308 relations: A Devil's Chaplain, Actaea racemosa, Active ingredient, Acupuncture, Adolf Hitler, Adverse effect, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Alexander Technique, Altered state of consciousness, Alternative cancer treatments, Alternative medicine, American Cancer Society, American Hospital Association, American Journal of Public Health, American Medical Association, Anaphylaxis, Andrew Vickers, Ann Hibner Koblitz, Annals of Internal Medicine, Antibiotic, Antiscience, Appeal to nature, Aromatherapy, Arsenic, Associated Press, Atom, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Authority, Ayurveda, Barrie R. Cassileth, BBC News, Belief, Big Pharma conspiracy theory, Billion, Bioelectromagnetics, Biology, BioMed Central, Biomedicine, Biophysics, Bodywork (alternative medicine), British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, British Medical Association, CA (journal), Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Cancer, Carl Sagan, CBS News, Center for Inquiry, Chakra, ..., Chemical substance, Child abuse, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Child neglect, Chinese astrology, Chiropractic, Christian, Clinical trial, CMJ, Cochrane (organisation), Cochrane Library, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive bias, Colorpuncture, Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, Comparison of MD and DO in the United States, Conflict of interest, Conservation medicine, Conspiracy theory, Copper sulfate, Counterculture of the 1960s, Cultural relativism, Current Science, Daniel Berkeley Updike, Danish Health Authority, David Gorski, Declaration of Helsinki, Developing country, Disease, Drug interaction, Echinacea, Edzard Ernst, Efficacy, Energy, Energy medicine, Epidemiology, Ethics, Ethnomedicine, Evidence, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Faith healing, Fallacy, Federal government of the United States, Fish oil, Flexner Report, Food and Drug Administration, Framing (social sciences), Fraud, George D. Lundberg, Ginseng, Glucosamine, Guided imagery, Harriet A. Hall, Harvard Magazine, Harvard University Press, Healing, Health insurance, Health insurance in the United States, Health professional, Healthcare in India, HealthWatch, Herbalism, Heroic medicine, HIV, Homeopathy, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, HowStuffWorks, Hypnotherapy, Integrative Cancer Therapies, Jacob Bigelow, JAMA (journal), JAMA Internal Medicine, James Harvey Young, John Diamond (journalist), John M. Riddle, Joseph Goebbels, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Journal of Medical Ethics, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Kenneth Ludmerer, Laying on of hands, Lead, Light therapy, Linseed oil, List of Latin phrases (S), Madagascar, Magnet therapy, Magnolia, Marcia Angell, Marketing, Mass marketing, Mayo Clinic, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Medical degree, Medical diagnosis, Medical education, Medical ethics, Medical Hypotheses, Medical literature, Medical research, Medical school, Medical school in the United States, Medicine, Meditation, MedlinePlus, Medscape, Mentha pulegium, Mercury (element), Merrymount Press, Meta-analysis, Mind–body interventions, Minister for Health (Australia), Molecular biology, Molecule, Mysticism, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Medicine, National Cancer Institute, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Council Against Health Fraud, National Health and Medical Research Council, National Health Service (England), National Institutes of Health, National Science Board, National Science Foundation, Natural science, Nature Medicine, Nature Reviews Immunology, Naturopathy, NBCNews.com, New Age, Nocebo, Normative, Omega-3 fatty acid, Open University, Opportunity cost, Orthomolecular medicine, Osteopathic medicine in the United States, Osteopathy, Palliative care, Paradox, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Patent, Patent medicine, Pathophysiology, Paul Kurtz, Paul Offit, PBS, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Pharmacology, Physician Executive, Physicians in the United States, Physics, Physiology, Placebo, PLOS One, Post hoc ergo propter hoc, Poverty, Prayer, Primum non nocere, Prize, Propaganda, Protoscience, Pseudoscience, Psychic surgery, Publication bias, Qi, Qigong, Quackery, Quackwatch, R. Barker Bausell, Radio National, Randomized controlled trial, Reason (magazine), Rebranding, Reflexology, Regression fallacy, Regression toward the mean, Relativism, Religion, Research on meditation, Richard Dawkins, Samuel Hahnemann, Science, Science-Based Medicine, Scientific American Frontiers, Scientific consensus, Scientific evidence, Scientific law, Scientific literacy, Scientific method, Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, Shamanism, Shiatsu, Side effect, Silphium, Skeptical Inquirer, Skeptical movement, Social Problems, Sonora, SPE Certified, Spinal manipulation, St Antony's College, Oxford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stephen Barrett, Steven Novella, Steven Salzberg, Subculture, Sulfur, Supernatural, Superstition, Surgery, Symptom, Tansy, Testimonial, The BMJ, The Demon-Haunted World, The Economist, The