Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals.
Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia).
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
Environmental Health is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2002 and published by BioMed Central.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).