480 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln's first inaugural address, African Americans, Agar gun, AGEOD's American Civil War, Ageod's American Civil War II, Alabama, Alabama Claims, Albert Sidney Johnston, Alexandria, Louisiana, Allan Gurganus, Allan Nevins, Alta California, Ambassador, Ambrose Bierce, Ambrose Burnside, American Battlefield Trust, American Civil War Corps Badges, American Civil War prison camps, American Civil War spies, American Heritage (magazine), An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, Anaconda Plan, Andersonville National Historic Site, Andrew Hull Foote, Andrew Jackson, Andrew Johnson, Antietam National Battlefield, Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Appomattox, Virginia, Arkansas in the American Civil War, Army of Northern Virginia, Army of Tennessee, Army of the Potomac, Army of Virginia, Articles of Confederation, Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Associated Press, Atlanta in the American Civil War, Atlantic Ocean, Baltimore riot of 1861, Baptists, Battle Cry of Freedom (book), Battle of Antietam, Battle of Appomattox Court House, Battle of Atlanta, Battle of Cedar Creek, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Chickamauga, Battle of Cold Harbor, ..., Battle of Columbus (1865), Battle of Five Forks, Battle of Fort Donelson, Battle of Fort Henry, Battle of Fort Pillow, Battle of Fort Sumter, Battle of Franklin (1864), Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Gettysburg, Battle of Hampton Roads, Battle of Island Number Ten, Battle of Nashville, Battle of New Market, Battle of Pea Ridge, Battle of Perryville, Battle of Sailor's Creek, Battle of Seven Pines, Battle of Shiloh, Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Battle of Stones River, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of West Point, Belligerent, Benjamin Butler, Bennett Place, Bermuda Hundred Campaign, Bibliography of Abraham Lincoln, Bibliography of the American Civil War, Bibliography of Ulysses S. 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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Abraham Lincoln's first inaugural address was delivered on Monday, March 4, 1861, as part of his taking of the oath of office for his first term as the sixteenth President of the United States.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The Agar gun (or Ager) was an early rapid fire machine gun developed during the US Civil War.
AGEOD's American Civil War: 1861-1865 - The Blue and the Gray is a historical operational turn-based strategy video game that places players at the head of the U.S. or CSA during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Ageod's American Civil War II is a historical operational turn-based strategy computer game (WEGO system) that places players at the head of the U.S. or CSA during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Alabama Claims were a series of demands for damages sought by the government of the United States from the United Kingdom in 1869, for the attacks upon Union merchant ships by Confederate Navy commerce raiders built in British shipyards during the American Civil War.
Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) served as a general in three different armies: the Texian (''i.e.'' Republic of Texas) Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army.
Alexandria is the ninth-largest city in the state of Louisiana and is the parish seat of Rapides Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Allan Gurganus is an American novelist, short story writer, and essayist whose work, which includes Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All and, is often influenced by and set in his native North Carolina.
Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 – March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, known for his extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as Grover Cleveland, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller, as well as his public service.
Alta California (Upper California), founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain, and, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran.
Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a United States Senator.
The American Battlefield Trust is a charitable organization (501(c)(3)) whose primary focus is in the preservation of battlefields of the American Civil War, the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 through acquisition of battlefield land.
Corps badges in the American Civil War were originally worn by soldiers of the Union Army on the top of their army forage cap (kepi), left side of the hat, or over their left breast.
American Civil War Prison Camps were operated by both the Union and the Confederacy to handle the 409,000 soldiers captured during the war from 1861 to 1865.
Tactical or battlefield intelligence became very vital to both armies in the field during the American Civil War.
American Heritage is a magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States of America for a mainstream readership.
"An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" (1890) is a short story by the American writer and Civil War veteran Ambrose Bierce.
The Anaconda Plan is the name applied to a U.S. Union Army outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War.
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War.
Andrew Hull Foote (September 12, 1806 – June 26, 1863) was an American naval officer who was noted for his service in the American Civil War and also for his contributions to several naval reforms in the years prior to the war.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Antietam National Battlefield is a National Park Service protected area along Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Washington County, northwestern Maryland.
The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia.
Appomattox is a town in Appomattox County, Virginia, United States.
During the American Civil War, Arkansas was a Confederate state, though it had initially voted to remain in the Union.
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Army of Tennessee was the principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War.
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. Shot in the head as he watched the play, Lincoln died the following day at 7:22 a.m., in the Petersen House opposite the theater.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The city of Atlanta, Georgia, in Fulton County, was an important rail and commercial center during the American Civil War.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the "Pratt Street Riots" and the "Pratt Street Massacre") was a civil conflict on Friday, April 19, 1861, on Pratt Street, in Baltimore, Maryland, between antiwar "Copperhead" Democrats (the largest party in Maryland) and other Southern/Confederate sympathizers on one side, and members of the primarily Massachusetts and some Pennsylvania state militia regiments en route to the national capital at Washington called up for federal service, on the other.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era is a Pulitzer Prize-winning work on the American Civil War, published in 1988, by James M. McPherson.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
The Battle of Appomattox Court House (Virginia, U.S.), fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War on July 22, 1864, just southeast of Atlanta, Georgia.
