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American English

Index American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. [1]

271 relations: /æ/ raising, Accent (sociolinguistics), Adobe, Adolescence, Affirmative action, African Americans, African-American English, African-American Vernacular English, Algonquian languages, All caps, Allophone, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Alveolar consonant, American and British English spelling differences, American Indian English, American Jews, Anglo-Frisian languages, Apartment, Appalachian Mountains, Arkansas, Autumn, Auxiliary verb, Back vowel, Back-formation, Backyard, Baggage, Baltimore, Bert Vaux, Bill Swerski's Superfans, Boston, Boston accent, Brainstorming, British colonization of the Americas, British English, Bryan A. Garner, Cajun English, Cajuns, California English, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canadian English, Canadian raising, Candy, Charleston, South Carolina, Chesapeake Bay, Chicago, Chicano English, Chutzpah, Cincinnati, ..., Collective noun, Columbus, Ohio, Compound (linguistics), Condominium, Conservative (language), Controlled-access highway, Cookie, Coronal consonant, Cot–caught merger, Creole language, Cucurbita, Cuteness, De facto, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Detroit, Dialect levelling, Diaper, Dictionary of American Regional English, Diphthong, Disc jockey, Driveway, Dutch language, Early Modern English, Eastern New England English, Elevator, England, English language, English language in England, English-language vowel changes before historic /l/, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Fargo (film), Flapping, Foothills, Francophile, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Frying pan, Function word, Functional shift, Gasoline, General American, General store, George Orwell, German language, Germanic languages, Glasses, Glossary of English-language idioms derived from baseball, Glossary of rail transport terms, Great Lakes, Great Lakes region, Greater Pittsburgh Region, H-dropping, Hamburger, Harvard University, Have a nice day, Hawaii, Hawaiian Pidgin, Henry Watson Fowler, Hiberno-English, High Tider, Hip hop, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hitchhiking, Homophone, Homorganic consonant, Hot dog, Huckleberry Hound, Human resources, IETF language tag, Indianapolis, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Inland Northern American English, International English, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Internet Standard, Intervocalic consonant, Irish language, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, ISO 639-1, Jazz, John C. Wells, Kansas City, Missouri, Kindergarten, Land lot, Landslide, Language code, Latin script, Layoff, Levee, List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas, Log cabin, Long Island, Lumber, Maize, Makeover, Markedness, Mergers and acquisitions, Mexican Spanish, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic accent, Mid-Atlantic American English, Middle English, Midland American English, Mississippi River, Mobile home, Moccasin, Monkey wrench, Monophthong, Moose, Morphology (linguistics), Nasal consonant, Nerd, Net income, New England, New England English, New Jersey, New Orleans English, New York accent, New York City, New York City English, New York Latino English, New York metropolitan area, Niger–Congo languages, Noah Webster, North American English, North Sea Germanic, North-Central American English, Obligate, Ohio River, OK, Oklahoma, Old English, Older Southern American English, Orthography, Outer Banks, Overpass, Oxford spelling, Pacific Northwest English, Parking lot, Participle, Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvania Dutch English, Peter Trudgill, Philadelphia, Philadelphia English, Phonological change, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Pittsburgh, Prison, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Puerto Rico, Raccoon, Rail transport, Ranch, Ranch-style house, Random House, Received Pronunciation, Regional accents of English, Rest area, Retail, Retroflex approximant, Rhoticity in English, Richard W. Bailey, Rodeo, Saab Automobile, Saturday Night Live, Scottish English, Scottish Lowlands, Second language, Shootout, Shopping cart, Sneakers, Soft drink, Southern American English, Southern United States, Spanish language, St. Louis, Sundae, Syllable, T-glottalization, Tap (valve), Tenseness, The American Language, The Atlas of North American English, Townhouse, Transport, Trap-bath split, Truck, Trunk (car), Unified English Braille, United States, United States district court, University of Pennsylvania, Upper Midwest, Vacation, Velarization, Victorian era, Virginia opossum, Voiced velar lateral approximant, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voicelessness, Walter de Gruyter, War of 1812, Waste container, Weatherization, Webster's Dictionary, West Country English, West Germanic languages, West Texas, Western American English, Western Pennsylvania English, Wigwam, William Labov, Yeshivish, Yiddish, Yinglish, 24/7 service. Expand index (221 more) »

/æ/ raising

In the sociolinguistics of the English language, raising or short-a raising is a phenomenon in most American and many Canadian English accents, by which the "short a" vowel, the North American vowel (found in such words as ash, bath, man, lamp, pal, rag, sack, trap, etc.), is pronounced with a raising of the tongue.