Establishment, The Guardian, The Independent, The Lancet, The Medical Journal of Australia, The New England Journal of Medicine, The New Republic, The New York Times, The Skeptic's Dictionary, The Times, The Washington Post, Theoretical definition, Therapy, Time Inc., Toxic heavy metal, Toxicity, Traditional Asian medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional medicine, Treatment of cancer, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Medical Licensing Examination, United States National Library of Medicine, United States Senate, University of Maryland, Baltimore, University of Pennsylvania, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vaccination, Vertebral subluxation, Vitalism, Wallace Sampson, WebMD, World Health Organization, Yale School of Medicine, Yoga, Yoga as exercise. 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A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love is a 2003 book of selected essays and other writings by Richard Dawkins.
Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae.
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
The Alexander Technique (A.T.), named after its creator Frederick Matthias Alexander, is an educational process that was created to retrain habitual patterns of movement and posture.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Alternative cancer treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Hospital Association (AHA) is a professional association that seeks to promote quality health care provision by hospitals and health care networks through public policy and providing information about health care and health administration to health care providers and the public.
The American Journal of Public Health is a monthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by the American Public Health Association covering health policy and public health.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Andrew Julian Vickers (born 11 February 1967) is a biostatistician and attending research methodologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
Ann Hibner Koblitz (born 1952) is Professor Emerita of Women and Gender Studies at Arizona State University and was a pioneer in studying the history of women in science.
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antiscience is a position that rejects science and the scientific method.
An appeal to nature is an argument or rhetorical tactic in which it is proposed that "a thing is good because it is 'natural', or bad because it is 'unnatural.
Aromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Barrie R. Cassileth is an American researcher of complementary and alternative medicine, and has published extensively on alternative cancer treatments.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
The term Big Pharma conspiracy theories refers to conspiracy theories which claim that the medical establishment in general and pharmaceutical companies in particular operate for sinister purposes and against the public good.
A billion is a number with two distinct definitions.
Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access publisher.
Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
In alternative medicine, bodywork is any therapeutic or personal development technique that involves working with the human body in a form involving manipulative therapy, breath work, or energy medicine.
The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the British Pharmacological Society.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published for the American Cancer Society by Wiley-Blackwell.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
The Canadian Medical Association Journal (French Journal de l'Association Médicale Canadienne) is a peer-reviewed general medical journal published by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Center for Inquiry (CFI) is a nonprofit educational organization.
Chakras (Sanskrit: चक्र, IAST: cakra, Pali: cakka, lit. wheel, circle) are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Indian religion, Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, and in postmodernity, in new age medicine, and originally psychologically adopted to the western mind through the assistance of Carl G. Jung.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247) of 1988 provides federal funding to US states in support of prevention, assessment, investigation, prosecution, and treatment activities and provides grants to public agencies and nonprofit organizations for demonstration programs and projects.
Child neglect is a form of child abuse, and is a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing as well as their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
CMJ Holdings, Corp. was a music events and online media company which ran a website, hosted an annual festival in New York City, and published CMJ New Music Monthly.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Colorpuncture, or color light acupuncture, is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine practice based on "mystical or supernatural" beliefs which asserts that colored lights can be used to stimulate acupuncture points to promote healing and better health.