The Battle of Cedar Creek, or Battle of Belle Grove, fought October 19, 1864, was the culminating battle of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War (1861–1865), and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign.
The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on September 18 – 20, 1863, between U.S. and Confederate forces in the American Civil War, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia — the Chickamauga Campaign.
The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought during the American Civil War near Mechanicsville, Virginia, from May 31 to June 12, 1864, with the most significant fighting occurring on June 3.
The Battle of Columbus, Georgia (April 16, 1865), was the last conflict in the Union campaign through Alabama and Georgia, known as Wilson's Raid, in the final phase of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Five Forks was fought on April 1, 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, around the road junction of Five Forks, Dinwiddie County, Virginia, during the end of the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign (sometimes called the Siege of Petersburg) and in the beginning stage of the Appomattox Campaign near the conclusion of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought from February 12–16, 1862, in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Henry was fought on February 6, 1862, in western Middle Tennessee, during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Pillow, which ended with the Fort Pillow massacre, was fought on April 12, 1864, at Fort Pillow on the Mississippi River in Henning, Tennessee, during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861) was the bombardment of Fort Sumter near Charleston, South Carolina by the Confederate States Army, and the return gunfire and subsequent surrender by the United States Army, that started the American Civil War.
The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Ambrose Burnside, as part of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Gettysburg (with an sound) was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies.
The Battle of Island Number Ten was an engagement at the New Madrid or Kentucky Bend on the Mississippi River during the American Civil War, lasting from February 28 to April 8, 1862.
The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign that represented the end of large-scale fighting west of the coastal states in the American Civil War.
The Battle of New Market was fought on May 15, 1864, in Virginia during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War.
The Battle of Pea Ridge (March 7 – 8, 1862), also known as the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, was a major battle of the American Civil War fought near Leetown, northeast of Fayetteville, Arkansas.
The Battle of Perryville (also known as the Battle of Chaplin Hills) was fought on October 8, 1862, in the Chaplin Hills west of Perryville, Kentucky, as the culmination of the Confederate Heartland Offensive (Kentucky Campaign) during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Sailor's Creek (also known in whole or in part as Sayler's Creek, Little Sailor's Creek, Harper's Farm, Marshall's Cross Roads, Hillsman Farm, Double Bridges, or Lockett's Farm) was fought on April 6, 1865, near Farmville, Virginia, as part of the Appomattox Campaign, near the end of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Shiloh (also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing) was a battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee.
The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes more simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania (or the 19th-century spelling Spottsylvania), was the second major battle in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Second Battle of Murfreesboro) was a battle fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
The Battle of the Wilderness, fought May 5–7, 1864, was the first battle of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Virginia Overland Campaign against Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War.
The Battle of West Point, Georgia (April 16, 1865), formed part of the Union campaign through Alabama and Georgia, known as Wilson's Raid, in the final phase of the American Civil War.
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.
Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was a major general of the Union Army, politician, lawyer and businessman from Massachusetts.
Bennett Place, sometimes known as Bennett Farm, in Durham, Durham County, North Carolina, was the site, in late April 1865, of the largest surrender of Confederate soldiers ending the American Civil War, on April 26, 1865.
The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought at the town of Bermuda Hundred, outside Richmond, Virginia, during May 1864 in the American Civil War.
This bibliography of Abraham Lincoln is a comprehensive list of written and published works about or by Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States.
The American Civil War bibliography comprises books that deal in large part with the American Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th president of the United States (1869–1877) following his success as military commander in the American Civil War.
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas.
The blockade runners of the American Civil War were seagoing steam ships that were used to make their way through the Union blockade that extended some along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines and the lower Mississippi River.
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.
Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a senior officer of the Confederate States Army who was assigned to duty at Richmond, under direction of the President of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis, and charged with the conduct of military operations of the armies of the Confederate States from February 24, 1864 until January 13, 1865, when he was charged with command and defense of Wilmington, North Carolina.
Charles Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 – August 28, 1978) was an American historian and journalist, known best for his books concerning the American Civil War.
Comer Vann Woodward (November 13, 1908 – December 17, 1999) was a Pulitzer-prize winning American historian focusing primarily on the American South and race relations.
Call of Juarez: Bound in Blood is a 2009 first-person shooter Western video game developed by Techland and published by Ubisoft for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows.
At the time of the American Civil War, Canada did not yet exist as a federated nation.