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Accent (sociolinguistics)

In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.

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Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.

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AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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African-American English

African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in North American linguistics, is the set of English dialects primarily spoken by most black people in North America; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ranging from African-American Vernacular English to a more standard English.

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African-American Vernacular English

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.

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Algonquian languages

The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.

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All caps

In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar and postalveolar approximants

The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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American and British English spelling differences

Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.

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American Indian English

American Indian English or Native American English is a diverse collection of English dialects spoken by many American Indians and Alaska Natives, notwithstanding indigenous languages also spoken in the United States, of which only a few are in daily use.

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American Jews

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.

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Anglo-Frisian languages

The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.

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An apartment (American English), flat (British English) or unit (Australian English) is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building, generally on a single storey.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.

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Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.

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Auxiliary verb

An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes.

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A backyard, or back yard, is a yard at the back of a house, common in suburban developments in the Western world.

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Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a traveller's articles while the traveler is in transit.

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Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.

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Bert Vaux

Bert Vaux (born November 19, 1968, Houston, Texas) teaches phonology and morphology at the University of Cambridge.

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Bill Swerski's Superfans

"Bill Swerski's Superfans" was a recurring sketch about Chicago sports fans on the American sketch comedy program Saturday Night Live.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Boston accent

The Boston accent is the local accent of Eastern New England English spoken specifically in the city of Boston, its suburbs, and much of eastern Massachusetts.

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Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.

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British colonization of the Americas

The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Bryan A. Garner

Bryan A. Garner (born November 17, 1958) is an American lawyer, lexicographer, and teacher who has written more than two dozen books about English usage and style, and advocacy.

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Cajun English

Cajun English, or Cajun Vernacular English, is the dialect of English spoken by Cajuns living in southern Louisiana and, to a lesser degree, in eastern Texas.

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The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.

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California English

California English (or Californian English) collectively refers to American English in California, particularly an emerging youthful variety, mostly associated with speakers of urban and coastal California.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian English

Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.

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Canadian raising

Canadian raising is an allophonic rule of phonology in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points.

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Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient.

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Charleston, South Carolina

Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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Chesapeake Bay

The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.

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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chicano English

Chicano English, or Mexican-American English, is a dialect of American English spoken primarily by Mexican Americans (sometimes known as Chicanos), particularly in the Southwestern United States, ranging from Texas to CaliforniaNewman, Michael.

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Chutzpah is the quality of audacity, for good or for bad.

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No description.

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Collective noun

In linguistics, a collective noun refers to a collection of things taken as a whole.

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Columbus, Ohio

Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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A condominium, often shortened to condo, is a type of real estate divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas jointly owned.

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Conservative (language)

In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.

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Controlled-access highway

A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.

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A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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Cot–caught merger

The cot–caught merger (also known as the low back merger or the merger) is a phonemic merger that has taken place in some varieties of English, between the phonemes which are conventionally represented in the IPA as (which is usually written with au, aw, al or ough as in caught and thought) and (which is usually written with o as in cot and lot).

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.

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Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.

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Cuteness is a subjective term describing a type of attractiveness commonly associated with youth and appearance, as well as a scientific concept and analytical model in ethology, first introduced by Konrad Lorenz.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Dental and alveolar flaps

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.

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Dialect levelling

Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.

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A diaper (American English) or a nappy (Australian English and British English) is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate or urinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment.

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Dictionary of American Regional English

The Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE) is a record of American English as spoken in the United States, from its beginnings to the present.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Disc jockey

A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience.

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A driveway (also called drive in UK English) is a type of private road for local access to one or a small group of structures, and is owned and maintained by an individual or group.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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Eastern New England English

Eastern New England English, historically known as the Yankee dialect since at least the nineteenth century, is the traditional regional dialect of Maine, New Hampshire, and the eastern half of Massachusetts.

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An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa, Nigeria) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English language in England

The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.

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English-language vowel changes before historic /l/

In the history of English phonology, there have been many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.

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English-language vowel changes before historic /r/

In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.

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Fargo (film)

Fargo is a 1996 crime film written, produced, and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen.

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Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).

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Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.

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A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Frying pan

A frying pan, frypan, or skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying, searing, and browning foods.

