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American Revolutionary War

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The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. [1]

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Abenaki

The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, Alnôbak) are a Native American tribe and First Nation.

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Action of 9 August 1780

The Action of 9 August 1780 was a naval engagement of the Anglo-Spanish War, in which a Spanish fleet, led by Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova, along with a squadron of French ships, encountered a large British convoy.

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Administration of Justice Act 1774

The Administration of Justice Act, or Act for the Impartial Administration of Justice, also popularly called the Murdering Act or Murder Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Affair of Fielding and Bylandt

The affair of Fielding and Bylandt was a brief naval engagement off the Isle of Wight on 31 December 1779 between a Royal Navy squadron, commanded by Commodore Charles Fielding, and a naval squadron of the Dutch Republic, commanded by rear-admiral Lodewijk van Bylandt, escorting a Dutch convoy.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African Americans in the Revolutionary War

In the American Revolution, gaining freedom was the strongest motive for black slaves who joined the Patriot or British armies.

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Agrarian society

An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.

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Albany, New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.

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Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Alfred Thayer Mahan

Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) won immediate recognition, especially in Europe, and with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892), made him world-famous and perhaps the most influential American author of the nineteenth century.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Memory

American Memory is an Internet-based archive for public domain image resources, as well as audio, video, and archived Web content.

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Anglo-French War (1778–1783)

The Anglo-French War was a military conflict fought between France and Great Britain with their respective allies as part of the American Revolutionary War between 1778 and 1783.

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Anglo-Portuguese Alliance

The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.

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Anglophobia

Anti-English sentiment or Anglophobia (from Latin Anglus "English" and Greek φόβος, phobos, "fear") means opposition to, dislike of, fear of, or hatred towards England or the English people.

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Annus mirabilis

Annus mirabilis (pl. anni mirabiles) is a Latin phrase that means "wonderful year", "miraculous year" or "amazing year".

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Archibald Campbell (British Army officer, born 1739)

Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell KB (21 August 1739 – 31 March 1791) served as governor of Jamaica, Madras, and Georgia.

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Arcot, Vellore

Arcot is a town and urban of Vellore city in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Armada of 1779

The Armada of 1779 was a combined Franco-Spanish naval enterprise intended to divert British military assets, primarily of the Royal Navy, from other war theatres by invading the Kingdom of Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War.

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Artillery

Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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Attrition warfare

Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.

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Augustin de La Balme

Augustin Mottin de la Balme (28 August 1733 - 5 November 1780) was a French cavalry officer who served in Europe during the Seven Years' War and in the United States during the American Revolution.

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Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel

Admiral Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel PC (25 April 17252 October 1786) was a Royal Navy officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1755 to 1782.

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Azores

The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Baker rifle

The Baker rifle (officially known as the Pattern 1800 Infantry Rifle) was a flintlock rifle used by the rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Banastre Tarleton

Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, GCB (21 August 175415 January 1833) was a British soldier and politician.

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Barry St. Leger

Barrimore Matthew "Barry" St.

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Battalion

A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle of Beachy Head (1690)

The Battle of Beachy Head (Fr. Battle of Bévéziers) was a naval engagement fought on 10 July 1690 during the Nine Years' War.

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Battle of Bennington

The Battle of Bennington was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, part of the Saratoga campaign, that took place on August 16, 1777, in Walloomsac, New York, about from its namesake Bennington, Vermont.

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Battle of Block Island

The Battle of Block Island was a naval skirmish which took place in the waters off Rhode Island during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Brandywine

The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777.

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Battle of Brier Creek

The Battle of Brier Creek was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on March 3, 1779 near the confluence of Brier Creek with the Savannah River in eastern Georgia.

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Battle of Bunker Hill

The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Camden

The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence).

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Battle of Cape Spartel

The Battle of Cape Spartel was an indecisive naval battle between a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova and a British fleet under Admiral Richard Howe.

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Battle of Cape St. Vincent (1780)

The Battle of Cape St.

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Battle of Chestnut Neck

The Battle of Chestnut Neck was fought on October 6, 1778 in southern New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War, at Chestnut Neck, a settlement on the Little Egg Harbor River (now known as the Mullica River) near the present-day city of Port Republic, New Jersey, which was used as a base by privateers.

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Battle of Colson's Mill

The Battle of Colson's Mill was a battle of the American Revolutionary War that took place in North Carolina on July 21, 1780.

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Battle of Connecticut Farms

The Battle of Connecticut Farms, fought June 7, 1780, was one of the last major battles between British and American forces in the northern colonies during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Cowpens

The Battle of Cowpens, fought on January 17, 1781, was an engagement between American Colonial forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and British forces under Sir Banastre Tarleton, as part of the campaign in the Carolinas (North and South).

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Battle of Cuddalore (1783)

The Battle of Cuddalore was a naval battle between a British fleet, under Admiral Sir Edward Hughes with Admiral L.J. Weiland, and a smaller French fleet, under the Bailli de Suffren, off the coast of India during the Anglo-French War.

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Battle of Dogger Bank (1781)

The Battle of the Dogger Bank was a naval battle that took place on 5 August 1781 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, contemporaneously related to the American Revolutionary War, in the North Sea.

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Battle of Eutaw Springs

The Battle of Eutaw Springs was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, and was the last major engagement of the war in the Carolinas.

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Battle of Flamborough Head

The Battle of Flamborough Head was a naval battle that took place on 23 September 1779 in the North Sea off the coast of Yorkshire between a combined Franco-American squadron, led by Continental Navy officer John Paul Jones, and two British escort vessels protecting a large merchant convoy.

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Battle of Fort Charlotte

The Battle of Fort Charlotte or the Siege of Fort Charlotte was a two-week siege conducted by Spanish General Bernardo de Gálvez against the British fortifications guarding the port of Mobile (which was then in the British province of West Florida, and now in Alabama) during the Anglo-Spanish War of 1779-1783.

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Battle of Fort Cumberland

The Battle of Fort Cumberland (also known as the Eddy Rebellion) was an attempt by a small number of militia commanded by Jonathan Eddy to bring the American Revolutionary War to Nova Scotia in late 1776.

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Battle of Fort Royal

The Battle of Fort Royal was a naval battle fought off Fort Royal, Martinique in the West Indies during the Anglo-French War on 29 April 1781, between fleets of the British Royal Navy and the French Navy.

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Battle of Fort Washington

The Battle of Fort Washington was a battle fought in New York on November 16, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War between the United States and Great Britain.

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Battle of Germantown

The Battle of Germantown was a major engagement in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Great Bridge

The Battle of Great Bridge was fought December 9, 1775, in the area of Great Bridge, Virginia, early in the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Grenada

The Battle of Grenada took place on 6 July 1779 during the Anglo-French War in the West Indies between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy, just off the coast of Grenada.

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Battle of Guilford Court House

The Battle of Guilford Court House was a battle fought on March 15, 1781, at a site which is now in Greensboro, the county seat of Guilford County, North Carolina, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Hanging Rock

The Battle of Hanging Rock (August 6, 1780) was a battle in the American Revolutionary War that occurred between the American Patriots and the British.

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Battle of Harlem Heights

The Battle of Harlem Heights was fought during the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Hobkirk's Hill

The Battle of Hobkirk's Hill (sometimes referred to as the Second Battle of Camden) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought on April 25, 1781, near Camden, South Carolina.

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Battle of Jersey

The Battle of Jersey (6 January 1781) was an attempt by French forces to invade Jersey and remove the threat the island posed to French and American shipping in the Anglo-French War.

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Battle of Kettle Creek

The Battle of Kettle Creek (February 14, 1779) was a minor encounter in the back country of Georgia during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Kings Mountain

The Battle of Kings Mountain was a military engagement between Patriot and Loyalist militias in South Carolina during the Southern Campaign of the American Revolutionary War, resulting in a decisive victory for the Patriots.