The casemate ironclad is a type of iron or iron-armored gunboat briefly used in the American Civil War by both the Confederate States Navy and its adversary, the Union Navy.
A charge is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat.
Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.
Charles Francis Adams Sr. (August 18, 1807 – November 21, 1886) was an American historical editor, writer, politician, and diplomat.
Charleston, South Carolina, was a hotbed of secession at the start of the American Civil War and an important Atlantic Ocean port city for the fledgling Confederate States of America.
The Chattanooga Campaign was a series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War.
Chattanooga is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, with a population of 177,571 in 2016.
Chauncey Mitchell Depew (April 23, 1834April 5, 1928) was an attorney for Cornelius Vanderbilt's railroad interests, president of the New York Central Railroad System, and a United States Senator from New York from 1899 to 1911.
The Cherokee in the American Civil War were active in Trans-Mississippi and Western Theaters.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, located in northern Georgia and eastern Tennessee, preserves the sites of two major battles of the American Civil War: the Battle of Chickamauga and the Chattanooga Campaign.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
The Civil War Trust is now the American Battlefield Trust, a 501(c)(3) charitable organization whose primary focus is in the preservation of American battlefields.
Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers.
Claiborne Fox Jackson (April 4, 1806 – December 6, 1862), also known as C. F. Jackson, was an American politician who was the 15th Governor of Missouri from January 3, 1861, until his deposition on July 23, 1861.
Cold Mountain is a 2003 epic war film written and directed by Anthony Minghella.
The Colt New Model Revolving rifles were early repeating rifles produced by the Colt's Manufacturing Company 1856 until 1864.
Columbus is a home rule-class city in Hickman County, Kentucky, in the United States.
The commemoration of the American Civil War is based on the memories of the Civil War that Americans have shaped according to their political, social and cultural circumstances and needs, starting with the Gettysburg Address and the dedication of the Gettysburg cemetery in 1863.
The Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps concerns both the actual stamps and covers used during the American Civil War, and the later postage celebrations.
The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Confederate States Marine Corps (CSMC) was a branch of the Confederate States armed forces during the American Civil War.
The Navy of the Confederate States (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States Armed Forces, established by an act of the Confederate States Congress on February 21, 1861.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860 which ran against the Republicans and Democrats as a fourth party in 1860.
Contraband was a term commonly used in the United States military during the American Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces.
In the 1860s, the Copperheads were a vocal faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War and wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University.
The Corwin Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cotton diplomacy refers to the diplomatic methods employed by the Confederacy during the American Civil War to coerce the United Kingdom and France to support the Confederate war effort by implementing a cotton trade embargo against the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe.
The Crittenden Compromise was an unsuccessful proposal introduced by United States Senator John J. Crittenden (Constitutional Unionist of Kentucky) on December 18, 1860.
CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company.
At least three ships of the Confederate States Navy were named CSS Florida in honor of the third Confederate state.
CSS Shenandoah, formerly Sea King, was an iron-framed, teak-planked, full-rigged sailing ship with auxiliary steam power chiefly known for her adventures under Lieutenant Commander James Waddell as part of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War.
The CSS Tallahassee was a twin-screw steamer and cruiser in the Confederate States Navy, purchased in 1864, and used for commerce raiding off the Atlantic coast.
CSS Tennessee was a casemate ironclad ram built for the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War.
CSS Virginia was the first steam-powered ironclad warship built by the Confederate States Navy during the first year of the American Civil War; she was constructed as a casemate ironclad using the raised and cut down original lower hull and engines of the scuttled steam frigate.
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States.
Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782October 24, 1852) was an American politician who represented New Hampshire (1813–1817) and Massachusetts (1823–1827) in the United States House of Representatives; served as a Senator from Massachusetts (1827–1841, 1845–1850); and was the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841–1843), and Millard Fillmore (1850–1852).
Darkest of Days is a first-person shooter video game developed by 8monkey Labs and published by Phantom EFX.
David Emanuel Twiggs (February 14, 1790 – July 15, 1862), born in Georgia, was a career army officer, serving during the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, and Mexican-American War.
David Glasgow Farragut (also spelled Glascoe; July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was a flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War.
David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general during the American Civil War.
Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union
The Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union was a proclamation issued on December 24, 1860, by the government of South Carolina to explain its reasons for seceding from the United States.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818November 19, 1898) was a United States Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the American Civil War.
Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802July 17, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent mentally ill who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
Ellis Merton Coulter (1890–1981) was an American historian of the South, author, and a founding member of the Southern Historical Association.
East Tennessee comprises approximately the eastern third of the U.S. state of Tennessee, one of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee defined in state law.
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War consists of the major military and naval operations in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.
Economic determinism is a socioeconomic theory that economic relationships (such as being an owner or capitalist, or being a worker or proletarian) are the foundation upon which all other social and political arrangements in society are based.
Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Mexican-American War.
