316 relations: ABC News, Advance Digital, AFL–NFL merger, All-America Football Conference, Allegheny Athletic Association, American Arena League, American Broadcasting Company, American exceptionalism, American football at the 1932 Summer Olympics, American Football Conference, American football field, American Football League, American football on Thanksgiving, American football strategy, Arena football, Arena Football League, Argentina, Ashgate Publishing, Association football, Atlantic Europe, Australian Broadcasting Company, Australian rules football, Austria, Austria national American football team, Austrian Football League, BAFA National Leagues, Ball (gridiron football), Ball game, Baltimore Colts (1947–50), BBC, BBC America, BBC News, Bennet Omalu, Blocking (American football), Bowl Alliance, Bowl Championship Series, Bowl Championship Series controversies, Bowl Coalition, Bowl game, Bruise, Buenos Aires, Cairo Santos, Canadian football, Canadian Football League, Captain (sports), Córdoba, Argentina, CBC Sports, Center (gridiron football), Chain crew, Champions Indoor Football, ..., Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Cleveland Browns, CNN Sports Illustrated, Coin flipping, College football, College Football Playoff, Colombia, Columbia University, Comparison of American and Canadian football, Comparison of American football and rugby league, Comparison of American football and rugby union, Concussion, Concussion (2015 film), Concussions in American football, Conversion (gridiron football), Cornerback, Cortland Finnegan, Cruzeiro Esporte Clube, Culture of the United States, Defamiliarization, Defensive back, Defensive end, Dementia, Demonstration sport, Down (gridiron football), Duke University, EFAF Challenge Cup, EFAF Cup, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, End zone, Eskimo, ESPN, ESPN.com, Esporte Interativo, Eurobowl, European Football League, Fair catch, Fantasy football (American), Field goal, Field goal range, Finland national American football team, Flag football, Flying wedge, Folha de S.Paulo, Football (word), Football helmet, For Dummies, Formation (American football), Forward pass, FoxSports.com, France national American football team, Free substitution, Fullback (gridiron football), Fumble, Gene Wojciechowski, German Football League, Germany national American football team, Glossary of American football, Goal (sport), Goal line (gridiron football), Gram, Great Britain national American football team, Gregg Easterbrook, Gridiron (cooking), Gridiron football, Guard (American and Canadian football), Gunner (American football), Half-time, Halfback (American football), Harris Insights & Analytics, Hash marks, High school football, History of the Baltimore Colts, Holder (gridiron football), Holding (American football), Hungary national American football team, IFAF Americas, IFAF Asia, IFAF Europe, IFAF Flag Football World Championship, IFAF Oceania, IFAF U-19 World Cup, IFAF Women's World Championship, IFAF World Championship, Indoor American football, Indoor Football League, Ineligible receiver downfield, Interception, International Business Times, International Federation of American Football, International Olympic Committee, Israel national American football team, Italian Football League, Italy national American football team, Joe Namath, Joint dislocation, Kansas City Chiefs, Kickoff (gridiron football), Knee pad, Larry Fitzgerald, Library of America, Library of Congress, Liga de Fútbol Americano Profesional, Ligue Élite de Football Américain, Linebacker, List of American and Canadian football leagues, List of American football stadiums by capacity, List of states and territories of the United States, Lists of American football players, Long snapper, Los Angeles Times, Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, Maracanã Stadium, Minor league, Mood disorder, Mouthguard, National Arena League, National Collegiate Athletic Association, National Federation of State High School Associations, National Football Conference, National Football League, National Hockey League, National Post, NBC, NCAA Division I, NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, NCAA Division II, NCAA Division III, Netherlands national American football team, Neuropathology, Neutral zone (gridiron football), New Brunswick, New Jersey, New York Giants, New York Jets, NFL Europe, NFL International Series, Nic Harris, Nigel Melville, Notre Dame Fighting Irish football, NPR, Offense (sports), Official (American football), Olympic sports, OregonLive.com, Padding, Parkinson's disease, Pass interference, Paul Rusch, Penalty (gridiron football), Penalty flag, Phoenix New Times, Pittsburgh Athletic Club (football), Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Placekicker, Play