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Battle of Long Island

The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights.

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Battle of Martinique (1780)

The Battle of Martinique, also known as the Combat de la Dominique, took place on 17 April 1780 during the American Revolutionary War in the West Indies between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy.

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Battle of Mobile (1781)

The Battle of Mobile was a British attempt to recapture the town of Mobile, in the British province of West Florida, from the Spanish during the Anglo-Spanish War.

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Battle of Mobley's Meeting House

The Battle of Mobley's Meeting House (also sometimes called Gibson's Meeting House) was an engagement that occurred during the American Revolutionary War in the Mobley Settlement, Fairfield County, South Carolina during the southern campaign of Lord Cornwallis.

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Battle of Monmouth

The Battle of Monmouth was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on June 28, 1778, in Monmouth County, New Jersey.

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Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge

The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought near Wilmington in present-day Pender County, North Carolina, on February 27, 1776.

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Battle of Negapatam (1782)

The Battle of Negapatam was the third in the series of battles fought between a British fleet, under Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes, and a French fleet, under the Bailli de Suffren, off the coast of India during the Anglo-French War.

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Battle of Oriskany

The Battle of Oriskany, fought on August 6, 1777, was one of the bloodiest battles in the North American theater of the American Revolutionary War and a significant engagement of the Saratoga campaign.

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Battle of Paoli

The Battle of Paoli (also known as the Battle of Paoli Tavern or the Paoli Massacre) was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on September 20, 1777, in the area surrounding present-day Malvern, Pennsylvania.

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Battle of Paulus Hook

The Battle of Paulus Hook was fought on August 19, 1779 between Continental Army and British forces in the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Pell's Point

The Battle of Pell's Point (October 18, 1776), also known as the Battle of Pelham, was a skirmish fought between British and American troops during the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Piqua

The Battle of Piqua, also known as the Battle of Pekowee or Pekowi, was part of the western campaign during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Pollilur (1780)

The Battle of Pollilur (a.k.a Pullalur), also known as the Battle of Polilore or Battle of Perambakam, took place on 10 September 1780 at Pollilur near Conjeevaram, the city of Kanchipuram in present-day Tamil Nadu state, India, as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

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Battle of Pollilur (1781)

The Battle of Pollilur was fought on 27 August 1781, between forces of the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and British East India Company forces led by General Eyre Coote.

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Battle of Porto Novo

The Battle of Porto Novo was fought on 1 July 1781 between forces of the Kingdom of Mysore and British East India Company in the place called Porto Novo (now known as Parangipettai) on the Indian subcontinent, during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

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Battle of Princeton

The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777.

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Battle of Providien

The Battle of Providien was the second in a series of naval battles fought between a British fleet, under Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes, and a French fleet, under the Bailli de Suffren, off the coast of India during the Anglo-French War.

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Battle of Quebec (1775)

The Battle of Quebec (French: Bataille de Québec) was fought on December 31, 1775, between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Ramsour's Mill

The Battle of Ramsour's Mill took place on June 20, 1780 in present-day Lincolnton, North Carolina, during the British campaign to gain control of the southern colonies in the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Rhode Island

The Battle of Rhode Island (also known as the Battle of Quaker Hill and the Battle of Newport) took place on August 29, 1778.

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Battle of Roatán

The Battle of Roatán (sometimes spelled "Rattan") was an American War of Independence battle fought on March 16, 1782, between British and Spanish forces for control of Roatán, an island off the Caribbean coast of present-day Honduras.

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Battle of Sadras

The Battle of Sadras was the first of five largely indecisive naval battles fought between a British fleet (under Admiral Sir Edward Hughes) and a French fleet (under the Bailli de Suffren) off the east coast of India during the Anglo-French War. Fought on 17 February 1782 near present-day Kalpakkam, the battle was tactically indecisive, but the British fleet suffered the most damage. Under Suffren's protection, French troop transports were able to land at Porto Novo.

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Battle of Saint Kitts

The Battle of Saint Kitts, also known as the Battle of Frigate Bay, was a naval battle that took place on 25 and 26 January 1782 during the American Revolutionary War between a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood and a larger French fleet under the Comte de Grasse.

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Battle of San Fernando de Omoa

The Battle of San Fernando de Omoa was a short siege and battle between British and Spanish forces fought not long after Spain entered the American Revolutionary War on the American side.

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Battle of Sholinghur

The Battle of Sholinghur was fought on 27 September 1781 at Sholinghur, West of Chennai (Madras), between forces of the Kingdom of Mysore led by Hyder Ali and East India Company forces led by General Eyre Coote.

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Battle of Springfield (1780)

The Battle of Springfield was fought during the American Revolutionary War on June 23, 1780.

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Battle of St. Lucia

The Battle of St.

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Battle of Stono Ferry

The Battle of Stono Ferry was an American Revolutionary War battle, fought on June 20, 1779, near Charleston, South Carolina.

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Battle of Stony Point

The Battle of Stony Point took place on July 16, 1779, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Sullivan's Island

The Battle of Sullivan's Island or the Battle of Fort Sullivan was fought on June 28, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of the Assunpink Creek

The Battle of the Assunpink Creek, also known as the Second Battle of Trenton, was a battle between American and British troops that took place in and around Trenton, New Jersey, on January 2, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War, and resulted in an American victory.

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Battle of the Black River

The Battle of Black River was a series of conflicts between April and August 1782 during the American War of Independence.

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Battle of the Chesapeake

The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as the Battle of the Virginia Capes or simply the Battle of the Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War that took place near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay on 5 September 1781.

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Battle of the Saintes

The Battle of the Saintes (known to the French as the Bataille de la Dominique), or Battle of Dominica was an important naval battle that took place over four days, 9 April 1782 – 12 April 1782, during the American Revolutionary War, and was a victory of a British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney over a French fleet under the Comte de Grasse, forcing the French and Spanish to abandon a planned invasion of Jamaica.

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Battle of Trenton

The Battle of Trenton was a small but pivotal battle during the American Revolutionary War which took place on the morning of December 26, 1776, in Trenton, New Jersey.

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Battle of Trincomalee

Plan of the battle (British units - black, French - white) The Battle of Trincomalee was fought between a British fleet under Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Hughes and a French fleet under the Bailli de Suffren off the coast of Trincomalee, then Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka), on 3 September 1782.

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Battle of Trois-Rivières

The Battle of Trois-Rivières was fought on June 8, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Battle of Ushant (1778)

The Battle of Ushant (French bataille d'Ouessant; also called the First Battle of Ushant) took place on 27 July 1778, and was fought between French and British fleets west of Ushant, an island at the mouth of the English Channel off the north-westernmost point of France.

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Battle of Valcour Island

The naval Battle of Valcour Island, also known as the Battle of Valcour Bay, took place on October 11, 1776, on Lake Champlain.

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Battle of Waxhaws

The Battle of Waxhaws (also known as the Waxhaws or Waxhaw massacre, and Buford's massacre) took place during the American Revolutionary War on May 29, 1780, near Lancaster, South Carolina, between a Continental Army force led by Abraham Buford and a mainly Loyalist force led by British officer Banastre Tarleton.

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Battle of White Marsh

The Battle of White Marsh or Battle of Edge Hill was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought December 5–8, 1777, in the area surrounding Whitemarsh Township, Pennsylvania.

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Battle of White Plains

The Battle of White Plains was a battle in the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 28, 1776, near White Plains, New York.

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Battles of Lexington and Concord

The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

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Battles of Saratoga

The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.

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Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.

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Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec

In September 1775, early in the American Revolutionary War, Colonel Benedict Arnold led a force of 1,100 Continental Army troops on an expedition from Cambridge in the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the gates of Quebec City.