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Function word

In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

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Functional shift

In linguistics, functional shift occurs when an existing word takes on a new syntactic function.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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General American

General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.

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General store

A general store (also known as general merchandise store, general dealer or village shop) is a rural or small town store that carries a general line of merchandise.

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George Orwell

Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.

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Glossary of English-language idioms derived from baseball

American English has been enriched by expressions derived from the game of baseball.

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Glossary of rail transport terms

Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Great Lakes region

The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.

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Greater Pittsburgh Region

The Greater Pittsburgh Region is a populous region in the United States which is named for its largest city and economic center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound",.

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A hamburger, beefburger or burger is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bread roll or bun.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Have a nice day

Have a nice day is a commonly spoken expression used to conclude a conversation (whether brief or extensive), or end a message by hoping the person to whom it is addressed experiences a pleasant day.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Hawaiian Pidgin

Hawaiian Pidgin English (alternately Hawaiian Creole English or HCE, known locally as Pidgin) is an English-based creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi (L1: 600,000; L2: 400,000).

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Henry Watson Fowler

Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language.

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Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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High Tider

High Tider or "Hoi Toider" is a dialect of American English spoken in very limited communities of the South Atlantic United States—particularly, several small island and coastal townships in the rural North Carolina "Down East" that encompasses the Outer Banks and Pamlico Sound (specifically including Atlantic, Sea Level, and Harkers Island in eastern Carteret County, the village of Wanchese and also Ocracoke) as well as in the Chesapeake Bay (such as Tangier and Smith Island).

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Hip hop

Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.

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Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.

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Hitchhiking (also known as thumbing, hitching, or autostop) is a means of transportation that is gained by asking people, usually strangers, for a ride in their automobile or other vehicle.

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A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

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Homorganic consonant

In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.

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Hot dog

A hot dog (also spelled hotdog), also known as a frankfurter (sometimes shortened to frank), dog, or wiener, is a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a partially sliced bun.

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Huckleberry Hound

Huckleberry "Huck" Hound is a fictional cartoon character, a blue anthropomorphic dog that speaks with a Southern drawl and has a relaxed, sweet, and well-intentioned personality.

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Human resources

Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.

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IETF language tag

An IETF language tag is an abbreviated language code (for example, en for English, pt-BR for Brazilian Portuguese, or nan-Hant-TW for Min Nan Chinese as spoken in Taiwan using traditional Han characters) defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in the BCP 47 document series, which is currently composed of normative RFC 5646 (referencing the related RFC 5645) and RFC 4647, along with the normative content of the IANA Language Subtag Registry.

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Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Inland Northern American English

Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English dialect spoken primarily by White Americans in a geographic band reaching from Central New York westward along the Erie Canal, through much of the U.S. Great Lakes region, to eastern Iowa.

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International English

International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects

This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.

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Internet Standard

In computer network engineering, an Internet Standard is a normative specification of a technology or methodology applicable to the Internet.

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Intervocalic consonant

In phonetics and phonology, an intervocalic consonant is a consonant that occurs in the middle of a word, between two vowels.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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ISO 3166-1 alpha-2

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

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ISO 639-1

ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes.

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Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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John C. Wells

John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.

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Kansas City, Missouri

Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.

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Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.

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Land lot

In real estate, a lot or plot is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by some owner(s).

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The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.

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Language code

A language code is a code that assigns letters or numbers as identifiers or classifiers for languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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A layoff is the temporary suspension or permanent termination of employment of an employee or, more commonly, a group of employees (collective layoff) for business reasons, such as personnel management or downsizing an organization.

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List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas

This is a list of English language words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French.

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Log cabin

A log cabin is a dwelling constructed of logs, especially a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure.

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Long Island

Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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A makeover is a radical change in appearance.

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In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.

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Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.

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Mexican Spanish

Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada.

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Mid-Atlantic (United States)

The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.

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Mid-Atlantic accent

The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent, is a consciously acquired accent of English, intended to blend together the "standard" speech of both American English and British Received Pronunciation.

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Mid-Atlantic American English

Mid-Atlantic American English, Middle Atlantic American English, or Delaware Valley English is a class of American English, considered by The Atlas of North American English to be a single dialect, spoken in the southern Mid-Atlantic states of the United States (i.e. the Delaware Valley, southeastern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland).

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Midland American English

Midland American English is a regional dialect or super-dialect of American English, geographically lying between the traditionally-defined Northern and Southern United States.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Mobile home

A mobile home (also trailer, trailer home, house trailer, static caravan, residential caravan) is a prefabricated structure, built in a factory on a permanently attached chassis before being transported to site (either by being towed or on a trailer).