The American Civil War led to enormous cultural changes throughout the United States.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (born Cambria Station, Chester County, Pennsylvania, October 5, 1868; died December 8, 1936, Philadelphia, age 68) was an American biographer and historical writer.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
The Empire of Liberty is a theme developed first by Thomas Jefferson to identify the responsibility of the United States to spread freedom across the world.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Ex parte Merryman, 17 F. Cas. 144 (C.C.D. Md. 1861) (No. 9487), is a well-known and controversial U.S. federal court case which arose out of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the artillery weapons, equipment, and practices used by the Artillery branch to support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field.
The First Battle of Bull Run (the name used by Union forces), also known as the First Battle of Manassas.
The First Battle of Memphis was a naval battle fought on the Mississippi River immediately above the city of Memphis on June 6, 1862, during the American Civil War.
The first inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as the 16th President of the United States was held on Monday, March 4, 1861, on the East Portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Foreign enlistment in the American Civil War largely favored the Union, which was far more successful in attracting international volunteers.
Forge of Freedom: The American Civil War is an award-winning computer turn-based strategy game, combining both a strategic level and a tactical level by means of letting the player(s) raise, equip and move armies and then fight out battles on a randomized map when encountering the enemy.
Fort Jefferson is a massive but unfinished coastal fortress.
Fort Monroe (also known as the Fort Monroe National Monument) is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia—at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula, United States.
Fort Pickens is a pentagonal historic United States military fort on Santa Rosa Island in the Pensacola, Florida, area.
Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War.
The Fort Zachary Taylor Historic State Park, better known simply as Fort Taylor (or Fort Zach to locals) is a Florida State Park and National Historic Landmark centered on a Civil War-era fort located near the southern tip of Key West, Florida.
The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe.
Francis Amasa Walker (July 2, 1840 – January 5, 1897) was an American economist, statistician, journalist, educator, academic administrator, and military officer in the Union Army.
Frank Key Howard (1826 - 1872) (also cited as Francis Key Howard) was the grandson of Francis Scott Key and Revolutionary War colonel John Eager Howard.
The Franklin–Nashville Campaign, also known as Hood's Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles in the Western Theater, conducted from September 18 to December 27, 1864, in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War.
Franz Sigel (November 18, 1824 – August 21, 1902) was a German American military officer, revolutionist and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War.
Free State of Jones is a 2016 American historical period war film inspired by the life of Newton Knight and his armed revolt against the Confederacy in Jones County, Mississippi, throughout the American Civil War.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers.
The Fugitive Slave Clause of the United States Constitution, also known as either the Slave Clause or the Fugitives From Labor Clause, is Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, which requires a "person held to service or labour" (usually a slave, apprentice, or indentured servant) who flees to another state to be returned to the owner in the state from which that person escaped.
The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826October 29, 1885) was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician.
George R. Crook (September 8, 1830 – March 21, 1890) was a career United States Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars.
George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816March 28, 1870) was a United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War, one of the principal commanders in the Western Theater.
George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German-Americans were the largest ethnic contingent to fight for the Union in the American Civil War.
Gettysburg is a 1993 American epic war film written and directed by Ronald F. Maxwell, adapted from the historical novel The Killer Angels (1974) by Michael Shaara, about the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War.
The Gettysburg National Military Park protects and interprets the landscape of the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War.
Glory is a 1989 American war film directed by Edward Zwick, starring Matthew Broderick, Denzel Washington, Cary Elwes and Morgan Freeman.
Gods and Generals is a 2003 American period war drama film written and directed by Ronald F. Maxwell.
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name.
Gone with the Wind is a novel by American writer Margaret Mitchell, first published in 1936.
The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army (United States Army), Union Navy (U.S. Navy), Marines and the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War for the Northern/Federal forces.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings from December 15, 1814 – January 5, 1815, in Hartford, Connecticut, United States, in which the New England Federalist Party met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power.
Henry Wager Halleck (January 16, 1815 – January 9, 1872) was a United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action, breech-loading, tubular magazine rifle famed both for its use at the Battle of the Little Bighorn and being the basis for the iconic Winchester rifle of the American Wild West.
The high-water mark of the Confederacy refers to an area on Cemetery Ridge near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, marking the farthest point reached by Confederate forces during Pickett's Charge on July 3, 1863.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
History Civil War: Secret Missions is a historical first-person shooter video game developed by Cauldron Ltd, and released on 4 November 2008 by Activision Value and the History Channel for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.
The history of the United States began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC.
The Homestead Acts were several United States federal laws under which an applicant, upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, could acquire ownership of land, typically called a "homestead.” In all, more than 270 million acres of public land, or nearly 10% of the total area of the U.S., was transferred to 1.6 million homesteaders; most of the homesteads were west of the Mississippi River.