The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), is a program within the transnational American non-profit educational organization Center for Inquiry (CFI), which seeks to "promote scientific inquiry, critical investigation, and the use of reason in examining controversial and extraordinary claims." Paul Kurtz proposed the establishment of CSICOP in 1976 as an independent non-profit organization (before merging with CFI as one of its programs in 2015), to counter what he regarded as an uncritical acceptance of, and support for, paranormal claims by both the media and society in general.
In the United States, physicians may hold either the Doctor of Medicine degree (MD) or the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree (DO).
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
Conservation medicine is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions.
A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.
Copper sulfate may refer to.
The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.
Daniel Berkeley Updike (February 14, 1860 – December 29, 1941) was an American printer and historian of typography.
The Danish Health Authority (Sundhedsstyrelsen) is a state-owned entity in Denmark sorting under the Ministry of Health.
David Henry Gorski is an American surgical oncologist, professor of surgery at Wayne State University School of Medicine, and a surgical oncologist at the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, specializing in breast cancer surgery.
The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Echinacea is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family.
Edzard Ernst (born 30 January 1948) is an academic physician and researcher specializing in the study of complementary and alternative medicine.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy medicine, energy therapy, energy healing, psychic healing, spiritual medicine or spiritual healing are branches of alternative medicine based on a pseudo-scientific belief that healers can channel healing energy into a patient and effect positive results.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethnomedicine is a study or comparison of the traditional medicine practiced by various ethnic groups, and especially by indigenous peoples.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal covering alternative medicine published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice.
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.
The Flexner Report is a book-length study of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
George D. Lundberg is an American board-certified pathologist and, from February 1999 to January 2009, editor of Medscape.
Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.
Guided imagery (also known as Guided Affective Imagery, or KIP, Katathym-imaginative Psychotherapy) is a mind-body intervention by which a trained practitioner or teacher helps a participant or patient to evoke and generate mental images that simulate or re-create the sensory perception of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, movements, and images associated with touch, such as texture, temperature, and pressure, as well as imaginative or mental content that the participant or patient experiences as defying conventional sensory categories, and that may precipitate strong emotions or feelings in the absence of the stimuli to which correlating sensory receptors are receptive.
Harriet A. Hall (born July 2, 1945) is a U.S. retired family physician, former U.S. Air Force flight surgeon and skeptic who writes about alternative medicine and quackery for Skeptic and Skeptical Inquirer.
Harvard Magazine is an independently edited magazine and separately incorporated affiliate of Harvard University.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.
Health insurance in the United States is any program that helps pay for medical expenses, whether through privately purchased insurance, social insurance, or a social welfare program funded by the government.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
India's constitution guarantees free healthcare for all its citizens, but in practice the private healthcare sector is responsible for the majority of healthcare in India, and most healthcare expenses are paid out of pocket by patients and their families, rather than through insurance.
HealthWatch is a UK charity which promotes evidence-based medicine.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Heroic medicine, also referred to as heroic depletion theory, was a therapeutic method advocating for rigorous treatment of bloodletting, purging, and sweating to shock the body back to health after an illness caused by a humoral imbalance.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.
Hypnotherapy is a type of complementary and alternative medicine in which the mind is used in an attempt to help with a variety of problems, such as breaking bad habits or coping with stress.
Integrative Cancer Therapies is a peer-reviewed medical journal focusing on complementary and alternative and integrative medicine in the care for and treatment of patients with cancer.
Jacob Bigelow (February 27, 1787January 10, 1879) was an American physician and botanist.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
JAMA Internal Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published monthly by the American Medical Association.
James Harvey Young (September 8, 1915 – July 29, 2006) was social historian most well known as an expert on the history of medical frauds and quackery.
John Diamond (10 May 1953 – 2 March 2001), was an English journalist and broadcaster.
John M. Riddle (born 1937) is an Alumni Distinguished Professor emeritus of History at North Carolina State University and a specialist in the history of medicine.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering alternative medicine published by Mary Ann Liebert.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology is a peer reviewed medical journal covering gastroenterology and hepatology, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
The Journal of Medical Ethics is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of bioethics established in 1975.
