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Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority.
Abigail Adams (née Smith; November 22, [O.S. November 11] 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the closest advisor and wife of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams.
The Administration of Justice Act, or Act for the Impartial Administration of Justice, also popularly called the Murdering Act or Murder Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 – March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, known for his extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as Grover Cleveland, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller, as well as his public service.
The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras.
The American Battlefield Trust is a charitable organization (501(c)(3)) whose primary focus is in the preservation of battlefields of the American Civil War, the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 through acquisition of battlefield land.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Andrew Oliver (March 28, 1706 – March 3, 1774) was a merchant and public official in the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Sr. (February 27, 1888 – October 30, 1965) was an American historian who taught at Harvard University, pioneering social history and urban history.
The Atlantic Revolutions were a revolutionary wave in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The President, Directors, and Company, of the Bank of North America, commonly known as the Bank of North America, was a private bank first adopted on May 26, 1781 by the Confederation Congress, chartered on December 31, 1781 and opened in Philadelphia on January 7, 1782.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence).
The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights.
The Battle of Monmouth was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on June 28, 1778, in Monmouth County, New Jersey.
The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777.
The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as the Battle of the Virginia Capes or simply the Battle of the Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War that took place near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay on 5 September 1781.
The Battle of Trenton was a small but pivotal battle during the American Revolutionary War which took place on the morning of December 26, 1776, in Trenton, New Jersey.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin Hoadly (14 November 1676 – 17 April 1761) was an English clergyman, who was successively Bishop of Bangor, of Hereford, of Salisbury, and finally of Winchester.
Bernard Bailyn (born September 10, 1922) is an American historian, author, and academic specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History.
Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, 1st Viscount of Galveston, 1st Count of Gálvez, OCIII (Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain 25 July 1746 – 30 November 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain.
This bibliography of George Washington is a selected list of written and published works about George Washington (1732–1799).
The following bibliography includes notable books concerning the American Revolutionary War.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
A Black Loyalist was a United Empire Loyalist inhabitant of British America of African descent who joined the British colonial military forces during the American Revolutionary War.
The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers shot and killed several people while under attack by a mob.
The Boston Port Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which became law on March 31, 1774, and took effect on June 1, 1774.
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Britishness is the state or quality of being British, or of embodying British characteristics.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carl Lotus Becker (September 7, 1873 – April 10, 1945) was an American historian.
Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 – September 1, 1948) was, with Frederick Jackson Turner, one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles James Fox (24 January 1749 – 13 September 1806), styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger.
Charles Royster (born 1944) is an American historian, and a retired Boyd Professor at Louisiana State University.
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Cherokee–American wars, also known as the Chickamauga Wars, were a series of back-and-forth raids, campaigns, ambushes, minor skirmishes, and several full-scale frontier battles in the Old Southwest from 1776 to 1795 between the Cherokee (Ani-Yunwiya or "Nana Waiya", Tsalagi) and the Americans on the frontier.
The Chickamauga Cherokee were a group that separated from the greater body of the Cherokee tribes during the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
"Columbia" is a historical name used by both Europeans and Americans to describe the Americas, the New World, and often, more specifically, the United States of America.
Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies.
Conceived in Liberty, authored by Murray Rothbard, is a 4-volume narrative concerning the history of the United States from the pre-colonial period through the American Revolution.
Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in North America that became the U.S. state of Connecticut.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the fundamental governing document of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, one of the 50 individual state governments that make up the United States of America.
The Constitution of the State of New Jersey is the basic governing document of the State of New Jersey.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
Crispus Attucks (1723 – March 5, 1770) was an American stevedore of African and Native American descent, widely regarded as the first person killed in the Boston massacre and thus the first American killed in the American Revolution.
The Currency Act is one of many several Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain that regulated paper money issued by the colonies of British America.
David Brion Davis (born February 16, 1927) is an American intellectual and cultural historian, and a leading authority on slavery and abolition in the Western world.
