84 relations: Abnormal posturing, Acquired brain injury, Alcohol, Alertness, Altered state of consciousness, Arousal, Attention, AVPU, Brain herniation, Brainstem, Central nervous system, Cerebellar tentorium, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemisphere, Cognitive deficit, Cognitive neuroscience, Coma, Concussion, Confusion, Consciousness, Corneal reflex, Cough, Cranial cavity, Dehydration, Delirium, Diabetes mellitus, Disorders of consciousness, Drug, Encephalitis, Epilepsy, Facial expression, Glasgow Coma Scale, Glucose, Hemodynamics, Human body temperature, Hypernatremia, Hyperthermia, Hyponatremia, Hypothermia, Hypoxia (medical), Infection, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intracranial pressure, Lesion, Lethargy, Level of consciousness (Esotericism), Medical emergency, Metabolic disorder, Metacognition, Midbrain, ..., Mortality rate, Naloxone, Neoplasm, Neurochemistry, Neurology, Neuroplasticity, Obtundation, Orientation (mental), Oxygen, PH, Pharyngeal reflex, Poison, Postictal state, Prefrontal cortex, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Pupillary response, Reflex, Reticular formation, Sensorium, Shock (circulatory), Sleep, Sodium, Somnolence, Stimulus (physiology), Stroke, Stupor, Supratentorial region, Thalamus, Thiamine, Toxin, Traumatic brain injury, Uremia, Vital signs. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Abnormal posturing is an involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs, indicating severe brain injury.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
The AVPU scale (an acronym from "alert, voice, pain, unresponsive") is a system by which a health care professional can measure and record their level of consciousness.
Brain herniation is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellar tentorium or tentorium cerebelli (Latin: "tent of the cerebellum", Greek: "Σκηνίδιο της παρεγκεφαλίδας") is an extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
The corneal reflex, also known as the blink reflex, is an involuntary blinking of the eyelids elicited by stimulation of the cornea (such as by touching or by a foreign body), though could result from any peripheral stimulus.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.
The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Consciousness is a loosely defined concept that addresses the human awareness of both internal and external stimuli.
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Obtundation refers to less than full alertness (altered level of consciousness), typically as a result of a medical condition or trauma.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex (also known as a laryngeal spasm) is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils, the uvula, and the back of the throat.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
The postictal state is the altered state of consciousness after an epileptic seizure.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
A sensorium (/sɛnˈsɔːrɪəm/) (plural: sensoria) is the sum of an organism's perception, the "seat of sensation" where it experiences and interprets the environments within which it lives.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stupor (from Latin stupere, "be stunned or amazed") is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain.
In anatomy, the supratentorial region of the brain is the area located above the tentorium cerebelli.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.