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Bernardo de Gálvez

Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, 1st Viscount of Galveston, 1st Count of Gálvez, OCIII (Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain 25 July 1746 – 30 November 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain.

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Bibliography of George Washington

This bibliography of George Washington is a selected list of written and published works about George Washington (1732–1799).

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Bibliography of the American Revolutionary War

The following bibliography includes notable books concerning the American Revolutionary War.

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Billet

A billet is a living quarters to which a soldier is assigned to sleep.

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Bird's invasion of Kentucky

Bird's invasion of Kentucky during the American Revolutionary War was one phase of an extensive planned series of operations planned by the British in 1780, whereby the entire West, from Quebec to the Gulf of Mexico, was to be swept clear of both Spanish and colonial resistance.

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Black Loyalist

A Black Loyalist was a United Empire Loyalist inhabitant of British America of African descent who joined the British colonial military forces during the American Revolutionary War.

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Black River (settlement)

The Black River settlement was a British settlement on the Mosquito Coast of present-day Honduras.

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Boston

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Boston campaign

The Boston campaign was the opening campaign of the American Revolutionary War, taking place primarily in the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

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Boston Harbor

Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts.

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Boston Massacre

The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers shot and killed several people while under attack by a mob.

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Boston Port Act

The Boston Port Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which became law on March 31, 1774, and took effect on June 1, 1774.

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Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.

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Bounty (reward)

A bounty (from Latin bonitās, goodness) is a payment or reward often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group.

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British Armed Forces

The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.

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British Army during the American Revolutionary War

The British Army during the American Revolutionary War served for eight years in campaigns fought around the globe.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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British Legion (American Revolution)

The British Legion was the name of a British provincial regiment established during the American Revolutionary War, composed of British Loyalist American infantry and dragoons.

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British Regulars

Commonly used to describe the Napoleonic era British foot soldiers, the British Regulars were known for their distinct red uniform and well-disciplined combat performance.

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British Warships in the Age of Sail

British Warships in the Age of Sail is a series of four books by maritime historian Rif Winfield comprising a historical reference work providing details of all recorded ships that served or were intended to serve in the Royal Navy from 1603 to 1863.

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British West Indies

The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands.

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Broad River (Georgia)

The Broad River is a U.S. Geological Survey.

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Brooklyn Heights

Brooklyn Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn.

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Brown Bess

"Brown Bess" is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore Land Pattern Musket and its derivatives.

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Burning of Norfolk

The Burning of Norfolk was an incident that occurred on January 1, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camp follower

Camp follower is a term used to identify civilians and their children who follow armies.

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Cantonment

A cantonment is a military or police quarters.

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Captaincy General of Guatemala

The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Spanish: Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, under the viceroyalty of New Spain in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.

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Capture of Demerara and Essequibo

The capture of Demerara and Essequibo was a French military expedition carried out in January 1782 as part of the Anglo-French War.

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Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

The capture of Fort Ticonderoga occurred during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold surprised and overcame a small British garrison at the fort and looted the personal belongings of the garrison.

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Capture of Grenada (1779)

The Capture of Grenada was an amphibious expedition in July 1779 during the Anglo-French War.

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Capture of Montserrat

The Capture of Montserrat was accomplished by a French naval expedition that seized the island of Montserrat from the British on 22 February 1782 during the Anglo-French War.

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Capture of Saint Vincent

The Capture of Saint Vincent was a French invasion that took place between 16 and 18 June 1779 during the Anglo-French War.

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Capture of Savannah

The Capture of Savannah, or sometimes the First Battle of Savannah (because of a siege in 1779), was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on December 29, 1778 pitting local American Patriot militia and Continental Army units, holding the city, against a British invasion force under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell.

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Capture of Sint Eustatius

The Capture of Sint Eustatius took place in February 1781 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War when British army and naval forces under General John Vaughan and Admiral George Rodney seized the Dutch-owned Caribbean island of Sint Eustatius.

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Capture of St. Lucia

The Capture of St Lucia was the result of a campaign from 18-28 December 1778 by British land and naval forces to take over the island, which was a French colony.

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Capture of the Bahamas (1782)

The Capture of the Bahamas took place in May 1782 during the Anglo-Spanish War when a Spanish force under the command of Juan Manuel de Cagigal arrived on the island of New Providence near Nassau, the capital of the Bahamas.

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Capture of the Bahamas (1783)

The Capture of the Bahamas took place in April 1783, late in the Anglo-Spanish War, when a Loyalist expedition under the command of Andrew Deveaux set out to retake the Bahamas from the Spanish.

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Capture of Trincomalee

The Capture of Trincomalee on 11 January 1782 was the second major engagement between Great Britain and the Dutch East India Company in the East Indies after outbreak of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.

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Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

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Carlisle Peace Commission

The Carlisle Peace Commission was a group of British negotiators who were sent to North America in 1778, during the American War of Independence.

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Carnatic region

The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and southern Andhra Pradesh.

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Casus belli

Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").

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Catawba people

The Catawba, also known as Issa or Essa or Iswä but most commonly Iswa (Catawba: iswa - "people of the river"), are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. They live in the Southeast United States, along the border of North Carolina near the city of Rock Hill, South Carolina.

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Cayuga people

The Cayuga (Cayuga: Guyohkohnyo or Gayogohó:no’, literally "People of the Great Swamp") was one of the five original constituents of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), a confederacy of Native Americans in New York.

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Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.

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Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes

Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes (29 December 1719 – 13 February 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat.

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Charles Henri Hector d'Estaing

Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector, comte d'Estaing (24 November 1729 – 28 April 1794) was a French general and admiral.

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Charles III of Spain

Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.

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Charleston, South Carolina

Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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Chennai

Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Cheraw

The Cheraw people, also known as the Saraw or Saura, were a Siouan-speaking tribe of indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, in the Piedmont area of North Carolina near the Sauratown Mountains, east of Pilot Mountain and north of the Yadkin River.

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Cherokee

The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.

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Cherokee–American wars

The Cherokee–American wars, also known as the Chickamauga Wars, were a series of back-and-forth raids, campaigns, ambushes, minor skirmishes, and several full-scale frontier battles in the Old Southwest from 1776 to 1795 between the Cherokee (Ani-Yunwiya or "Nana Waiya", Tsalagi) and the Americans on the frontier.

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Chesapeake Bay

The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.

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Chickamauga Cherokee

The Chickamauga Cherokee were a group that separated from the greater body of the Cherokee tribes during the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).

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Chickasaw

The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands.

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Choctaw

The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.

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Christopher Seider

Christopher Seider (or Snider) (1758—1770) was the first American killed in the political strife that later became the American Revolution.

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Cod fishing in Newfoundland

Cod fishing in Newfoundland was carried out at a subsistence level for centuries, but large scale fishing began shortly after the European discovery of the North American continent in 1492, with the waters being found to be preternaturally plentiful, and ended after intense overfishing with the collapse of the fisheries in 1992.

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Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean.

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Colony of Virginia

The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.

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Commander-in-Chief, North America

The office of Commander-in-Chief, North America was a military position of the British Army.

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Commemoration of the American Revolution

Commemorations of the American Revolution (1775-1783) have given it a central place in the American memory.

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Common Sense (pamphlet)

Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies.

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Concord, Massachusetts

Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States.

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Congress of the Confederation

The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.

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Conquest of 1760

The Conquest (French La Conquête) was the British military conquest of New France during the Seven Years' War.

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Continental Army

The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.

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Continental Association

The Continental Association, often known simply as the "Association", was a system created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain.

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Continental Congress

The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.

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Continental Marines

The Continental Marines were the marine force of the American Colonies during the American Revolutionary War.

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Continental Navy

The Continental Navy was the navy of the United States during the American Revolutionary War, and was formed in 1775.

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Convention Army

The Convention Army (1777–1783) was an army of British and allied troops captured after the Battles of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War.