clock, Poland national American football team, Pop Warner Little Scholars, Popular Mechanics, Pottsville Maroons, Pounds per square inch, Premier League, Princeton Tigers football, Pro Bowl, Pro Football Hall of Fame, Professional football (gridiron), Professional Football Researchers Association, Profootballtalk.com, Punt (gridiron football), Punter (football), Quarterback, Quarterback sack, Refrigerator, Return specialist, Rice Bowl, Rio de Janeiro, Romania national American football team, Rosario, Santa Fe, Rose Bowl Game, Rugby football, Rugby union, Rush (gridiron football), Russia national American football team, Rutgers Scarlet Knights football, Rutgers University, Sada Cruzeiro Futebol Americano, Safety (gridiron football position), Safety (gridiron football score), San Francisco 49ers, Santa Fe Province, Scrum (rugby), Semi-professional, Serbia national American football team, Shoulder pads, Sidelines, Single (football), Skull fracture, Snap (gridiron football), South China Morning Post, Spain national American football team, Spheroid, Sports Illustrated, Sports in the United States, Sprain, Steroid use in American football, Strain (injury), Substitution (sport), Super Bowl, Super Bowl Sunday, Super Bowl XLIX, Super Bowl XLVI, Superliga Nacional de Futebol Americano, Sweden national American football team, Team sport, Texas, Thanksgiving (United States), The Atlantic Cup (football), The Carillon, The Economist, The Independent, The Japan Times, The Local, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Theodore Roosevelt, Tight end, Time (magazine), Toronto Star, Touch football (American), Touchdown, Try, Turnover (gridiron football), Turnover on downs, Two-minute warning, Two-point conversion, UEFA Europa League, Uniform number (American football), United Football League (2009–12), United States Football League, University of Delaware Press, University of Michigan, Upback, UPN, USA Football, USA Rugby, USA Today, Vince Lombardi Trophy, Vince McMahon, Walter Camp, Washington, D.C., Whistle, Wide receiver, Will Smith, William Heffelfinger, Women's American football, World Football League, X-League, XFL, Yard lines, 1869 New Jersey vs. Rutgers football game, 1880 college football season, 1958 NFL Championship Game, 1964 American Football League season, 1970 NFL season, 2009 Pro Bowl, 2011 NFL season, 2012 UFL season. 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ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Advance Digital provides sales and content strategy, product development and technology to the Advance Local media group, part of Advance Publications.
The AFL–NFL merger was the merger of the two major professional American football leagues in the United States at the time: the National Football League (NFL) and the American Football League (AFL).
The All-America Football Conference (AAFC) was a professional American football league that challenged the established National Football League (NFL) from 1946 to 1949.
The Allegheny Athletic Association was an athletic club that fielded the first ever professional American football player and later the first fully professional football team.
The American Arena League (AAL) is a minor professional indoor football league that began playing in 2018.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations, with respect to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom.
American football was a demonstration sport at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
The American Football Conference (AFC) is one of the two conferences of the National Football League (NFL), the highest professional level of American football in the United States.
American football games are played on a rectangular "Field of Play" that measures long between goal lines, and wide.
The American Football League (AFL) was a major professional American football league that operated for ten seasons from 1960 until 1969, when it merged with the older National Football League (NFL).
American football is one of the many traditions in American culture that is associated with Thanksgiving Day.
The goal of the offense is, most commonly, to score points.
Arena football is a variety of indoor gridiron football played by the Arena Football League (AFL) and China Arena Football League (CAFL).
The Arena Football League (AFL) is a professional indoor American football league in the United States.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean.
The Australian Broadcasting Company Pty.
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field, often a modified cricket ground.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian national American football team is the official American football senior national team of Austria.