Thomas Howell Cobb (September 7, 1815 – October 9, 1868) was an American political figure.
An inauguration is a formal ceremony or special event to mark either.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
During the American Civil War, most of what is now the U.S. state of Oklahoma was designated as the Indian Territory.
Industrial warfare is a period in the history of warfare ranging roughly from the early 19th century and the start of the Industrial Revolution to the beginning of the Atomic Age, which saw the rise of nation-states, capable of creating and equipping large armies, navies, and air forces, through the process of industrialization.
The infantry in the American Civil War comprised foot-soldiers who fought primarily with small arms, and carried the brunt of the fighting on battlefields across the United States.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Irish-American Catholics served on both sides of the American Civil War (1861–1865) as officers, volunteers and draftees.
An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.
Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was a career American army officer.
James Buchanan Jr. (April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American politician who served as the 15th President of the United States (1857–61), serving immediately prior to the American Civil War.
James Chapin Bradford (born 1945 in Michigan) is a professor of history at Texas A&M University and a specialist in American maritime, naval, and military history in the early national period of American History.
James Longstreet (January 8, 1821January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse." He served under Lee as a corps commander for many of the famous battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Eastern Theater, and briefly with Braxton Bragg in the Army of Tennessee in the Western Theater.
James M. "Jim" McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis '86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University.
The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
John Bell (February 18, 1796September 10, 1869) was an American politician, attorney, and planter.
John Bell Hood (June 1 or June 29, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry (also known as John Brown's raid or The raid on Harper's Ferry) was an effort by armed abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was an American lawyer, politician, and soldier.
John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782March 31, 1850) was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina, and the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832.
John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813July 13, 1890) was an American explorer, politician, and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States.
John Caldwell Tidball (January 25, 1825 – May 15, 1906) was a career military officer, noted for his service in the horse artillery in the cavalry in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
John David Winters (December 23, 1916 – December 9, 1997)John D. Winters obituary, Ruston Daily Leader, December 10, 1997 was a historian at Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, Louisiana.
John William Jakes (born March 31, 1932) is an American writer, best known for American historical fiction.
Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.
John Pope (March 16, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.
John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the American Civil War.
John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was the American actor who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
John LaGale "Johnny" Horton (April 30, 1925 – November 5, 1960) was an American country music and rockabilly singer and musician, best known for his saga ballads beginning with the song "The Battle of New Orleans", which was awarded the 1960 Grammy Award for Best Country & Western Recording.
Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career United States Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), and Seminole Wars.
Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879) was a career United States Army officer, achieving the rank of major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce.
Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American filmmaker, known for his style of using archival footage and photographs in documentary films.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
"King Cotton" is a slogan which summarized the strategy used before the American Civil War (of 1861–1865) by pro-secessionists in the southern states (the future Confederate States of America) to claim the feasibility of secession and to prove there was no need to fear a war with the northern states.
The Lawrence massacre (also known as Quantrill's raid) was an attack during the American Civil War (186165) by the Quantrill's Raiders, a Confederate guerilla group led by William Quantrill, on the Unionist town of Lawrence, Kansas.
Leonidas Polk (April 10, 1806 – June 14, 1864) was a planter in Maury County, Tennessee, and a second cousin of President James K. Polk.
The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was an American political party that was organized in May 1872 to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872.
The Liberty Arsenal, known by Federal authorities as the Missouri Depot was a United States Army arsenal at Liberty, Missouri in Clay County, Missouri.
Lincoln is a 2012 American epic historical drama film directed and produced by Steven Spielberg, starring Daniel Day-Lewis as United States President Abraham Lincoln.
The Battles of the American Civil War were fought between April 12, 1861 and May 12–13, 1865 in 23 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia), the District of Columbia, as well as the following territories: Arizona Territory, Colorado Territory, Dakota Territory, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), New Mexico Territory, and Washington Territory, and naval engagements.
This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War.
This is a list of the costliest land battles of the American Civil War, measured by casualties (killed, wounded, captured, and missing) on both sides.
Memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery include 28 major and 142 minor monuments and memorials.
The following is a list of the memorials to Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America.
The following is a partial list of monuments and memorials to Robert E. Lee, who served as General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States in 1865.
The following is a list of memorials to and things named in honor of Stonewall Jackson (1824–1863), who served as a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War of 1861-1865.
This is a list of monuments erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, as well as by the Ladies' Memorial Association, the Sons of Confederate Veterans, and other related groups.
The monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield commemorate the July 1 to 3, 1863 Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.
This is a list of American Civil War monuments and memorials associated with the Union.
The American Civil War, fought between the Union and Confederate forces, took place from 1861 to 1865.
The Lost Cause of the Confederacy, or simply the Lost Cause, is an ideological movement that describes the Confederate cause as a heroic one against great odds despite its defeat.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana State University Press (LSU Press) is a university press that was founded in 1935.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American novelist and journalist under the pseudonym Peggy Mitchell.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland that convenes within the State House in Annapolis.