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A moccasin is a shoe, made of deerskin or other soft leather, consisting of a sole (made with leather that has not been "worked") and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top, and sometimes with a vamp (additional panel of leather).

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Monkey wrench

The monkey wrench, known as gas grips in the UK, is an adjustable wrench, a later American development of eighteenth-century English coach wrenches.

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A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.

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The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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A nerd is a person seen as overly intellectual, obsessive, introvert or lacking social skills.

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Net income

In business, net income (total comprehensive income, net earnings, net profit, informally, bottom line) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold, expenses and taxes for an accounting period.

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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New England English

New England English collectively refers to the various distinct dialects and varieties of American English originating in the New England area.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New Orleans English

New Orleans English is American English native to the city of New Orleans and its metropolitan area.

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New York accent

The sound system of New York City English is popularly known as a New York accent.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York City English

New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.

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New York Latino English

The English language as primarily spoken by Hispanic Americans on the East Coast of the United States demonstrates considerable influence from New York City English and African American Vernacular English, with certain additional features borrowed from the Spanish language.

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New York metropolitan area

The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Noah Webster

Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.

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North American English

North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.

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North Sea Germanic

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

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North-Central American English

North-Central American English (also known as the Upper Midwestern or North Central dialect in the United States) is an American English dialect native to the Upper Midwestern United States, an area that somewhat overlaps with speakers of the separate Inland North dialect, centered more around the eastern Great Lakes region.

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As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym facultative) and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as.

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Ohio River

The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.

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"OK" (spelling variations include "okay", "O.K.", "ok") is an English word denoting approval, acceptance, agreement, assent, acknowledgment, or a sign of indifference.

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Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Older Southern American English

Older Southern American English was a set of American English dialects of the Southern United States, primarily spoken by White Southerners up until the American Civil War, moving towards a state of decline by the turn of the nineteenth century, further accelerated by World War II and again, finally, by the Civil Rights Movement.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Outer Banks

The Outer Banks (OBX) is a string of barrier islands and spits off the coast of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, on the east coast of the United States.

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An overpass (called a flyover in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries) is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway.

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Oxford spelling

Oxford spelling (also Oxford English Dictionary spelling, Oxford style, or Oxford English spelling) is the spelling standard used by the Oxford University Press (OUP) for British publications, including its Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and its influential British style guide Hart's Rules, and by other publishers who are "etymology conscious", according to Merriam-Webster.

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Pacific Northwest English

Pacific Northwest English (also known, in the United States, as Northwest English) is a variety of North American English that is geographically defined as being spoken in the U.S. states of Washington and Oregon, sometimes also including Idaho and the Canadian province of British Columbia.

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Parking lot

A parking lot (American English) or car park (British English), also known as a car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles.

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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Pennsylvania Dutch

The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.

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Pennsylvania Dutch English

Pennsylvania Dutch English is a dialect of English that has been influenced by the Pennsylvania German language.

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Peter Trudgill

Peter Trudgill, FBA (born 7 November 1943) is a sociolinguist, academic and author.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philadelphia English

Philadelphia English is a variety or dialect of American English native to Philadelphia and extending into Philadelphia's metropolitan area throughout the Delaware Valley and South Jersey, including Atlantic City and Wilmington, Delaware.

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Phonological change

In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.

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Phonological history of English high front vowels

The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.

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Phonological history of English low back vowels

The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, through Old and Middle English to the present.

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Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.

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A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩

The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.

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Rail transport

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.

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A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.

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Ranch-style house

Ranch (also known as; American ranch, California ranch, rambler, or rancher) is a domestic architectural style originating in the United States.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.

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Regional accents of English

Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language.

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Rest area

A rest area is a public facility, located next to a large thoroughfare such as a highway, expressway, or freeway, at which drivers and passengers can rest, eat, or refuel without exiting onto secondary roads.

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Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.

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Retroflex approximant

The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.

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Rhoticity in English

Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.

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Richard W. Bailey

Richard Weld Bailey (October 26, 1939 – April 2, 2011) was an American linguist, scholar of the English language, and the Fred Newton Scott Collegiate Professor of English at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

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Rodeo is a competitive sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later Central America, South America, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

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Saab Automobile

Saab Automobile AB was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile.