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Cuddalore

Cuddalore is a city which is the headquarters of the Cuddalore District in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Culper Ring

The Culper Ring was a spy ring organized by American Major Benjamin Tallmadge under orders from General George Washington in the summer of 1778, during the British occupation of New York City at the height of the American Revolutionary War.

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Cuyahoga River

The Cuyahoga River is a river in the United States, located in Northeast Ohio, that feeds into Lake Erie.

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Daniel Morgan

Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and politician from Virginia.

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David Hackett Fischer

David Hackett Fischer (born December 2, 1935) is University Professor and Earl Warren Professor of History at Brandeis University.

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David McCullough

David Gaub McCullough (born July 7, 1933) is an American author, narrator, historian, and lecturer.

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David Ramsay (historian)

David Ramsay (April 2, 1749May 8, 1815) was an American physician, public official, and historian from Charleston, South Carolina.

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Death by natural causes

A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.

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Declaratory Act

The American Colonies Act 1766 (6 Geo 3 c 12), commonly known as the Declaratory Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765 and the changing and lessening of the Sugar Act.

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Defeat in detail

Defeat in detail, or divide and conquer, is a military tactic of bringing a large portion of one's own force to bear on small enemy units in sequence, rather than engaging the bulk of the enemy force all at once.

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Defensive fighting position

A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers.

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Delaware Bay

Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States.

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Delaware River

The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.

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Desertion

In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.

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Diplomacy in the American Revolutionary War

Diplomacy in the Revolutionary War had an important impact on the Revolution, as the United States evolved an independent foreign policy.

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Dominica

Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.

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Don Higginbotham

Don Higginbotham (May 22, 1931 – June 22, 2008) was an American historian and Dowd Professor of History and Peace, War, and Defense at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Dragoon

Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.

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Dunkirk

Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Dunmore's Proclamation

Dunmore's Proclamation, is a historical document signed on November 7, 1775, by John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia.

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Dutch Caribbean

The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Dutch West Indies campaign

The Dutch West Indies campaign was a series of minor conflicts in 1781 and 1782, in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War and the Anglo-French War.

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Early American currency

Early American currency went through several stages of development in colonial and post-Revolutionary history of the United States.

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East Florida

East Florida (Florida Oriental) was a colony of Great Britain from 1763 to 1783 and a province of Spanish Florida from 1783 to 1821.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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East Indiaman

East Indiaman was a general name for any sailing ship operating under charter or licence to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries.

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East River

The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City.

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EBSCO Industries

EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Edward Despard

Edward Marcus Despard (1751 – 21 February 1803) was an Irish soldier who served in the British Army.

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Edward Hughes (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Edward Hughes RN (c. 1720 – 1794) was a Royal Navy officer who commanded the East Indies Station.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.

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Enlightenment in Spain

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700.

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Evacuation Day (Massachusetts)

Evacuation Day is a holiday observed on March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts (which includes the cities of Boston, Chelsea, and Revere, and the town of Winthrop)List of Massachusetts holidays and also by the public schools in Somerville, Massachusetts.

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Evacuation Day (New York)

Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when British troops departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War.

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Eyre Coote (East India Company officer)

Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote, KB (1726 – 28 April 1783) was a British soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1780.

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Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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First Bank of the United States

The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.

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First Continental Congress

The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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First League of Armed Neutrality

The first League of Armed Neutrality was an alliance of European naval powers between 1780 and 1783 which was intended to protect neutral shipping against the Royal Navy's wartime policy of unlimited search of neutral shipping for French contraband.

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First Treaty of San Ildefonso

The First Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on 1 October 1777 between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire.

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Flagellation

Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.

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Flash pan

The flash pan or priming pan is a small receptacle for priming powder, found next to the touch hole on muzzleloading guns.

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Forage War

The Forage War was a partisan campaign consisting of numerous small skirmishes that took place in New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between January and March 1777, following the battles of Trenton and Princeton.

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Fort Detroit

Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established on the west bank of the Detroit River by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701.

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Fort Ticonderoga

Fort Ticonderoga, formerly Fort Carillon, is a large 18th-century star fort built by the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain, in northern New York, in the United States.

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Fortification of Dorchester Heights

The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War that precipitated the end of the siege of Boston and the withdrawal of British troops from that city.

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Fortress of the Immaculate Conception

The Fortress of the Immaculate Conception, (Spanish: El Castillo de la Inmaculada Concepción) is a fortification located on the southern bank of the San Juan River (Río San Juan), in the village of El Castillo in southern Nicaragua.

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Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (Vierde Engels-Nederlandse Oorlog; 1780–1784) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic.

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François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé

François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé (19 November 1739 – 14 November 1800) was a French general.

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François Joseph Paul de Grasse

François Joseph Paul de Grasse (13 September 1722 – 11 January 1788), also known as Comte de Grasse, was a career French officer who achieved the rank of admiral.

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France in the American Revolutionary War

French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army.

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Frederick North, Lord North

Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790 was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.

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Frederick the Great

Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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French Canadians

French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French livre

The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

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French West Indies

The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.

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Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben

Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben (born Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben; September 17, 1730 – November 28, 1794), also referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian and later an American military officer.

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Galloway's Plan of Union

Galloway's Plan of Union was put forward in the First Continental Congress of 1774 but was rejected.

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Gaspee Affair

The Gaspee Affair was a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution.

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George Bancroft

George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state, at the national and international level.

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George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney

George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, KB (bap. 13 February 1718 – 24 May 1792) was a British naval officer.

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George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville

George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville PC (26 January 1716 – 26 August 1785), styled The Honourable George Sackville until 1720, Lord George Sackville from 1720 to 1770 and Lord George Germain from 1770 to 1782, was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American War of Independence.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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George Washington in the American Revolution

George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) commanded the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

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George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River

George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against the Hessian forces in Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26.

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Germantown, Philadelphia

Germantown is an area in Northwest Philadelphia.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Gloucester Point, Virginia

Gloucester Point is a census-designated place (CDP) in Gloucester County, Virginia, United States.

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Government debt

Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.

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Granada, Nicaragua

Granada is a city in western Nicaragua and the capital of the Granada Department.

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Great Bridge, Virginia

Great Bridge is a community located in the independent city of Chesapeake in the U.S. state of Virginia.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Great Siege of Gibraltar

The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.

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Guinea (coin)

The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.

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Gulf Coast of the United States

The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.

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Gulf of Honduras

The Gulf or Bay of Honduras is a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea, indenting the coasts of Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras.

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Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

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Gunpowder Incident

The Gunpowder Incident (or Gunpowder Affair) was a conflict early in the American Revolutionary War between Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, and militia led by Patrick Henry.

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Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester

Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB (3 September 1724 – 10 November 1808), known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator.

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Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.

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Hanau

Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany.

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Hardtack

Hardtack (or hard tack) is a simple type of biscuit or cracker, made from flour, water, and sometimes salt.

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Havana

Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Heat stroke

Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.

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Hector Munro, 8th laird of Novar

General Sir Hector Munro, 8th laird of Novar KB (1726 – 27 December 1805) was a British soldier who became the ninth Commander-in-Chief of India (1764–1765).

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Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730)

General Sir Henry Clinton, KB, MP (16 April 1730 – 23 December 1795) was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795.

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Henry Hamilton (governor)

Henry Hamilton (c. 1734 – 29 September 1796) was an Anglo-Irish military officer and later government official of the British Empire.

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Henry Knox

Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.

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Hesse-Hanau

Hesse-Hanau was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire.

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Hessian (soldier)

Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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History Cooperative

History Cooperative was an online database of scholarly history articles from leading journals.

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HMS Drake (1777)

HMS Drake was a 14-gun sloop-of-war of the British Royal Navy.

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HMS Glasgow (1757)

HMS Glasgow was a 20-gun sixth-rate post ship of the Royal Navy.