The McLean House in Appomattox, Virginia is within the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park.
Abraham Lincoln, U.S. president 1861–65, has been memorialized in many town, city, and county names,Dennis, p. 194.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Wyatt Merle Kilgore (August 9, 1934 – February 6, 2005) was an American singer, songwriter, and manager.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A large contingent of African Americans served in the American Civil War.
The military use of railways derives from their ability to move troops or materiel rapidly and, less usually, on their use as a platform for military systems, like armoured trains, in their own right.
The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
The Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1861–1863 was a constitutional convention held in the state of Missouri during the American Civil War.
During the American Civil War, the secession of Missouri was controversial because of the disputed status of the state of Missouri.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
The display of flags used by and associated with the Confederate States of America (1861–1865) has continued, with a long interruption, into the present day, with the "Southern cross" used in the battle flag of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia gaining the most popular recognition as a modern symbol of the Confederacy, and by extension, the Southern United States in general.
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U.S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales.
The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was an increased import tariff in the United States, adopted on March 2, 1861, during the administration of President James Buchanan, a Democrat.
Murfreesboro is a city in, and the county seat of, Rutherford County, Tennessee, United States.
The American Civil War has been known by a number of names since it began in 1861.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
Nathaniel Lyon (July 14, 1818 – August 10, 1861) was the first Union general to be killed in the American Civil War and is noted for his actions in the state of Missouri at the beginning of the conflict.
Nathaniel Prentice (or Prentiss) Banks (January 30, 1816 – September 1, 1894) was an American politician from Massachusetts and a Union general during the Civil War.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 were two United States federal banking acts that established a system of national banks, and created the United States National Banking System.
Native Americans in the American Civil War saw Native American individuals, bands, tribes, and nations participate in numerous skirmishes and battles.
Neo-Confederate, or Southern Nationalist, is a term used to describe the views of various groups and individuals who use historical revisionism to portray the Confederate States of America and its actions in the American Civil War in a positive light.
New Madrid is a city in New Madrid County, Missouri, United States.
The New Mexico Territory, which included the areas which became the modern U.S. states of New Mexico and Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada, played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
North and South is the title of three American television miniseries broadcast on the ABC network in 1985, 1986, and 1994.
North and South is a 1980s trilogy of best-selling novels by John Jakes which take place before, during, and after the American Civil War.
The state of North Carolina, though raising a significant number of troops in regiments for the Union, provided an important source of soldiers, supplies and war materiel to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September 1862 in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
Nullification, in United States constitutional history, is a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional with respect to the United States Constitution (as opposed to the state's own constitution).
Oklahoma State University (also referred to informally as Oklahoma State, OKState, and OSU), is a land-grant, sun-grant, coeducational public research university located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States.
Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All is a 1989 first novel by Allan GurganusReed, Susan and Hutchings, David.
Ordeal of the Union, an eight-volume set (published 1947–1971) on the American Civil War by Allan Nevins, is one of the author's greatest works, ending only with his death.
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (or simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.
The Overland Campaign, also known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War.
Pierre Gustave Toutant-Beauregard (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was an American military officer who was the first prominent general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
The Pacific Railroad Acts were a series of acts of Congress that promoted the construction of a "transcontinental railroad" (the Pacific Railroad) in the United States through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies.
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was an Irish and later American soldier, best known for his service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, where he rose to the rank of major general.
The Peace Conference of 1861 was a meeting of 131 leading American politicians in February 1861, at the Willard's Hotel in Washington, DC, on the eve of the American Civil War.
The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.
Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.
Pickett's Charge was an infantry assault ordered by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Union positions on July 3, 1863, the last day of the Battle of Gettysburg in the state of Pennsylvania during the American Civil War.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay.
The Preamble to the United States Constitution is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution's fundamental purposes and guiding principles.
On April 15, 1861, at the start of the American Civil War, the President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, called for a 75,000-man militia to serve for three months following the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter.
A prize of war is a piece of enemy property or land seized by a belligerent party during or after a war or battle, typically at sea.
A proclamation (Lat. proclamare, to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known.
While trying to unify the various German states under its banner, Prussia was not participating in the American Civil War.
Quantrill's Raiders were the best-known of the pro-Confederate partisan guerrillas (also known as "bushwhackers") who fought in the American Civil War.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition comprised a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
For decades in the U.S., there have been isolated incidents of removal of Confederate monuments and memorials, although generally opposed in public opinion polls, and several U.S. States have passed laws over 115 years to complicate or prohibit further removals.