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Saturday Night Live

Saturday Night Live (SNL) is an American late-night live television variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol.

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Scottish English

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.

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Scottish Lowlands

The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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A shootout, also called a firefight or gunfight, is a gun battle between armed groups.

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Shopping cart

A shopping cart (American English) or trolley (British English), also known by a variety of other names, is a cart supplied by a shop, especially supermarkets, for use by customers inside the shop for transport of merchandise to the checkout counter during shopping.

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Sneakers (also known as athletic shoes, tennis shoes, gym shoes, sport shoes, runners, takkies, or trainers) are shoes primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now also often used for everyday wear.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Southern American English

Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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St. Louis


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The sundae is a sweet ice cream dessert.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.

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Tap (valve)

A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.

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In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.

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The American Language

The American Language; An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States, first published in 1919, is H. L. Mencken's book about the English language as spoken in the United States.

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The Atlas of North American English

The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change (ANAE; formerly, the Phonological Atlas of North America) is an overview of the pronunciation patterns (accents) in all the major urbanized regional dialects of the English language spoken in the United States and Canada.

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A townhouse, or town house as used in North America, Asia, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing.

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Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Trap-bath split

The split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in mainstream and southeastern accents of English in England (including Received Pronunciation), in New Zealand English and South African English, and also to a lesser extent in Australian English as well as older Northeastern New England English (notably, older Boston accents), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged with the long of father.

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A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.

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Trunk (car)

The trunk (North American English), boot (British English) or compartment (South-East Asia) of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment.

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Unified English Braille

Unified English Braille Code (UEBC, formerly UBC, now usually simply UEB) is an English language Braille code standard, developed to permit representing the wide variety of literary and technical material in use in the English-speaking world today, in uniform fashion.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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Upper Midwest

The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.

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A vacation or holiday is a leave of absence from a regular occupation, or a specific trip or journey, usually for the purpose of recreation or tourism.

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Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Virginia opossum

The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), commonly known as the North American opossum, is a marsupial found in North America.

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Voiced velar lateral approximant

The voiced velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in a very small number of spoken languages in the world.

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Voiceless labialized velar approximant

The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.

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Waste container

A waste container is a container for temporarily storing waste, and is usually made out of metal or plastic.

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Weatherization (American English) or weatherproofing (British English) is the practice of protecting a building and its interior from the elements, particularly from sunlight, precipitation, and wind, and of modifying a building to reduce energy consumption and optimize energy efficiency.

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Webster's Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.

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West Country English

West Country English is one of the English language varieties and accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area sometimes popularly known as the West Country.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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West Texas

West Texas is a loosely defined part of the U.S. state of Texas, generally encompassing the arid and semiarid lands west of a line drawn between the cities of Wichita Falls, Abilene, and Del Rio.

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Western American English

Western American English (also known as Western U.S. English or in the U.S., simply, Western) is a variety of American English that largely unites the entire western half of the United States as a single dialect region, including the states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.

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Western Pennsylvania English

Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly by outsiders as Pittsburghese, is a dialect of American English native primarily to the western half of Pennsylvania, centered on the city of Pittsburgh, but potentially appearing as far north as Erie County, as far east as Sunbury, Pennsylvania, as far west as metropolitan Youngstown (Ohio), and as far south as micropolitan Clarksburg (West Virginia).

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A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.

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William Labov

William "Bill" Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.

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Yeshivish, also known as Yeshiva English or "Yeshivisheh Shprach", is a sociolect of English spoken by Yeshiva students and other Jews with a strong connection to the Orthodox Yeshiva world.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Yinglish words (also referred to colloquially as Hebronics) are neologisms created by speakers of Yiddish in English-speaking countries, sometimes to describe things that were uncommon in the old country.

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24/7 service

In commerce and industry, 24/7 or 24-7 service (usually pronounced "twenty-four seven") is service that is available any time and, usually, every day.

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Am. eng., AmE, AmEng, AmerEnglish, American English language, American English phonology, American English/Standard American English, American accents, American dialect of English, American dialect of the English language, American english, American phonology, American-English, Bang raising, En US, En-US, En-us, EnUS, English (US), English (United States), English (simplified), English in the USA, English in the United States, English language (United States), English language in the United States, English language/American English, English(US), From-rum merger, U S English, U. S. English, U.S. English, US American English, US English, US accents, US english, USEng, USan English, United States English, United States accents, United States language, Usan English, Wing tensing, Yankee English.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_English

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