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HMS Liberty (1768)

Liberty was a sloop owned by John Hancock, an American merchant.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Horatio Gates

Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727April 10, 1806) was a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War.

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Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson

Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.

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Huck's Defeat

Huck's Defeat or the Battle of Williamson's Plantation was an engagement of the American Revolutionary War that occurred in present York County, South Carolina on July 12, 1780, and was one of the first battles of the southern campaign to be won by Patriot militia.

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Hudson River

The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

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Hyder Ali

Hyder Ali Khan, Haidarālī (c. 1720 – 7 December 1782) was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India.

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Illinois campaign

The Illinois Campaign, also known as Clark's Northwestern Campaign (1778-1779), was a series of events during the American Revolutionary War in which a small force of Virginia militiamen, led by George Rogers Clark, seized control of several British posts in the Illinois Country, in what are now Illinois and Indiana in the Midwestern United States.

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Illinois Country

The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.

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Impressment

Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice.

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Independence Day (United States)

Independence Day, also referred to as the Fourth of July or July Fourth, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

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Independence Hall Association

The Independence Hall Association (IHA) was founded in 1942 to spearhead the creation of Independence National Historical Park, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Indian barrier state

The Indian barrier state or buffer state was a British proposal to establish a Native American state in the portion of the Great Lakes region of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains, and bounded by the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and the Great Lakes.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Inoculation

The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.

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Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War

American Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War was essentially monitored and sanctioned by the Continental Congress to provide military intelligence to the Continental Army to aid them in fighting the British during the American Revolutionary War.

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Intolerable Acts

The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.

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Invasion of Dominica (1778)

The Invasion of Dominica (7 September 1778) was a successful French invasion of the island of Dominica in the British West Indies, during the American Revolutionary War.

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Invasion of Minorca (1781)

The Franco-Spanish reconquest of Menorca (historically called "Minorca" by the British) from its British invaders in February 1782, after the Siege of Fort St.

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Invasion of Quebec (1775)

The Invasion of Quebec in 1775 was the first major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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Invasion of Tobago

The Invasion of Tobago was a French invasion of the British-held island of Tobago during the Anglo-French War.

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Irish Catholics

Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.

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Iroquois

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.

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James Brown Scott

James Brown Scott, J.U.D. (June 3, 1866 – June 25, 1943) was an American authority on international law.

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James Murray (British Army officer, born 1721)

General James Murray (21 January 1721, Ballencrieff, East Lothian, Scotland – 18 June 1794, Battle, East Sussex) FRS was a British soldier, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of the Province of Quebec and later as Governor of Minorca from 1778 to 1782. His term in Quebec was notably successful, and marked with excellent relationships with the conquered French-Canadians, who were reassured of their traditional rights and customs.

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James Stuart (British Army officer, died 1793)

Major-General James Stuart (died 2 February 1793) was a British Army officer who served in various colonial wars of the 18th century.

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Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau

Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution.

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Jeremy Black (historian)

Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.

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Johan Zoutman

Johan Arnold Zoutman (10 May 1724, Reeuwijk – 7 May 1793, The Hague) was a Dutch naval figure and Rear Admiral who fought at the Battle of Dogger Bank in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.

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John André

John André (2 May 1750 – 2 October 1780) was a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British.

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John Burgoyne

General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, dramatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792.

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John Byron

Vice-Admiral The Hon.

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John Campbell, of Strachur

General John Campbell, 17th Chief of MacArthur Campbells of Strachur (1727 – 28 August 1806) was a Scottish soldier and nobleman, who commanded the British forces at the Siege of Pensacola, and succeeded Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester as Commander-in-Chief in North America in 1783 following the end of the American War of Independence.

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John Dalling

General Sir John Dalling, 1st Baronet (c. 1731 – 16 January 1798) was a British soldier and colonial administrator.

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John E. Ferling

John E. Ferling (born 1940) is a professor emeritus of history at the University of West Georgia.

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John Moutray

John Moutray (c.1722 – 22 November 1785) was an officer of the Royal Navy.

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John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, PC (1730 – 25 February 1809), generally known as Lord Dunmore, was a Scottish peer and colonial governor in the American colonies and The Bahamas.

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John Paul Jones

John Paul Jones (born John Paul; July 6, 1747 July 18, 1792) was the United States' first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War.

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John Sullivan (general)

John Sullivan (February 17, 1740 – January 23, 1795) was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge.

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Joseph Brant

Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (March 1743 – November 24, 1807) was a Mohawk military and political leader, based in present-day New York, who was closely associated with Great Britain during and after the American Revolution.

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Joseph Ellis

Joseph John Ellis (born July 18, 1943) is an American historian whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America.

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Joseph Louis Cook

Joseph Louis Cook, or Akiatonharónkwen (died October 1814) (Mohawk), was an Iroquois leader and commissioned officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.

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JSTOR

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

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Kaskaskia, Illinois

Kaskaskia is a historically important village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States.

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Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Kingdom of Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.

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Kingdom of Mysore

The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.

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Kingdom of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.

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Lake Champlain

Lake Champlain (French: Lac Champlain) (Abenaki: Pitawbagok) (Mohawk: Kaniatarakwà:ronte) is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the Canada–U.S. border, in the Canadian province of Quebec.

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Lake George (New York)

Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long, narrow oligotrophic lake located at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of New York.

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Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel

The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was directly subject to the Emperor.

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Landing at Kip's Bay

The Landing at Kip's Bay was a British amphibious landing during the New York Campaign in the American Revolutionary War on September 15, 1776, occurring on the eastern shore of present-day Manhattan.

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Lemon

The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

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Lenape

The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.

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Levée en masse

An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.

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List of American Revolutionary War battles

This is a list of military actions in the American Revolutionary War.

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List of British units in the American Revolutionary War

This is a list of British units which took part in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), fighting against the American rebels and their French, Spanish and Dutch allies in the thirteen North American colonies, including battles in Florida and the West Indies.

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List of colonial governors of Virginia

This is a list of colonial (commonwealth) governors of Virginia.

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List of Continental Army units

The Continental Army was the national army of first the Thirteen Colonies, and then the independent United States, during the American Revolutionary War, established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, three days before the Battle of Bunker Hill, where it saw its first action under that title..

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List of films about the American Revolution

This is a list of films and TV films about the American Revolution.

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List of infantry weapons in the American Revolution

This is a list of infantry weapons used in the American Revolutionary War.

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List of military leaders in the American Revolutionary War

Many military leaders played a role in the American Revolutionary War.

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List of revolutions and rebellions

This is a list of revolutions and rebellions.

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List of United States state navies in the American Revolutionary War

This is a list of the United States state navies in the American Revolutionary War.

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Long Island

Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.

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Long Parliament

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.

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Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon, duc de Mahon

Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon (22 February 1717 – June 1796) was the 4th Duke of Crillon and 1st Duke of Mahon.

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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

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Loyalist (American Revolution)

Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.

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Luis de Córdova y Córdova

Luis de Córdova y Córdova (8 February 1706 – 29 July 1796) was a Spanish admiral.

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Lumbee

The Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina is a state-recognized tribe of obscure tribal origins numbering approximately 60,000 enrolled members, most of them living in Robeson and the adjacent counties in south-central North Carolina.

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Mad River (Ohio)

The Mad River (Shawnee: Hathennithiipi) is a stream located in the west central part of the U.S. state of Ohio.

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Mahé, Puducherry

Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.

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Mahican

The Mahicans (or Mohicans) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe related to the abutting Delaware people, originally settled in the upper Hudson River Valley (around Albany, New York) and western New England centered on Pittsfield, Massachusetts and lower present-day Vermont.

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Malabar Coast

The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.

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Manhattan

Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.

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Mariot Arbuthnot

Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot (1711 – 31 January 1794) was a British admiral, who commanded the Royal Navy's North American station during the American War for Independence.

