79 relations: Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Afghan Air Force, Afghanistan, Armistice, Asia, Bahá'í Faith, Barakzai dynasty, Benito Mussolini, British Empire, British Raj, Centre d'Enseignement Français en Afghanistan, Civil and political rights, Columbia University, Constitution, Dress code, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium, Emir, Emirate of Afghanistan, Encyclopædia Iranica, Europe, Foreign policy, Fuad I of Egypt, Gaston Doumergue, George V, Germanophile, Germany, Habibullah Khan, Habibullāh Kalakāni, Head of state, History of Afghanistan, Ignacy Mościcki, Inayatullah Khan, Jalalabad, Józef Piłsudski, Kabul, Kabul Library, Kabul Province, Karachi, Khost rebellion, King, Kingdom of Afghanistan, Kingdom of Italy, Legion of Honour, List of heads of state of Afghanistan, Mahmud Tarzi, Malik, Mary of Teck, Mohammed Nadir Shah, Mohammed Zahir Shah, Muhammad Ali dynasty, ..., Nasrullah Khan (Afghanistan), Neshan-e Aqdas, Order of Christ (Portugal), Order of the Crown (Belgium), Order of the Golden Spur, Ordre des Palmes Académiques, Paghman, Pahlavi dynasty, Paul von Hindenburg, Pope Pius XI, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war, Royal Victorian Chain, Royal Victorian Order, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Sejm, Soraya Tarzi, Soviet Union, Switzerland, The Great Game, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Tonsillectomy, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Weimar Republic, World War I, Zürich, Zbąszyń. Expand index (29 more) » « Shrink index
Acta Apostolicae Sedis (Latin for "Register of the Apostolic See"), often cited as AAS, is the official gazette of the Holy See, appearing about twelve times a year.
The Afghan Air Force (AAF; دافغانستان هوائی ځواک; قوای هوائی افغانستان) is the aerial warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Centre d'Enseignement Français en Afghanistan (CEFA) consists of two Franco-Afghan schools in the center of Kabul, Afghanistan, together educating around 6,000 Afghan students.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
A dress code is a set of written and, more often, unwritten rules with regard to clothing.
Elisabeth of Bavaria (25 July 187623 November 1965) was Queen consort of the Belgians as the spouse of King Albert I, and a Duchess in Bavaria by birth.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان امارت) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Fuad I (فؤاد الأول Fu’ād al-Awwal, I.; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur.
Pierre-Paul-Henri-Gaston Doumergue (1 August 1863 in Aigues-Vives, Gard18 June 1937 in Aigues-Vives) was a French politician of the Third Republic.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
A Germanophile, Teutonophile or Teutophile is a person who is fond of German culture, German people and Germany in general or who exhibits German nationalism in spite of not even being either an ethnic German or a German citizen.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Habibullah Khan (June 3, 1872 – February 20, 1919) was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919.
King Habibullah Kalakani (fa, or Bache Saqqaw, fa), 19 January 1891 – 1 November 1929), was King of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amanullah Khan He was executed nine months later by Nadir Khan.Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 459. Princeton University Press, 1973 Khalilullah Khalili, a Kohistani poet laureate, depicts King Habibullah Kalakani as a mujahid, a "warrior of God." Kalakani was nicknamed Bacha-e Saqaw (literally son of the water carrier) and bandit king.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Ignacy Mościcki (1 December 18672 October 1946) was a Polish chemist, politician, and President of Poland from 1926 to 1939.
Inayatullah Khan Seraj (October 20, 1888 – August 12, 1946) was the King of Afghanistan for three days in January 1929.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kabul Library is one of Afghanistan's oldest and largest libraries, located in the capital Kabul.
Kābul (translit, translit), situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Khost rebellion was an uprising by the Mangal Pashtun tribe, later joined by the Sulaiman Khel and Ali Khel tribes, against the Westernising reforms made by King Amanullah.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan (د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian:, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.
Mahmud Beg Tarzi (محمود طرزۍ, Dari Persian: محمود بیگ طرزی; August 23, 1865 – November 22, 1933) was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England.
Muhammad Nadir Shah (محمد نادر شاه, محمد نادر شاه – born Muhammad Nadir Khan; 9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
Nasrullah Khan (1874–1920), sometimes spelt as Nasr Ullah Khan, was shahzada (crown prince) of Afghanistan and second son of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan.
The Nishan-e-Aqdas (Imperial Order or Most Sacred Order of the Aqdas) was an Imperial Iranian Order founded in 1870 by the Qajar Shah of Iran Nassereddin.
The Military Order of Christ (Ordem Militar de Cristo), previously the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo), was the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church.
The Order of the Crown (Ordre de la Couronne, Kroonorde) is a national order of the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Order of the Golden Spur (Ordine dello Speron d'Oro, Ordre de l'Éperon d'or), officially known also as the Order of the Golden Militia (Ordo Militia Aurata, Milizia Aurata), is a Papal Order of Knighthood conferred upon those who have rendered distinguished service in propagating the Catholic faith, or who have contributed to the glory of the Church, either by feat of arms, by writings, or by other illustrious acts.
The Ordre des Palmes académiques (Order of Academic Palms) is a national order of France for distinguished academics and figures in the world of culture and education.
Paghman (Pashto/Persian: پغمان) is a town in the hills near Afghanistan's capital of Kabul.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The reforms of Amānullāh Khān began following his accession in 1919 and his securing independence for Afghanistan in 1920.
The Royal Victorian Chain is a decoration instituted in 1902 by King Edward VII as a personal award of the monarch (i.e. not an award made on the advice of any Commonwealth realm government).
The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Soraya Tarzi, known mostly as Queen Soraya (Pashto/Dari: ملکه ثريا) (November 24, 1899 – April 20, 1968), was the Queen consort of Afghanistan in the early 20th century and the wife of King Amanullah Khan.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which both palatine tonsils (hereafter called "tonsils") are removed from a recess in the side of the pharynx called the tonsillar fossa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zbąszyń (Bentschen) is a town in western Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship, in Nowy Tomyśl County.