The Journal of Pain and Symptom Management is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 1986.
The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine is an open peer-reviewed medical journal.
Kenneth M. Ludmerer (born in Long Beach, California, 1947) is a professor of history and of biostatics at Washington University in St. Louis.
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Magnet therapy, magnetic therapy, or magnotherapy is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine practice involving the use of weak static magnetic fields, a form of electromagnetic radiation, produced by permanent magnets.
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.
Marcia Angell (born April 20, 1939) is an American physician, author, and the first woman to serve as editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Mass marketing is a market strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences and appeal the whole market with one offer or one strategy, which supports the idea of broadcasting a message that will reach the largest number of people possible.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology, a section of the American Anthropological Association, by Wiley-Blackwell.
A medical degree is a vocational or technical degree awarded for studies in fields associated with medicine and/or surgery.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.
Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medical school in the United States is most commonly a four-year graduate program with the purpose of educating physicians in the field of medicine.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
Mentha pulegium, commonly (European) pennyroyal, or pennyrile, also called squaw mint, mosquito plant and pudding grass, is a species of flowering plant in the Lamiaceae family, or mint family, native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Merrymount Press was a printing press in Boston, Massachusetts, founded by Daniel Berkeley Updike in 1893.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Mind–body interventions are medical and pseudomedical interventions based on the idea of the mind influencing the physical body.
The Australian Minister for Health is the Hon Greg Hunt, since 24 January 2017.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
The National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) was a not-for-profit, US-based organization, run by Dr.
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australia's peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of roughly $900 million a year.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The National Science Board (Board, NSB) of the United States establishes the policies of the National Science Foundation (NSF) within the framework of applicable national policies set forth by the President and the Congress.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal publishing research articles, reviews, news and commentaries in the biomedical area, including both basic research and early-phase clinical research covering all aspects of medicine.
Nature Reviews Immunology is a monthly review journal covering the field of immunology.
Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine that employs an array of pseudoscientific practices branded as "natural", "non-invasive", and as promoting "self-healing".
NBCNews.com, formerly known as msnbc.com, is a news website owned and operated by NBCUniversal as the online arm of NBC News.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
A nocebo effect is said to occur when negative expectations of the patient regarding a treatment cause the treatment to have a more negative effect than it otherwise would have.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.
Orthomolecular medicine, a form of alternative medicine, aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.
Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States.
Osteopathy is a type of alternative medicine that emphasizes manual readjustments, myofascial release and other physical manipulation of muscle tissue and bones.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
A patent medicine, also known as a nostrum (from the Latin nostrum remedium, or "our remedy") is a commercial product advertised (usually heavily) as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
Paul Kurtz (December 21, 1925 – October 20, 2012) was a prominent American scientific skeptic and secular humanist.
Paul A. Offit (born 27 March 1951) is an American pediatrician specializing in infectious diseases, vaccines, immunology, and virology.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center and Penn State Children's Hospital, located in Hershey, Pennsylvania, 10 miles (17 km) east of Harrisburg, are Penn State’s medical school and academic medical center.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
The Physician Executive Journal is a journal published for more than 20 years by the American College of Physician Executives.
Physicians in the United States are doctors that practice medicine for the human body.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin: "after this, therefore because of this") is a logical fallacy that states "Since event Y followed event X, event Y must have been caused by event X." It is often shortened simply to post hoc fallacy.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.
Primum non nocere is a Latin phrase that means "first, to do no harm." The phrase is sometimes recorded as primum nil nocere.
A prize is an award to be given to a person, a group of people like a sports team, or organization to recognise and reward actions or achievements.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
In the philosophy of science, there are several definitions of protoscience.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
An alleged psychic surgeon at work. Psychic surgery is a pseudoscientific medical fraud in which the practitioner creates the illusion of performing surgery with his or her bare hands and uses trickery, fake blood, and animal parts to convince the patient that the diseased lesions have been removed and that the incision has spontaneously healed.
