90 relations: Amban, Amdo County, Ü-Tsang, Bayan Har Mountains, Beijing, Changtang, Chiang Kai-shek, China, Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720), Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama, Classical Tibetan, Communist Party of China, Dalai Lama, Domestic yak, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Dzo, Dzungar people, Four Seas, Gansu, Güshi Khan, Gelug, Golok people, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Hui people, India, Je Tsongkhapa, Kangxi Emperor, Kashmir, Kham, Kiang, Kirti Gompa, Kublai Khan, Kumbum, Kumbum Monastery, Kuomintang, Labrang Monastery, Lama, Lanzhou, Lha-bzang Khan, Lhasa, Liulin, Gansu, Ma Bufang, Ma clique, Ma Qi, Machu Picchu, Max Oidtmann, Ming dynasty, Mongol invasions of Tibet, Mongolian horse, ..., Mongols, Muslim, Nagqu, Nepal, Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Ngawa Town, Patron and priest relationship, People's Liberation Army, Qiang (historical people), Qing dynasty, Qing dynasty in Inner Asia, Qinghai, Qinghai Lake, Republic of China (1912–1949), Sakya Monastery, Sanskrit, Sichuan, Song dynasty, Songtsen Gampo, Sumpa, Tang dynasty, Tanggula Mountains, Tarim Basin, Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet under Qing rule, Tibet under Yuan rule, Tibetan Empire, Tuyuhun, Vinaya, Western Xia, Wild yak, Xining, Yangtze, Yellow River, Yongzheng Emperor, Yuan dynasty, 13th Dalai Lama, 14th Dalai Lama, 2008 Summer Olympics. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
Amban (Manchu:Amban, Mongol: Амбан, Tibetan:ཨམ་བན་am ben, Uighur:ئامبان་am ben) is a Manchu language word meaning "high official," which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing imperial government.
Amdo County is a county within Nagqu of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü, is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the other two being Amdo and Kham.
The Bayan Har Mountains (Баянхар уул, Bayanhar ūl, meaning "rich black"), formerly known as the Bayen-káras, are a mountain range in Tibet, China.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Changtang (alternatively spelled Changthang) is a part of the high altitude Tibetan Plateau in western and northern Tibet extending into southeastern Ladakh, India, with vast highlands and giant lakes.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese conquest of Tibet in 1720 was a military expedition sent by the Qing empire to expel the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet and establish a Chinese protectorate over the country.
Lobsang Trinley Lhündrub Chökyi Gyaltsen (19 February 1938 – 28 January 1989) was the tenth Panchen Lama of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism.
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Drogön Chogyal Phagpa (1235 – 15 December 1280), was the fifth leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
A dzo (Tibetan མཛོ་ mdzo) (also spelled zo, zho and dzho) is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle.
The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Four Seas were four bodies of water that metaphorically made up the boundaries of ancient China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Güshi Khan (also spelled Gushri Khan, Гүш хаан, གུ་ཤྲཱི་བསྟན་འཛིན, 1582 – 14 January 1655) was a Khoshut prince and leader of the Khoshut Khanate, who supplanted the Tumed descendants of Altan Khan as the main benefactor of the Dalai Lama and the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Golok or Ngolok peoples are groups from Kham and Amdo in eastern Tibet, where their territory is referred in Tibetan as.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Zongkapa Lobsang Zhaba, or Tsongkhapa ("The man from Tsongkha", 1357–1419), usually taken to mean "the Man from Onion Valley", born in Amdo, was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led to the formation of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
The kiang (Equus kiang) is the largest of the wild asses.
Kirti Gompa (ཀིརྟི་དགོན་པ།), is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery founded in 1472 and located in China's Sichuan Province.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
A Kumbum ("one hundred thousand holy images") is a multi-storied aggregate of Buddhist chapels in Tibetan Buddhism.
Kumbum Monastery (THL Kumbum Jampa Ling), also called Ta'er Temple, is a Tibetan gompa in Huangzhong County, Xining, Qinghai, China.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Labrang Monastery is one of the six great monasteries of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
Lha-bzang Khan (Mongolian: Lazang Haan; alternatively, Lhazang or Lapsangn or Lajang; d.1717) was the ruler of the Khoshut (also spelled Qoshot, Qośot, or Qosot) tribe of the Oirats.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Liulin (Chinese: 柳林镇; pinyin: liǔlín zhèn) is situated adjacent to the major Tibetan Geluk Jonê Monastery, on the northern bank of the Lu-chu river in Jonê County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, at an altitude of about 2,610 m (8,563 ft).
Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (Xiao'erjing: ما بوفنگ) was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai.
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui (Muslim Chinese) warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia for 10 years from 1919 until 1928.
Ma Qi (23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ چِ) was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th-century China.
Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.
Max Oidtmann (or Max Gordon Oidtmann) (born in 1979) is a U.S. historian of Late Imperial China (1368-1912) and Inner Asia (Islamic Central Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, and Manchuria).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
There were several Mongol invasions of Tibet.
The Mongol horse (Mongolian Адуу, aduu: "horse" or mori; or as a herd, ado) is the native horse breed of Mongolia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nagqu (also Naqu or Nagchu) is a prefecture-level city in the Chinese Autonomous region of Tibet.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, also known as Aba (Qiang: Ggabba Shbea Rrmea nyujugvez zhou), is an autonomous prefecture of northwestern Sichuan, bordering Gansu to the north and northeast and Qinghai to the northwest.
Ngawa or Aba town (Ngawa) is the seat of Ngawa (Aba) County, within the Ngawa (Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in northwestern Sichuan, China.
The patron and priest relationship, also simply written as priest-patron or cho-yon is the symbolic relationship between a religious figure and a lay patron in the Tibetan ideology or political theory.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Qiang was a name given to various groups of people at different periods in ancient China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinghai Lake, Koko Nor (Mongolian: Хөх нуур) or Tso Ngonpo (Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་པོ།) is the largest lake in China.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Sakya Monastery, also known as Pel Sakya ("White Earth" or "Pale Earth") is a Buddhist monastery situated 25 km southeast of a bridge which is about 127 km west of Shigatse on the road to Tingri in Tibet.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.
The Sumpa were a tribe living in northeastern Tibet from ancient times.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tanggula (Chinese: 唐古拉山, p Tánggǔlāshān, or 唐古拉山脉, p Tánggǔlāshānmài), Tangla, Tanglha, or Dangla Mountains (Tibetan: གདང་ལ་།, w Gdang La, z Dang La) are a mountain range in the central part of the Tibetan Plateau in Tibet.
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912.
Tibet under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Tibet from approximately 1270 to 1354.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Tuyuhun (Tibetan: ‘A-zha) was a powerful kingdom established by nomadic peoples related to the Xianbei in the Qilian Mountains and upper Yellow River valley.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
The wild yak (Bos mutus) is a large wild bovid native to the Himalayas.
Xining (Xīníng; ཟི་ལིང་། Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai province in western China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Yongzheng Emperor (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Thubten Gyatso (shortened from Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal;; 12 February 1876 – 17 December 1933) was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.