Strasbourg massacre occurred on February 14, 1349, when several hundred Jews were publicly burnt to death, and the rest of them expelled from the city as part of the Black Death persecutions.
Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.
Sundgau is a geographical territory in the southern Alsace region (Haut Rhin and Belfort), on the eastern edge of France.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.
Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tarte flambée is an Alsatian dish, speciality of the Alsace region and neighbouring areas (northeast France, south Germany), composed of bread dough rolled out very thinly in the shape of a rectangle (Traditionally) or circle, which is covered with fromage blanc or crème fraîche, thinly sliced onions and lardons.
TER Alsace was the regional rail network serving the région of Alsace, eastern France.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
Thann (Alsatian: Dànn,, Thann) is a commune in the northeastern French department of Haut-Rhin, in Grand Est.
Joseph-Théodore Deck (2 January 1823 – 15 May 1891) was a 19th-century French potter.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Thierry Mugler (born 21 December 1948) is a French fashion designer.
Thierry Omeyer (born 2 November 1976) is a French handball goalkeeper for Paris Saint-Germain Handball and the French national team.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Murner, OFM (24 December 1475-c. 1537) was a German satirist, poet and translator.
Thomas Shadwell (c. 1642 – 19 November 1692) was an English poet and playwright who was appointed poet laureate in 1689.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
Jean-Thomas "Tomi" Ungerer (born 28 November 1931) is a French artist and a writer in three languages.
The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen (Traités de Paix de Nimègue; Friede von Nimwegen) were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Frankfurt (Traité de Francfort; Friede von Frankfurt) was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.
The Treaty of Ribemont in 880 was the last treaty on the partitions of the Frankish Empire.
The Treaty or Peace of Ryswick, also known as The Peace of Rijswijk was a series of agreements signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697, ending the 1689-97 Nine Years War between France and the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turckheim (Alsatian: Tercka) is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Ungersheim (Ungersche) is a ''commune'' in the Haut-Rhin ''department'' of Grand Est in eastern France.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).
The Union of Protestant Churches of Alsace and Lorraine (French: Union des Églises protestantes d'Alsace et de Lorraine, UEPAL) was created in 2006 by bringing together the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine (EPCAAL and the Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine (EPRAL). While the new body is not a united church, it provides a common decision-making structure and a single body of pastors.
The University of Strasbourg (Université de Strasbourg, Unistra or UDS) in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France (after Aix-Marseille University), with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).
The Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene, Oberrheinisches Tiefland or Oberrheingraben, French: Vallée du Rhin) is a major rift, about and on average, between Basel in the south and the cities of Frankfurt/Wiesbaden in the north.
Uttenhoffen is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Valérien Ismaël (born 28 September 1975) is a retired French footballer and a current manager of Apollon Smyrnis.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
A varietal wine is a wine made primarily from a single named grape variety, and which typically displays the name of that variety on the wine label.
Vest (english West) is a development region in Romania created in 1998.
The Via Francigena is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome, though it is usually considered to have its starting point much further away, in the English cathedral city of Canterbury.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
The Vix Grave is a burial mound near the village of Vix in northern Burgundy.
The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
The Vosges and Jura coal mining basins are an area of France located between two mountain ranges, that has been shaped by four centuries of coal extraction from the 16th Century to the 20th Century.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
Wasenbourg (Wasenburg), located 400 metres in height on the northwest hillside of Reisberg, is a ruined castle in the North Vosges.
Waterloo County, created in 1853 and dissolved in 1973, was the forerunner of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
West Central German (Westmitteldeutsche Dialekte) belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language.
West Flemish (West-Vlaams, flamand occidental) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in western Belgium and adjoining parts of the Netherlands and France.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Whitefriars is an area in the Ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London.
Wilhelm Philippe Schimper (January 12, 1808 – March 20, 1880) was a French botanist born in Dossenheim-sur-Zinsel, Bas-Rhin, a town near the river Rhine in Alsace.
William Wyler (July 1, 1902 – July 27, 1981) was an American film director, producer and screenwriter.
Wissembourg (South Franconian: Weisseburch, pronounced; German) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
Wittenheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (also Koepfel) (– November 1541) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yvan Muller (born 16 August 1969 in Altkirch, Haut-Rhin) is a French auto racing driver most noted for success in touring car racing.
The Zabern or Saverne Affair was a crisis of domestic policy which occurred in the German Empire at the end of 1913.
The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State (French) was passed by the Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1905.