61 relations: American Revolutionary War, Archibald Campbell (British Army officer, born 1739), Bengal Army, British Army, Cape of Good Hope, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Charles Clarke (judge), Charles Morgan (British Army officer), Charles Stuart (British Army officer, born 1753), Colonel, Commander-in-Chief, India, Constitutional Act 1791, Coronation, Edward Blakeney, Ensign (rank), Eton College, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, General officer, George Harris, 1st Baron Harris, George III of the United Kingdom, Georgia (U.S. state), Germany, Governor-General of India, Henry Herbert, 10th Earl of Pembroke, Ireland, James Henry Craig, John Manners, Marquess of Granby, John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth, King's Royal Rifle Corps, Lieutenant, Lieutenant colonel, Lieutenant general, List of Governors General of Canada, List of governors of Jamaica, List of lieutenant governors of Quebec, Llangollen, London, Lower Canada, Madras Army, Major, Major general, National Assembly of Quebec, Order of the Bath, Philadelphia, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Prisoner of war, Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Royal Fusiliers, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, ..., Siege of Seringapatam (1799), Sir John Braithwaite, 1st Baronet, Thomas Dundas (British Army officer), Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham, Wales, William IV of the United Kingdom, Wynberg, Cape Town, 50th (Queen's Own) Regiment of Foot, 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot, 54th (West Norfolk) Regiment of Foot, 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry). Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell KB (21 August 1739 – 31 March 1791) served as governor of Jamaica, Madras, and Georgia.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
Charles Clarke (died 1750) was an English barrister, judge and politician.
Lieutenant General Charles Morgan (1741 – 21 March 1818) was Commander-in-Chief, India.
Lieutenant-general Sir Charles Stuart, (January 1753 – 25 May 1801) was a British nobleman and soldier.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army.
The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791 (31 Geo 3 c 31), (the Act) commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791, is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
Field Marshal Sir Edward Blakeney (26 March 1778 – 2 August 1868) was a British Army officer.
Ensign (Late Middle English, from Old French enseigne (12c.) "mark, symbol, signal; flag, standard, pennant", from Latin insignia (plural)) is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy.
Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
George Harris, 1st Baron Harris GCB (18 March 1746 – 19 May 1829) was a British soldier.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Henry Herbert, 10th Earl of Pembroke, 7th Earl of Montgomery (3 July 173426 January 1794) was an English peer and politician.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
General Sir James Henry Craig KB (1748 – 12 January 1812) was a British military officer and colonial administrator.
Lieutenant-General John Manners, Marquess of Granby (2 January 1721 – 18 October 1770) was a British soldier and the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland.
John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth (5 October 1751 – 14 February 1834) was a British official of the East India Company who served as Governor-General of Bengal from 1793 to 1797.
The King's Royal Rifle Corps was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army that was originally raised in British North America as the Royal American Regiment (also known as the Royal Americans) in the Seven Years' War and for Loyalist service in the American Revolutionary War.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The following is a list of the governors and Governors General of Canada.
This is a list of viceroys in Jamaica from its initial occupation by Spain in 1509, to its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962.
The following is a list of the Lieutenant Governors of Quebec.
Llangollen is a small town and community in Denbighshire, north-east Wales, situated on the River Dee and on the edge of the Berwyn mountains.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The National Assembly of Quebec (Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator.
The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years.
The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Siege of Seringapatam (5 April – 4 May 1799) was the final confrontation of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore.
Major-General Sir John Braithwaite, 1st Baronet (3 February 1739 - 16 August 1803) was Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army.
Major-General Thomas Dundas (30 June 1750 – 3 June 1794) was a British military officer, politician and Governor of Guadeloupe.
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham, PC (13 January 1746 – 19 November 1791), styled Lord Howard until 1763, was a British nobleman and Army officer, the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham, and his wife Elizabeth.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
Wynberg is a southern suburb of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape, South Africa.
The 50th (Queen's Own) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1755.
The 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot was a light infantry regiment of the British Army throughout much of the 18th and 19th centuries.
The 54th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1755.
The 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1758.