David Hackett Fischer (born December 2, 1935) is University Professor and Earl Warren Professor of History at Brandeis University.
David Gaub McCullough (born July 7, 1933) is an American author, narrator, historian, and lecturer.
Deborah Sampson Gannett (December 17, 1760 – April 29, 1827), better known as Deborah Samson or Deborah Sampson, was a Massachusetts woman who disguised herself as a man in order to serve in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
The Declaration of Rights and Grievances was a document written by the Stamp Act Congress and passed on October 14, 1765.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
The American Colonies Act 1766 (6 Geo 3 c 12), commonly known as the Declaratory Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765 and the changing and lessening of the Sugar Act.
Delaware Colony in the North American Middle Colonies consisted of land on the west bank of the Delaware River Bay.
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
Diplomacy in the Revolutionary War had an important impact on the Revolution, as the United States evolved an independent foreign policy.
The Dominion of New England in America (1686–89) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies (except for the Colony of Pennsylvania).
Don Higginbotham (May 22, 1931 – June 22, 2008) was an American historian and Dowd Professor of History and Peace, War, and Defense at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Douglas Southall Freeman (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953) was an American historian, biographer, newspaper editor, and author.
Dragging Canoe (ᏥᏳ ᎦᏅᏏᏂ, pronounced Tsiyu Gansini, "he is dragging his canoe") (c. 1738–February 29, 1792) was a Cherokee war chief who led a band of disaffected Cherokee against colonists and United States settlers in the Upper South.
A dummy corporation or dummy company is an entity created to serve as a front or cover for one or more companies.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Townships (Cantons de l'Est) is a tourist region and a former administrative region in southeastern Quebec, Canada, situated between the former seigneuries south of the Saint Lawrence River and the United States border.
Edmund Sears Morgan (January 17, 1916 – July 8, 2013) was an American historian and an eminent authority on early American history.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
Evacuation Day is a holiday observed on March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts (which includes the cities of Boston, Chelsea, and Revere, and the town of Winthrop)List of Massachusetts holidays and also by the public schools in Somerville, Massachusetts.
Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when British troops departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War.
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
A fiscal-military state is a state that bases its economic model on the sustainment of its armed forces, usually in times of prolonged or severe conflict.
Flora MacDonald (Gaelic: Fionnghal nic Dhòmhnaill; 1722 – 5 March 1790) was a Scottish Jacobite heroine famous for her part in Charles Edward Stuart, pretender to the throne, escape after his defeat at the Battle of Culloden.
Fort Mifflin, originally called Fort Island Battery and also known as Mud Island Fort, was commissioned in 1771 and sits on Mud Island (or Deep Water Island) on the Delaware River below Philadelphia, Pennsylvania near Philadelphia International Airport.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Fox–North coalition was a government in Great Britain that held office during 1783.
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790 was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
The Gaspee Affair was a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution.
George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state, at the national and international level.
George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against the Hessian forces in Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Gerald Horne is an African-American historian who currently holds the John J. and Rebecca Moores Chair of History and African American Studies at the University of Houston.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Gordon Stewart Wood (born November 27, 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Count Gustaf Philip Creutz (1 May 1731 in Anjala, Finland – 30 October 1785 in Stockholm), was a Swedish statesman, diplomat and poet.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
The Halifax Resolves was a name later given to the resolution adopted by North Carolina on April 12, 1776.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
The Hat Act is a former Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (5 Geo II. c. 22) enacted in 1732 to prevent and control hat production by the colonists in British America.
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB, MP (16 April 1730 – 23 December 1795) was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795.
Henry Grattan (3 July 1746 – 6 June 1820) was an Irish politician and member of the Irish House of Commons, who campaigned for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century.
Henry Steele Commager (October 25, 1902 – March 2, 1998) was an American historian.
Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War.
The history of Sierra Leone began when the land became inhabited by indigenous African peoples at least 2,500 years ago.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The Hutchinson Letters Affair was an incident that increased tensions between the colonists of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and the British government prior to the American Revolution.
Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
American Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War was essentially monitored and sanctioned by the Continental Congress to provide military intelligence to the Continental Army to aid them in fighting the British during the American Revolutionary War.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
The Invasion of Quebec in 1775 was the first major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
John Franklin Jameson (September 19, 1859 – September 28, 1937) was an American historian, author, and journal editor who played a major role in the professional activities of American historians in the early 20th century.
Jack Norman Rakove (born June 4, 1947) is an American historian, author and professor at Stanford University.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Otis Jr. (February 5, 1725 – May 23, 1783) was a lawyer, political activist, pamphleteer and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Barry (March 25, 1745 – September 13, 1803) was an officer in the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War and later in the United States Navy.
John Brown I (January 27, 1736 – September 20, 1803) was an American merchant, slave trader, and statesman from Providence, Rhode Island.
General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, dramatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792.
John Dickinson (November 8, 1732 – February 14, 1808), a Founding Father of the United States, was a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Wilmington, Delaware known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768.
John E. Ferling (born 1940) is a professor emeritus of history at the University of West Georgia.
John Hancock (October 8, 1793) was an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, PC (1730 – 25 February 1809), generally known as Lord Dunmore, was a Scottish peer and colonial governor in the American colonies and The Bahamas.
John Sullivan (February 17, 1740 – January 23, 1795) was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge.
John Trenchard (1662 – 17 December 1723) was an English writer and Commonwealthman.
John Witherspoon (February 5, 1722 – November 15, 1794) was a Scottish-American Presbyterian minister and a Founding Father of the United States.
Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (March 1743 – November 24, 1807) was a Mohawk military and political leader, based in present-day New York, who was closely associated with Great Britain during and after the American Revolution.
Joseph John Ellis (born July 18, 1943) is an American historian whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America.
Joseph Galloway (173110 August 1803) was an American politician.
King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–78 between American Indian inhabitants of the New England region of North America versus New England colonists and their Indian allies.
The Landing at Kip's Bay was a British amphibious landing during the New York Campaign in the American Revolutionary War on September 15, 1776, occurring on the eastern shore of present-day Manhattan.
The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
Lawrence Henry Gipson (1880 – September 26, 1971) was an American historian, who won the 1950 Bancroft Prize and the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for History for volumes of his magnum opus, the fifteen-volume history of "The British Empire Before the American Revolution", published 1936–70.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
The Lee Resolution (also known as "The Resolution for Independence") was the formal assertion passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776 which declared the establishment of a new country of United Colonies as independent from the British Empire, creating what became the United States of America.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leonard W. Labaree (26 August 1897 near Urumia, Persia – 5 May 1980 in Northford, Connecticut) was a distinguished documentary editor, a professor of history at Yale University for more than forty years, an historian of Colonial America, and the founding editor of the multivolume publication of the papers of Benjamin Franklin.
Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on what many see as the unalienable rights of the individual.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
This is a list of films and TV films about the American Revolution.
Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
The Massachusetts Circular Letter was a statement written by Samuel Adams and James Otis Jr., and passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives (as constituted in the government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, not the current constitution) in February 1768 in response to the Townshend Acts.
The Massachusetts Government Act (14 Geo. 3 c. 45) was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, receiving royal assent on 20 May 1774.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
Mercy Otis Warren (September 14, 1728 – October 19, 1814) was a political writer and propagandist of the American Revolution.
Middleton is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.
The Molasses Act of March 1733 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 6 Geo II. c. 13), which imposed a tax of six pence per gallon on imports of molasses from non-English colonies.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Mount Vernon was the plantation house of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and his wife, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
The New England Colonies of British America included Connecticut Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the Province of New Hampshire, as well as a few smaller short-lived colonies.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New Jersey Historical Commission is a government agency of the U.S. state of New Jersey.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 for control of New York City and the state of New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe and the Continental Army under General George Washington.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.
The New-York Historical Society is an American history museum and library located in New York City at the corner of 77th Street and Central Park West in Manhattan, founded in 1804 as New York's first museum.