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Martinique

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Massachusetts Charter

The Massachusetts Charter of 1691 was a document that formally established the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

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Massachusetts Government Act

The Massachusetts Government Act (14 Geo. 3 c. 45) was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, receiving royal assent on 20 May 1774.

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Massachusetts Governor's Council

The Massachusetts Governor's Council (also known as the Executive Council) is a governmental body that provides advice and consent in certain matterssuch as judicial nominations, pardons, and commutationsto the Governor of Massachusetts.

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Massachusetts Provincial Congress

The Massachusetts Provincial Congress (1774–1780) was a provisional government created in the Province of Massachusetts Bay early in the American Revolution.

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Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo

Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo (1717 – November 3, 1784) was a Spanish general, the Captain General of Guatemala from April 1779 to 3 April 1783, and Viceroy of New Spain from 29 April 1783 to 3 November 1784.

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Menorca

Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.

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Merchant Navy (United Kingdom)

The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom, and comprises the seagoing commercial interests of UK-registered ships and their crews.

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Mi'kmaq

The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.

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Miami people

The Miami (Miami-Illinois: Myaamiaki) are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages.

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Military intelligence

Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.

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Militia

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Militia (United States)

The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.

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Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Mobile, Alabama

Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.

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Mohawk people

The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

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Mohawk River

The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey.

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Morristown, New Jersey

Morristown is a town and county seat of Morris County, New Jersey, United States.

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Muscogee

The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.

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Nagapattinam

Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Nathanael Greene

Nathanael Greene (June 19, 1786, sometimes misspelled Nathaniel) was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Naval battles of the American Revolutionary War

The War of the American Independence saw a series of military manoeuvres and battles involving naval forces of the British Royal Navy and the Continental Navy from 1775, and of the French Navy from 1778 onwards.

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New England Colonies

The New England Colonies of British America included Connecticut Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the Province of New Hampshire, as well as a few smaller short-lived colonies.

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New London, Connecticut

New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States.

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New Model Army

The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.

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New Spain

The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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New York and New Jersey campaign

The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 for control of New York City and the state of New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe and the Continental Army under General George Washington.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York Harbor

New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States.

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Newport, Rhode Island

Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.

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News media

The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.

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No taxation without representation

"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.

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Noble train of artillery

The noble train of artillery, also known as the Knox Expedition, was an expedition led by Continental Army Colonel Henry Knox to transport heavy weaponry that had been captured at Fort Ticonderoga to the Continental Army camps outside Boston, Massachusetts during the winter of 1775–1776.

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Norfolk, Virginia

Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

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North ministry

Lord North led the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Northwest Indian War

The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory.

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Northwest Territory

The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Odawa

The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Olive Branch Petition

The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 in a final attempt to avoid a full-on war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America.

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.

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Omoa

Omoa is a town and a municipality in the Department of Cortés of Honduras.

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Oneida people

The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaonotyu, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band.

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Onondaga people

The Onondaga (Onöñda’gaga’ or "Hill Place") people are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy in northeast North America.

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Order of the Bath

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pacte de Famille

The Pacte de Famille (Family Compact; Pacto de Familia) is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain.

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Paper cartridge

This article addresses older paper small-arms cartridges, for modern metallic small arms cartridges see Cartridge (firearms).

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Parangipettai

Parangipettai, historically called Porto Novo ("New Port" in Portuguese) is a panchayat town in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Parliament of Ireland

The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.

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Patriot (American Revolution)

Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.

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Peace of Paris (1783)

The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.

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Pedee people

The Pee Dee people, also Pedee and Peedee, are American Indians of the Southeast United States.

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Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, 10th Count of Aranda

Don Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea y Jiménez de Urrea, 10th Count of Aranda (1718 in Siétamo, Huesca – 1798 in Épila, Saragossa), was a Spanish statesman and diplomat.

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Penal Laws (Ireland)

In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.

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Penny (British pre-decimal coin)

The pre-decimal penny (1d) was a coin worth of a pound sterling.

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Penobscot Expedition

The Penobscot Expedition was a 44-ship American naval task force mounted during the Revolutionary War by the Provincial Congress of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

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Pensacola, Florida

Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle, approximately from the border with Alabama, and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U.S. state of Florida.

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Personal union

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philadelphia campaign

The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War to gain control of Philadelphia, which was then the seat of the Second Continental Congress.

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Pierre André de Suffren

Admiral comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, bailli de Suffren (17 July 1729 – 8 December 1788), French admiral.

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Piers Mackesy

Piers Gerald Mackesy, D.Phil. and D.Litt. (Oxon.), FBA (15 September 1924 – 30 June 2014) was a British military historian who taught at the University of Oxford.

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Plain Folk of the Old South

Plain Folk of the Old South is a 1949 book by Vanderbilt University historian Frank Lawrence Owsley, one of the Southern Agrarians.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Powder Alarm

The Powder Alarm was a major popular reaction to the removal of gunpowder from a magazine by British soldiers under orders from General Thomas Gage, royal governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, on September 1, 1774.

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Prince-elector

The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst

Anhalt-Zerbst was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the House of Ascania, with its residence at Zerbst in present-day Saxony-Anhalt.

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Principality of Ansbach

The Principality or Margraviate of (Brandenburg-)Ansbach (Fürstentum Ansbach or Markgrafschaft Brandenburg-Ansbach) was a free imperial principality in the Holy Roman Empire centered on the Bavarian city of Ansbach.

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Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.

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Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont

The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Prisoners of war in the American Revolutionary War

During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) the management and treatment of prisoners of war (POWs) was very different from the standards of modern warfare.

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Private (rank)

A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).

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Prize of war

A prize of war is a piece of enemy property or land seized by a belligerent party during or after a war or battle, typically at sea.

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Proclamation of Rebellion

The Proclamation of Rebellion, officially titled A Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, was the response of George III of Great Britain to the news of the Battle of Bunker Hill at the outset of the American Revolutionary War.

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Protestantism in Ireland

Protestantism is a Christian minority on the island of Ireland.

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Province of Massachusetts Bay

The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.

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Province of North Carolina

For history prior to 1712, see Province of Carolina. King Charles II of England granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for land south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida.

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Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.

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Province of South Carolina

The Province of South Carolina (also known as the South Carolina Colony) was originally part of the Province of Carolina in British America, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietor in 1663.

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Prussian Army

The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Puducherry

Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.

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Purchase of commissions in the British Army

The purchase of officer commissions in the British Army was the practice of paying money to be made an officer in the cavalry and infantry regiments of the English and later British Army.

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Quakers

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Quartering Acts

Quartering Act is a name given to two or more Acts of British Parliament requiring local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with housing and food.

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Raid of Nassau

The Raid of Nassau (March 3–4, 1776) was a naval operation and amphibious assault by Colonial forces against the British port of Nassau, Bahamas, during the American Revolutionary War (also known as the American War of Independence).

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Raid on Canso (1776)

The Raid on Canso took place on 22 September – November 22, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War.

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Raid on Charlottetown (1775)

The Raid on Charlottetown took place on 17-18 November 1775 during the American Revolutionary War.

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Raid on St. John (1775)

The Raid on St.

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Raid on Yarmouth, Nova Scotia (1775)

The Raid on Yarmouth took place on 1 December 1775 during the American Revolutionary War.

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Ratification Day (United States)

Ratification Day in the United States is the anniversary of the ratification of the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784, at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland by the Confederation Congress.

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Reconnaissance

In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.

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Redcoats and Rebels

Redcoats and Rebels: The American Revolution through British Eyes is a history of the American Revolutionary War (using its British name of "The American War of Independence") from the British perspective by historian Christopher Hibbert.

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Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States

Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States was a drill manual written by Inspector General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben during the American Revolutionary War.

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Relief (military)

Relief, as a military term, refers to the breaking of a siege or an encirclement by an outside force.