The Austrian Football League (AFL) is the elite league of American football in Austria.
The BAFA National Leagues (BAFANL, formerly the BAFA Community Leagues) are the primary American football competition in England, Scotland and Wales.
In Canada and in the United States, a football is a ball, roughly in the form of a prolate spheroid, used in the context of playing gridiron football.
Ball games (or ballgames), also ball sports, are any form of game or sport which feature a ball as part of play.
The Baltimore Colts were a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC America is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is jointly owned by BBC Studios and AMC Networks.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bennet Ifeakandu Omalu (born September 1968, Bennet Omalu Foundation website.) is a Nigerian-American physician, forensic pathologist, and neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in American football players while working at the Allegheny County Coroner's Office in Pittsburgh.
In American football, blocking or interference (or running interference) involves legal movements in which one player obstructs another player's path with their body.
The Bowl Alliance was an agreement among college football bowl games (specifically the Sugar, Orange, and Fiesta Bowls) for the purpose of trying to match the top two teams in a national championship bowl game and to provide quality bowl game matchups for the champions of its member conferences.
The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) was a selection system that created five bowl game match-ups involving ten of the top ranked teams in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of American college football, including an opportunity for the top two teams to compete in the BCS National Championship Game.
The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) was a selection system designed, through polls and computer statistics, to determine a No.
The Bowl Coalition was formed through an agreement among Division I-A college football bowl games and conferences for the purpose of forcing a national championship game between the top two teams and to provide quality bowl game matchups for the champions of its member conferences.
In North America, a bowl game is one of a number of post-season college football games that are primarily played by teams belonging to the NCAA's Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS).
A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Cairo Fernandes Santos (born 12 November 1991) is a Brazilian professional American football placekicker for the New York Jets of the National Football League (NFL).
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area (end zone).
The Canadian Football League (CFL; Ligue canadienne de football, LCF) is a professional sports league in Canada.
In team sports, captain is a title given to a member of the team.
Córdoba is a city in the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of the Buenos Aires.
CBC Sports is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for English-language sports broadcasting.
Center (C) is a position in American football and Canadian football (in the latter the position is spelled centre, following Commonwealth spelling conventions).
In gridiron football, the chain crew (commonly known as the "chain gang") is a crew that manages signal poles on one of the sidelines.
Champions Indoor Football (CIF) is a professional indoor American football league created in 2014 out of the merger between the Champions Professional Indoor Football League (CPIFL) and Lone Star Football League (LSFL), plus one team from the Indoor Football League and two expansion teams.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease found in people who have had multiple head injuries.
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio.
CNN Sports Illustrated (CNNSI) was a 24-hour sports news channel.
Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties.
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities.
The College Football Playoff (CFP) is an annual postseason knockout tournament to determine the national champion of the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest level of college football competition in the United States.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
American and Canadian football are gridiron codes of football that are very similar.
A comparison between American football and rugby league is possible because of their shared origins and similar game concepts.
A comparison of American football and rugby union is possible because of the games' shared origins, despite their dissimilarities.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Concussion is a 2015 American biographical sports drama film directed and written by Peter Landesman, based on the exposé "Game Brain" by Jeanne Marie Laskas, published in 2009 by GQ magazine.
Concussions and other types of repetitive play-related head blows in American football have been shown to be the cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has led to player suicides and other debilitating symptoms after retirement, including memory loss, depression, anxiety, headaches, and also sleep disturbances.
The conversion, try (American football, also known as a point(s) after touchdown, PAT, or extra point), or convert (Canadian football) occurs immediately after a touchdown during which the scoring team is allowed to attempt to score one extra point by kicking the ball through the uprights in the manner of a field goal, or two points by bringing the ball into the end zone in the manner of a touchdown; depending on league rules, one point may also be scored by manner of a safety.
A cornerback (CB), also referred to as a corner, is a member of the defensive backfield or secondary in American and Canadian football.