The Newburgh Conspiracy was what appeared to be a planned military coup by the Continental Army in March 1783, when the American Revolutionary War was at its end.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
The North Carolina Provincial Congresses were extra-legal unicameral legislative bodies formed in 1774 through 1776 by the people of the Province of North Carolina, independent of the British colonial government.
The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 in a final attempt to avoid a full-on war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America.
The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaonotyu, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
Pauline Alice Maier (née Rubbelke; April 27, 1938 – August 12, 2013) was a revisionist historian of the American Revolution, though her work also addressed the late colonial period and the history of the United States after the end of the Revolutionary War.
Phillis Wheatley, also spelled Phyllis and Wheatly (c. 1753 – December 5, 1784) was the first published African-American female poet.
Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (24 January 1732 – 18 May 1799) was a French polymath.
The planter class, known alternatively in the United States as the Southern aristocracy, was a socio-economic caste of pan-American society that dominated seventeenth- and eighteenth-century agricultural markets through the forced labor of enslaved Africans.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Proclamation of Rebellion, officially titled A Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, was the response of George III of Great Britain to the news of the Battle of Bunker Hill at the outset of the American Revolutionary War.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
The Province of Carolina was an English and later a British colony of North America.
The Province of Georgia (also Georgia Colony) was one of the Southern colonies in British America.
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Province of New Hampshire was a colony of England and later a British province in North America.
The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783.
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
The Province of South Carolina (also known as the South Carolina Colony) was originally part of the Province of Carolina in British America, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietor in 1663.
"Provincial Congress" can refer to one of several extra-legal legislative bodies established in some of the Thirteen Colonies early in the American Revolution.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
By the mid-1700s, members of the Religious Society of Friends lived throughout the thirteen British colonies in North America, with large numbers in the Pennsylvania colony in particular.
Quartering Act is a name given to two or more Acts of British Parliament requiring local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with housing and food.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
"Republican Motherhood" is an 18th-century term for an attitude toward women's roles present in the emerging United States before, during, and after the American Revolution.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
A revolutionary republic is a form of government whose main tenets are popular sovereignty, rule of law, and representative democracy.
Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732June 19, 1794) was an American statesman from Virginia best known for the Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain.
Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British naval officer.
Richard Montgomery (December 2, 1738 – December 31, 1775) was an Irish soldier who first served in the British Army.
In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests and/or threatens the safety of the people without cause.
The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of citizens of England.
Robert L. Middlekauff (born 1929) is a professor emeritus of colonial and early United States history at UC Berkeley.
Robert Morris, Jr. (January 20, 1734 – May 8, 1806), a Founding Father of the United States, was an English-born American merchant who financed the American Revolution, oversaw the striking of the first coins of the United States, and signed the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, and the United States Constitution.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Ronald "Ron" Chernow (born March 3, 1949) is an American writer, journalist, historian, and biographer.
Rosemarie Zagarri is distinguished American historian who specializes in the study of the Early American political history, women's and gender history, and global history.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Samuel Adams (– October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Samuel Eliot Morison (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian noted for his works of maritime history and American history that were both authoritative and popular.
Samuel Huntington (January 5, 1796) was a jurist, statesman, and Patriot in the American Revolution from Connecticut.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Seabury (November 30, 1729February 25, 1796) was the first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, and the first Bishop of Connecticut.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Shays Rebellion (sometimes spelled "Shays's") was an armed uprising in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787.
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War.
The Siege of Charleston was a major engagement fought between March 29 to May 12, 1780 during the American Revolutionary War.
The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
The Sierra Leone Creole people (or Krio people) is an ethnic group in Sierra Leone.
A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Somerset v Stewart (1772) (also known as Somersett's case, and in State Trials as v.XX Sommersett v Steuart) is a famous judgment of the Court of King's Bench in 1772, which held that chattel slavery was unsupported by the common law in England and Wales, although the position elsewhere in the British Empire was left ambiguous.
The Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Stamp Act Congress, or First Congress of the American Colonies, was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765, in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
Stanley Weintraub (born April 17, 1929) is an American historian and biographer.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
The Staten Island Peace Conference was a brief meeting held in the hope of bringing an end to the American Revolutionary War.
The Suffolk Resolves was a declaration made on September 9, 1774 by the leaders of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, of which Boston is the major city.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Sugar Act, also known as the American Revenue Act or the American Duties Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on 5 April 1764.
Superintendent of Finance of the United States was an executive office under the Articles of Confederation have the power similar to a Finance minister.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tarring and feathering is a form of public torture and humiliation used to enforce unofficial justice or revenge.
Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Economic History Review is a peer-reviewed history journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Economic History Society.
The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Gordon (c. 1691–1750) was a Scottish writer and Commonwealthman.
Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 – 3 June 1780) was a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Timeline of the American Revolution (1760−1791) — timeline of the political upheaval in the 18th century in which Thirteen Colonies in North America joined together for independence from the British Empire, and after victory in the Revolutionary War combined to form the United States of America.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Townshend Acts were a series of British acts passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British American colonies in North America.
The Treason Act 1543 (35 Hen 8 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England passed during the reign of King Henry VIII of England, which stated that acts of treason or misprision of treason that were committed outside the realm of England could be tried within England.
The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and France, was the first of two treaties between the United States and France, signed on February 6, 1778, at the in Paris.
The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and Sweden (Svensk-amerikanska vänskaps- och handelstraktaten), was a treaty signed on April 3, 1783 in Paris, France between the United States and the Kingdom of Sweden.
The Treaty of Fort Stanwix was a treaty between Native Americans and Great Britain, signed in 1768 at Fort Stanwix, in present-day Rome, New York.
In an effort to resolve concerns of settlers and land speculators following the western boundary established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 by King George III, it was desired to move the boundary further west to encompass more settlers who were outside of the boundary.
The Treaty of Lochaber was signed in South Carolina on 18 October 1770 by British representative John Stuart and the Cherokees, fixing the boundary for the western limit of the frontier settlements of Virginia and North Carolina.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Tuscarora (in Tuscarora Skarù:ręˀ, "hemp gatherers" or "Shirt-Wearing People") are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, and Ontario.
Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
United Empire Loyalists (or Loyalists) is an honorific given in 1799 by Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor-general of British North America, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Bicentennial was a series of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid tribute to historical events leading up to the creation of the United States of America as an independent republic.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.
The first Alliance of the United States Navy was a 36-gun sailing frigate of the American Revolutionary War.
Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight military encampments for the Continental Army’s main body, commanded by General George Washington.
Vice Admiralty Courts were juryless courts located in British colonies that were granted jurisdiction over local legal matters related to maritime activities, such as disputes between merchants and seamen.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Virtual representation stated that the members of Parliament, including the Lords and the Crown-in-Parliament, reserved the right to speak for the interests of all British subjects, rather than for the interests of only the district that elected them or for the regions in which they held peerages and spiritual sway.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Washington District of North Carolina was in a remote area west of the Appalachian Mountains, officially existing for only a short period (November 1776 – November 1777), although it had been self-proclaimed and functioning as an independent governing entity since the spring of 1775.
Washington: A Life is a 2010 biography of George Washington, the first President of the United States, written by American historian and biographer Ron Chernow.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Franklin FRSE (1730 – November 1813) was an American-born attorney, soldier, politician, and colonial administrator.
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805), known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
The Wool Act of 1699 (or the Woolens Act) is a former Act of the Parliament of England (11 Will. III c. 13) which attempted to heighten taxation and increase control over colonial trade and production.
Yorktown is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Virginia, United States.
The 1689 Boston revolt was a popular uprising on April 18, 1689 against the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, the governor of the Dominion of New England.
1776 (released in the United Kingdom as 1776: America and Britain At War) is a book written by David McCullough, first published by Simon & Schuster on May 24, 2005.
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