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Restraining Acts 1775

The Restraining Acts of early 1775 were two Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, which limited colonial trade in response to both increasing and spreading civil disobedience in Massachusetts and New England, and similar trade restrictions instituted by elected colonial representatives.

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Rhode Island

Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.

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Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe

Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British naval officer.

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Rights of Englishmen

The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of citizens of England.

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Robert Middlekauff

Robert L. Middlekauff (born 1929) is a professor emeritus of colonial and early United States history at UC Berkeley.

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Rock of Gibraltar

The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as the Pillars of Hercules, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

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Rockingham Whigs

The Rockingham Whigs (or Rockinghamites) in 18th century British politics were a faction of the Whigs led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, from about 1762 until his death in 1782.

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Roderigue Hortalez and Company

Roderigue Hortalez and Company was a shell corporation created by Spain and France in 1775 in order to provide arms and financial assistance to American Revolutionaries in anticipation of the American Revolutionary War against Britain.

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Rough Crossings

Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution is a history book by Simon Schama.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Rule of the Major-Generals

The Rule of the Major-Generals from August 1655 – January 1657, was a period of direct military government during Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Sailor

A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.

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Saint Lawrence River

The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.

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Saint-Domingue

Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.

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Samuel Flagg Bemis

Samuel Flagg Bemis (October 20, 1891 – September 26, 1973) was an American historian and biographer.

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Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood

Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood (12 December 1724 – 27 January 1816) was a Royal Navy officer.

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San Juan Expedition (1780)

The San Juan Expedition took place between March and November 1780 during the American War of Independence when a British force under the command of John Polson and Captain Horatio Nelson landed on the coast of the present-day Nicaragua, with the aim of sailing up the San Juan River to capture the strategically crucial towns of Granada and León, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua.

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San Juan River (Nicaragua)

The San Juan River (Spanish: Río San Juan), also known as El Desaguadero ("the drain"), is a river that flows east out of Lake Nicaragua into the Caribbean Sea.

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Saratoga campaign

The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British high command for North America to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War.

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Scorched earth

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.

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Scots Brigade

The Scots Brigade (also referred to as the Anglo-Dutch Brigade) was an infantry brigade serving in the army of the Dutch Republic.

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Scurvy

Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

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Second Anglo-Mysore War

The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784.

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Second Continental Congress

The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Secondary source

In scholarship, a secondary source"".

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Seminole

The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.

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Seneca people

The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.

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Shawnee

The Shawnee (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Missouri and Kansas, with some removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and Shawnee Tribe.

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Shilling

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

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Ship of the line

A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.

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Siege of Augusta

The Siege of Augusta began on May 22, 1781 and was conducted by General Andrew Pickens and Colonel Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee against British troops occupying the town of Augusta, Georgia.

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Siege of Boston

The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War.

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Siege of Brimstone Hill

The French invasion of Saint Kitts also known as the Siege of Brimstone Hill (19 January – 13 February 1782) was a siege of the American Revolutionary War.

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Siege of Charleston

The Siege of Charleston was a major engagement fought between March 29 to May 12, 1780 during the American Revolutionary War.

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Siege of Cuddalore

The Siege of Cuddalore was a siege attempt by British troops against a combined French and Mysorean garrison at the fortress of Cuddalore in the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

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Siege of Fort Motte

The Siege of Fort Motte was a military operation during the American Revolutionary War.

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Siege of Fort Stanwix

The Siege of Fort Stanwix (also known at the time as Fort Schuyler) began on August 2, 1777, and ended August 22.

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Siege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777)

The 1777 Siege of Fort Ticonderoga occurred between 2 and 6 July 1777 at Fort Ticonderoga, near the southern end of Lake Champlain in the state of New York.

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Siege of Fort Vincennes

The Siege of Fort Vincennes (also known as the Siege of Fort Sackville or the Battle of Vincennes) was a Revolutionary War frontier battle fought in present-day Vincennes, Indiana won by a militia led by American commander George Rogers Clark over a British garrison led by Lieutenant Governor Henry Hamilton.

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Siege of Fort Watson

The Siege of Fort Watson was an American Revolutionary War confrontation in South Carolina that began on April 15, 1781 and lasted until April 23, 1781.

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Siege of Mangalore

The Siege of Mangalore was conducted during the Second Anglo-Mysore War by Tipu Sultan and forces of the Kingdom of Mysore against a British East India Company garrison led by Colonel Campbell.

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Siege of Negapatam

The Siege of Negapatam was the first major offensive military action on the Indian subcontinent following the arrival of news that war had been declared between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, beginning the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.

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Siege of Pensacola

The Siege of Pensacola was a siege fought in 1781, the culmination of Spain's conquest of the British province West Florida during the Gulf Coast campaign.

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Siege of Pondicherry (1778)

The Siege of Pondicherry was the first military action on the Indian subcontinent following the declaration of war between Great Britain and France in the Anglo-French War.

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Siege of Savage's Old Fields

The Siege of Savage's Old Fields (also known as the First Siege of Ninety Six, November 19–21, 1775) was an encounter between Patriot and Loyalist forces in the back country town of Ninety Six, South Carolina, early in the American Revolutionary War.

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Siege of Savannah

The Siege of Savannah or the Second Battle of Savannah was an encounter of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), in 1779.

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Siege of Tellicherry

The Siege of Tellicherry was a military embargo that happened in Thalassery (North Malabar).

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Siege of Vellore

The Siege of Vellore was an intermittent series of sieges and blockades conducted during the Second Anglo-Mysore War by forces of the Kingdom of Mysore against a British East India Company garrison holding the fortress at Vellore, located in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Siege of Yorktown

The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.

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Simon Schama

Sir Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.

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Sir Hyde Parker, 5th Baronet

Vice-Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, 5th Baronet (25 February 1714 – 1782) was a British naval commander.

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Sir John Braithwaite, 1st Baronet

Major-General Sir John Braithwaite, 1st Baronet (3 February 1739 - 16 August 1803) was Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army.

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Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Sloop-of-war

In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Snow Campaign

The Snow Campaign was one of the first major military operations of the American Revolutionary War in the southern colonies.

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Sons of Liberty

The Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies.

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Sortie

A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.

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Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War

The Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War was the central area of operations in North America in the second half of the American Revolutionary War.

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Spain and the American Revolutionary War

Spain's role in the independence of the United States was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish real

The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century, but changed in value relative to other units introduced.

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Spanish treasure fleet

The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.

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Speech from the throne

A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed.

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St. Philip's Castle

St.

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Stadtholder

In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.

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Stamp Act 1765

The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.

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Staten Island

Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.

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Staten Island Peace Conference

The Staten Island Peace Conference was a brief meeting held in the hope of bringing an end to the American Revolutionary War.

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Suffolk Resolves

The Suffolk Resolves was a declaration made on September 9, 1774 by the leaders of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, of which Boston is the major city.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sullivan Expedition

The 1779 Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was an extended systematic military campaign during the American Revolutionary War against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four Amerindian nations of the Iroquois which had sided with the British.

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Surrender of Lord Cornwallis

The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis is an oil painting by John Trumbull.

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Susquehannock

Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga (by the English)The American Heritage Book of Indians, pages 188-189 were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.

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Tarring and feathering

Tarring and feathering is a form of public torture and humiliation used to enforce unofficial justice or revenge.

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Tea Act

Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Texel

Texel is a municipality and an island with a population of 13,641 in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands.

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Thalassery

Thalassery formerly Tellicherry is a commercial city on the Malabar Coast in Kannur district, in the state of Kerala, India, bordered by the districts of Mahé (Pondicherry), Kozhikode, Wayanad, Kasaragod and Kodagu (Karnataka).

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Thanjavur

Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Affair at Little Egg Harbor

The Affair at Little Egg Harbor took place on October 15, 1778, in southern New Jersey, United States, during the American Revolution.