Publication bias is a type of bias that occurs in published academic research.
In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used in the belief that it promotes health, spirituality, and martial arts training.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
Quackwatch is a United States-based network of people founded by Stephen Barrett, which aims to "combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct" and to focus on "quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere".
Rufus Barker Bausell, Jr. (born 1942) is an American biostatistician and retired professor at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, where, from approximately 1999 to 2004, he was the director of their center for studying complementary and alternative medicine.
ABC Radio National, known on-air as RN, is an Australia-wide Public Service Broadcasting radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.
Rebranding is a marketing strategy in which a new name, term, symbol, design, or combination thereof is created for an established brand with the intention of developing a new, differentiated identity in the minds of consumers, investors, competitors, and other stakeholders.
Reflexology, also known as zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving application of pressure to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion.
The regression (or regressive) fallacy is an informal fallacy.
In statistics, regression toward (or to) the mean is the phenomenon that if a variable is extreme on its first measurement, it will tend to be closer to the average on its second measurement—and if it is extreme on its second measurement, it will tend to have been closer to the average on its first.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
For the purpose of this article, research on meditation concerns research into the psychological and physiological effects of meditation using the scientific method.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, freemason best known for creating the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science-Based Medicine is a daily blog with entries covering issues in science and medicine, especially dangerous medical scams and practices.
Scientific American Frontiers is an American television program primarily focused on informing the public about new technologies and discoveries in science and medicine.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis.
A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe.
Scientific literacy or Science literacy encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine (SRAM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Commission for Scientific Medicine and Mental Health.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shiatsu (指圧) is a form of Japanese bodywork based on ideas in traditional Chinese medicine.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Silphium (also known as silphion, laserwort, or laser) was a plant that was used in classical antiquity as a seasoning and as a medicine.
Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) with the subtitle: The Magazine for Science and Reason.
The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).
Social Problems is the official publication of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.
Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.
SPE Certification is a foodservice industry standard aimed at enhancing the nutritional quality of meals, without compromising the taste.
Spinal manipulation is an intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints, which is asserted to be therapeutic.
St Antony's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Stanford University School of Medicine is the medical school of Stanford University and is located in Stanford, California.
Stephen Joel Barrett (born 1933) is an American retired psychiatrist, author, co-founder of the National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF), and the webmaster of Quackwatch.
Steven Paul Novella (born July 29, 1964) is an American clinical neurologist and assistant professor at Yale University School of Medicine.
Steven Lloyd Salzberg (born 1960) is an American computational biologist and computer scientist who is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, and Biostatistics at Johns Hopkins University.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family, native to temperate Europe and Asia.
In promotion and of advertising, a testimonial or show consists of a person's written or spoken statement extolling the virtue of a product.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark is a 1995 book by astrophysicist Carl Sagan, in which the author aims to explain the scientific method to laypeople, and to encourage people to learn critical and skeptical thinking.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Establishment generally denotes a dominant group or elite that holds power or authority in a nation or organisation.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The Medical Journal of Australia is a peer-reviewed medical journal.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Skeptic's Dictionary is a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, published on his website skepdic.com and in a printed book.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
A theoretical definition is an abstract concept that defines a term in an academic discipline.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Time Inc. was an American worldwide mass media corporation founded on November 28, 1922 by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden and based in New York City.
A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Traditional Asian medicine is a collective term for several types of medicine practiced in Asia.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is a three-step examination for medical licensure in the United States and is sponsored by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME).
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of Maryland, Baltimore, (also known as the University of Maryland or UMB) was founded in 1807.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
In chiropractic, a vertebral subluxation is a purported misalignment of the spinal column, not necessarily visible on X-rays, leading to a set of signs and symptoms sometimes termed vertebral subluxation complex.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Wallace Sampson (March 29, 1930 – May 25, 2015) was an American medical doctor and consumer advocate against alternative medicine and other fraud schemes.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The Yale School of Medicine is the graduate medical school at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
Yoga as exercise is a modern exercise practice influenced by hatha yoga.
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