A repeating rifle, or repeater for short, is a single-barrel rifle capable of repeated discharges following a single ammunition reload, typically by having multiple cartridges stored in a magazine (within or attached to the gun) and then fed into the chamber by the bolt via either a manual or automatic mechanism, while the act of chambering the rifle typically also recocks the action for the following shot.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
The Restored Government of Virginia, also known as the Reorganized Government of Virginia, was the Unionist government of Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Revenue Act of 1861, formally cited as, included the first U.S. Federal income tax statute (see). The Act, motivated by the need to fund the Civil War, imposed an income tax to be "levied, collected, and paid, upon the annual income of every person residing in the United States, whether such income is derived from any kind of property, or from any profession, trade, employment, or vocation carried on in the United States or elsewhere, or from any other source whatever " The tax imposed was a flat tax, with a rate of 3% on incomes above $800.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
RMS Trent was a British Royal Mail paddle steamer built in 1841 by William Pitcher of Northfleet for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.
Jaime Royal "Robbie" Robertson, OC (born July 5, 1943), is a Canadian musician, songwriter, film composer, producer, actor, and author.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War.
The Second Battle of Fredericksburg, also known as the Second Battle of Marye's Heights, took place on May 3, 1863, in Fredericksburg, Virginia, as part of the Chancellorsville Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Sp.: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70).
Sectionalism is loyalty to one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole.
The Seven Days Battles were a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.
Sharpsburg is a town in Washington County, Maryland, United States, located approximately south of Hagerstown.
Shelby Dade Foote Jr. (November 17, 1916 – June 27, 2005) was an American historian and novelist who wrote The Civil War: A Narrative, a three-volume history of the American Civil War.
Shenandoah is a 1965 American Civil War film starring James Stewart, Doug McClure, Glenn Corbett, Patrick Wayne, and, in their film debuts, Katharine Ross and Rosemary Forsyth.
The Shenandoah Valley is a geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States.
Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army.
Shiloh: A Novel is a historical novel about the American Civil War battle of that name, written in 1952 by Shelby Foote.
Shiloh National Military Park preserves the American Civil War Shiloh and Corinth battlefields.
Sid Meier's Antietam! is a real-time computer wargame designed by Sid Meier, the co-founder of Firaxis Games, then released in December 1999 by Electronic Arts.
Sid Meier's Gettysburg! is a 1997 real-time wargame developed by Firaxis Games and published by Electronic Arts.
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.
The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
Simon Cameron (March 8, 1799June 26, 1889) was an influential American businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln at the start of the American Civil War.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
In the history of the United States, a slave state was a U.S. state in which the practice of slavery was legal, and a free state was one in which slavery was prohibited or being legally phased out.
Slavery played the central role during the American Civil War.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) is an American non-profit and charitable organization of male descendants of Confederate veterans headquartered at the Elm Springs in Columbia, Tennessee.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Southern Historical Association (SHA) is an organization of historians focusing on the history of the Southern United States (commonly referred to as southern history).
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Spencer 1860 was an American lever action rifle.
Stand Watie (lit) (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871) — also known as Standhope Uwatie, Tawkertawker, and Isaac S. Watie — was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, and the only Native American to attain a general's rank in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 – June 3, 1861) was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act.
Stephen B. Oates (born 1936) is a former professor of history at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Stephen Crane (November 1, 1871 – June 5, 1900) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, combatants, fortifications, ships or armament to another power.
Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
To a large extent, the American Civil War was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee, as only Virginia saw more battles.
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River.
Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that prohibits states from the use of force against the "territorial integrity or political independence" of another state.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
Texar's Revenge, or, North Against South (Nord contre Sud) is the full title of the English translation of the novel written by the French science-fiction author Jules Verne, and centers on the story of James Burbank, an antislavery northerner living near Jacksonville, Florida, and Texar, a pro-slavery southerner who holds a vendetta against Burbank.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Texas v. White, was a case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Band was a Canadian-American roots rock group formed in Toronto, Ontario in 1968 by Rick Danko (bass guitar, vocals), Garth Hudson (keyboards, saxophone), Richard Manuel (keyboards, vocals), Robbie Robertson (guitar, vocals), and Levon Helm (drums, vocals).
The Beguiled is a 1971 American Southern Gothic, thriller-drama film directed by Don Siegel, starring Clint Eastwood and Geraldine Page.
The Birth of a Nation (originally called The Clansman) is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish.
The Civil War is a 1990 American television documentary miniseries created by Ken Burns about the American Civil War.
The Civil War: A Narrative (1958–1974) is a three volume, 2,968-page, 1.2 million-word history of the American Civil War by Shelby Foote.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The General is a 1926 American silent comedy film released by United Artists.
The German Element in the United States, With Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social and Educational Influence, by Albert Bernhardt Faust is a two-volume work published in 1909.
The Gettysburg Address is an upcoming American documentary written, produced and directed by Sean Conant.
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo) is a 1966 epic Spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef, and Eli Wallach in their respective title roles.