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The Bahamas

The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.

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The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill, June 17, 1775

The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill, June 17, 1775 refers to several oil paintings completed in the early 19th century by the American artist John Trumbull depicting the death of Joseph Warren at the June 17, 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill, during the American Revolutionary War.

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The Journal of Economic History

The Journal of Economic History is an academic journal of economic history which has been published since 1941.

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The Partisan in War

The Partisan in War is a pamphlet written by the German soldier Andreas Emmerich (born 1739; also known as Colonel Andrew Emmerick).

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Theater (warfare)

In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.

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Thirteen Colonies

The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.

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Thomas Brown (loyalist)

Thomas "Burnfoot" Brown (May 27, 1750 – August 3, 1825) was a British Loyalist, during the American Revolution.

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Thomas Chittenden

Thomas Chittenden (January 6, 1730August 25, 1797) was the first governor of the state of Vermont, serving from 1778 to 1789, when Vermont was a largely unrecognized independent state, called the Vermont Republic, and again after a year out of office, from 1790 until his death.

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Thomas Gage

General Thomas Gage (10 March 1718/19 – 2 April 1787) was a British Army general officer and colonial official best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as British commander-in-chief in the early days of the American Revolution. Being born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion. In 1774 he was also appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War. After the Pyrrhic victory in the June Battle of Bunker Hill, he was replaced by General William Howe in October, 1775, and returned to Great Britain.

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Thomas Graves, 1st Baron Graves

Thomas Graves, 1st Baron Graves KB (23 October 1725 – 9 February 1802) was a British Admiral and colonial official.

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Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham, PC (13 January 1746 – 19 November 1791), styled Lord Howard until 1763, was a British nobleman and Army officer, the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham, and his wife Elizabeth.

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Thomas Hutchinson (governor)

Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 – 3 June 1780) was a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution.

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.

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To the Inhabitants of America

"To the Inhabitants of America" is an open letter written by former Continental Army Major General Benedict Arnold not long after his defection to the British side in the American Revolutionary War.

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Tobago

Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Tories (British political party)

The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.

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Townshend Acts

The Townshend Acts were a series of British acts passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British American colonies in North America.

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Treason Act 1543

The Treason Act 1543 (35 Hen 8 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England passed during the reign of King Henry VIII of England, which stated that acts of treason or misprision of treason that were committed outside the realm of England could be tried within England.

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Treaty of Alliance (1778)

The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.

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Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–France)

The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and France, was the first of two treaties between the United States and France, signed on February 6, 1778, at the in Paris.

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Treaty of Aranjuez (1779)

The Treaty of Aranjuez (1779) was signed on 12 April 1779 by France and Spain.

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Treaty of El Pardo (1778)

The Treaty of El Pardo signed on 11 March 1778 finalised colonial borders between Spain and Portugal in the Río de la Plata region of South America.

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Treaty of Mangalore

The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784.

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Treaty of Paris (1763)

The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

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Treaty of Paris (1783)

The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.

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Treaty of Utrecht

The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.

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Treaty of Westminster (1674)

The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

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Trenton, New Jersey

Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County.

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Tryon's raid

In July 1779, British Major General William Tryon and 2600 men embarked onto a Royal Navy fleet led by Admiral George Collier, and raided the Connecticut ports of New Haven, Fairfield and Norwalk.

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Turncoat

A turncoat is a person who shifts allegiance from one loyalty or ideal to another, betraying or deserting an original cause by switching to the opposing side or party.

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Tuscarora people

The Tuscarora (in Tuscarora Skarù:ręˀ, "hemp gatherers" or "Shirt-Wearing People") are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, and Ontario.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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United States Declaration of Independence

The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States Military Academy

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.

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University of Massachusetts Press

The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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University of Nebraska Press

The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.

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University of Virginia Press

The University of Virginia Press (or UVaP) is a university press that is part of the University of Virginia.

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Ushant

Ushant (Eusa,; Ouessant) is a French island at the south-western end of the English Channel which marks the north-westernmost point of metropolitan France.

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Valley Forge

Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight military encampments for the Continental Army’s main body, commanded by General George Washington.

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Vermont Republic

Vermont Republic is a term used by historians to refer to the government of Vermont that existed from 1777 to 1791.

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Vincennes, Indiana

Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, Indiana, United States.

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Virtual representation

Virtual representation stated that the members of Parliament, including the Lords and the Crown-in-Parliament, reserved the right to speak for the interests of all British subjects, rather than for the interests of only the district that elected them or for the regions in which they held peerages and spiritual sway.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.

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Washington District, North Carolina

The Washington District of North Carolina was in a remote area west of the Appalachian Mountains, officially existing for only a short period (November 1776 – November 1777), although it had been self-proclaimed and functioning as an independent governing entity since the spring of 1775.

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Washington's Crossing (book)

Washington's Crossing is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book written by David Hackett Fischer and part of the "Pivotal Moments in American History" series.

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Watauga Association

The Watauga Association (sometimes referred to as the Republic of Watauga) was a semi-autonomous government created in 1772 by frontier settlers living along the Watauga River in what is now Elizabethton, Tennessee.

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West Florida

West Florida (Florida Occidental) was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico that underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history.

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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Wilhelm von Knyphausen

Reichsfreiherr Wilhelm von Innhausen und KnyphausenSome documents produced after 1806 referred to him as Reichsfreiherr Wilhelm zu Innhausen und Knyphausen while some documents after 1919 use Wilhelm Reichsfreiherr zu Innhausen und Knyphausen. (4 November 1716 Lütetsburg, East Frisia – 7 December 1800 Kassel) was a general officer of Hesse-Kassel.

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Willard Sterne Randall

Willard Sterne Randall is an American historian and author who specializes in biographies related to the American colonial period and the American Revolution.

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William Baillie (East India Company officer)

William Baillie (died 1782) was a British lieutenant-colonel in the East India Company's service.

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William Dalrymple (British Army officer)

William Dalrymple (1736 – 16 February 1807) was a Scottish soldier and Member of Parliament (MP) in the British Parliament and Parliament of Ireland.

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William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe

General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British Army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence.

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William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne

William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805), known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.

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William V, Prince of Orange

William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.

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Wilmington, North Carolina

Wilmington is a port city and the county seat of New Hanover County in coastal southeastern North Carolina, United States.

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Yorktown, Virginia

Yorktown is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Virginia, United States.

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1775–82 North American smallpox epidemic

The New World of the Western Hemisphere was devastated by the 1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic.

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1776 (book)

1776 (released in the United Kingdom as 1776: America and Britain At War) is a book written by David McCullough, first published by Simon & Schuster on May 24, 2005.

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Redirects here:

1776 War of Independence, American Revolution War, American Revolution, military history, American Revolutionary War (1911 Encyclopedia, part 1), American Revolutionary War (1911 Encyclopedia, part 2), American Revolutionary War/Article from the 1911 Encyclopedia Part 1, American Revolutionary War/Article from the 1911 Encyclopedia Part 2, American Revolutionary war, American War for Independence, American War of Indepedence, American War of Independance, American War of Independece, American War of Independence, American War of Indpendence, American Wars of Independence, American rev war, American revolutionary war, American war of Independance, American war of Independence, American war of independence, British-American War (1776), Caribbean theater of the American Revolutionary War, Liberation War of the United States of America, Revolutionary War (United States), Revolutionary War of US, Revolutionary war 1775, The American Revolutionary War, U.S. Revolutionary War, U.S. War of Independence, US Revolutionary War, United Colonies Revolutionary War, United Colonies War of Indepedence, United States Revolutionary War, United States War of Independence, Us war of independence, War of American Independence, War of Independence in 1775, War of the American Independence, War of the American Revolution, War of the Revolution, Wars of the American Revolution.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War

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