The History Channel: Civil War – A Nation Divided is a historical first-person shooter video game developed by Cauldron HQ, released on November 7, 2006 by Activision Value and the History Channel for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2 and Xbox 360.
The Horse Soldiers is a 1959 DeLuxe Color war film set during the American Civil War directed by John Ford and starring John Wayne, William Holden and Constance Towers.
The Last Outlaw is a western starring Mickey Rourke, Dermot Mulroney, Ted Levine, Daniel Quinn, Gavan O'Herlihy, Keith David, John C. McGinley, and Steve Buscemi, along with a variety of other known actors, which has since become a cult classic among western genre fans.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.
"The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down" is a song written by Robbie Robertson and originally recorded by the Canadian-American roots rock group the Band in 1969 and released on their eponymous second album.
The Red Badge of Courage is a war novel by American author Stephen Crane (1871–1900).
The Red Badge of Courage is a 1951 war film made by MGM.
The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (1881) is a book written by Jefferson Davis, who served as President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
This is a timeline of United States history, comprising important legal and territorial changes as well as political, social, and economic events in the United States and its predecessor states.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Traveller (1857–1871) was Confederate General Robert E. Lee's most famous horse during the American Civil War.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The Trent Affair was a diplomatic incident in 1861 during the American Civil War that threatened a war between the United States and the United Kingdom.
Triplett & Scott was an American repeater carbine invented by Louis Triplett and William Scott of Columbia, Kentucky.
There is widespread disagreement among historians about the turning point of the American Civil War.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.
The Uniform of the Union Army was widely varied and, due to limitations on supply of wool and other materials, based on availability and cost of materials during the United States Civil War.
Each branch of the Confederate States armed forces had their own service dress and fatigue uniforms and regulations regarding them during the American Civil War, which lasted from April 12, 1861 until May 1865.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.
The Union blockade in the American Civil War was a naval strategy by the United States to prevent the Confederacy from trading.
The Union Navy was the United States Navy (USN) during the American Civil War, when it fought the Confederate States Navy (CSN).
The United Kingdom (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) remained officially neutral throughout the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were regiments in the United States Army composed primarily of African-American (colored) soldiers, although members of other minority groups also served with the units.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in mostly in November 1862, in the middle of President Abraham Lincoln's first term.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
This article lists the United States's military dead, wounded, and missing person totals for wars and major deployments.
A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for more than 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.
The United States Presidential Election of 1860 was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States.
The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by an act of Congress on 4 August 1790 as the Revenue-Marine upon the recommendation of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton to serve as an armed customs enforcement service.
USS Merrimack, also improperly Merrimac, was a frigate, best known as the hull upon which the ironclad warship CSS ''Virginia'' was constructed during the American Civil War.
USS Monitor was an iron-hulled steamship.
The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October 1864.
The Vicksburg Campaign was a series of maneuvers and battles in the Western Theater of the American Civil War directed against Vicksburg, Mississippi, a fortress city that dominated the last Confederate-controlled section of the Mississippi River.
Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from March 29 to July 4, 1863.
Vicksburg is the only city in, and county seat of Warren County, Mississippi, United States.
Victoria II is a grand strategy game developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia dynasty is a term sometimes used to describe the fact that four of the first five Presidents of the United States were from Virginia.
The Commonwealth of Virginia became a prominent part of the Confederate States of America when it joined the Confederacy during the American Civil War.
The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, USA, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay.
In law, void means of no legal effect.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
War Democrats in American politics of the 1860s were members of the Democratic Party who supported the Union and rejected the policies of the Copperheads (or Peace Democrats).
The Loyal War Governors' Conference was an important political event of the American Civil War.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Washington, D.C., during the American Civil War was a significant civilian leadership, military headquarters, and logistics center.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
Wheeling is a city in Ohio and Marshall counties in the U.S. state of West Virginia.
William Babcock Hazen (September 27, 1830 – January 16, 1887) was a career United States Army officer who served in the Indian Wars, as a Union general in the American Civil War, and as Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army.
William Henry Seward (May 16, 1801 – October 10, 1872) was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as Governor of New York and United States Senator.
William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819March 11, 1898) was an American inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer.
William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author.
William Woods Averell (November 5, 1832 – February 3, 1900) was a career United States Army officer and a cavalry general in the American Civil War.
The Wilmot Proviso proposed an American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War.
Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
XXV Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War.
The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey.
12 Years a Slave is a 2013 period drama film and an adaptation of the 1853 slave narrative memoir Twelve Years a Slave by Solomon Northup, a New York State-born free African-American man who was kidnapped in Washington, D.C. by two conmen in 1841 and sold into slavery.
The 1804 Haiti massacre was carried out against the remaining white population of native French people and French Creoles (or Franco-Haitians) in Haiti by Haitian soldiers under orders from Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
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