Cortland Temujin Finnegan (born February 2, 1984) is a former American football cornerback.
Cruzeiro Esporte Clube, commonly known as Cruzeiro and nicknamed Raposa (English: Fox), is a Brazilian multisport club based in Barro Preto, Belo Horizonte.
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.
Defamiliarization or ostranenie (p) is the artistic technique of presenting to audiences common things in an unfamiliar or strange way in order to enhance perception of the familiar.
In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs (DBs) are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players and linebackers, who take positions directly behind or close to the line of scrimmage.
Defensive end (DE) is a defensive position in the sport of American and Canadian football.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A demonstration sport is a sport which is played to promote it, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events.
A down is a period in which a play transpires in American and Canadian football.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
The EFAF Challenge Cup was an international competition for European American Football clubs.
The EFAF Cup was an international competition for European American Football clubs.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
The end zone is the scoring area on the field, according to gridiron-based codes of football.
Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.
ESPN (originally an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%).
ESPN.com is the official website of ESPN.
Esporte Interativo (Interactive Sport), is a Brazilian television channel inaugurated on January 20, 2007 with the live broadcast of a Premier League match between Chelsea and Liverpool.
The Eurobowl is both the final game and the trophy of the BIG6 European Football League (BIG6), a European American football contest.
The European Football League (EFL) is a tournament for European American football teams affiliated to EFAF (European Federation of American Football).
A fair catch is a feature of American football and several other codes of football, in which a player attempting to catch a ball kicked by the opposing team – either on a kickoff or punt – is entitled to catch the ball without interference from any member of the kicking team.
Fantasy football is a game in which the participants serve as the general managers of virtual professional gridiron football teams.
A field goal (FG) is a means of scoring in American football and Canadian football.
Field goal range is the part of the field in American football where there is a good chance that a field goal attempt will be successful.
The Finnish national American football team is the official American football team for Finland. It is one of the more successful teams in Europe, having won the European championship a record five times.
Flag football is a version of American football where the basic rules of the game are similar to those of the mainstream game (often called "tackle football" for contrast), but instead of tackling players to the ground, the defensive team must remove a flag or flag belt from the ball carrier ("deflagging") to end a down, and contact is not permitted between players which will result in a penalty for the team that initiates it.
A flying wedge (also called flying V or wedge formation, or simply wedge) is a configuration created from a body moving forward in a triangular formation.
Folha de S.Paulo, also known as Folha de São Paulo, or simply Folha (Sheet), is a Brazilian daily newspaper founded in 1921 under the name Folha da Noite and published in São Paulo by the Folha da Manhã company.
The English word football may mean any one of several team sports (or the ball used in that respective sport), depending on the national or regional origin and location of the person using the word.
The football helmet is a piece of protective equipment used mainly in American football and Canadian football.
For Dummies is an extensive series of instructional/reference books which are intended to present non-intimidating guides for readers new to the various topics covered.
A formation in football refers to the position players line up in before the start of a down.
In several forms of football a forward pass is a throwing of the ball in the direction that the offensive team is trying to move, towards the defensive team's goal line.
FoxSports.com is a sports news website operated by the Fox Sports division of Fox Entertainment Group.
The France national American football team is the official American football senior national team of France.
Free substitution is a rule in some sports that allows players to enter and leave the game for other players many times during the course of the game; and for coaches to bring in and take out players an unlimited number of times.
A fullback (FB) is a position in the offensive backfield in American and Canadian football, and is one of the two running back positions along with the halfback.
A fumble in American and Canadian football occurs when a player who has possession and control of the ball loses it before being downed (tackled) or scoring.
Gene Wojciechowski is a sports writer, best known for his work with ESPN.
The German Football League (GFL) is the elite league for American football in Germany and was formed in 1979.
The Germany national American football team, nicknamed the Men in Black is the official American football senior national team of Germany.
The following terms are used in American football, both conventional and indoor.
In sports, a goal is a physical structure or area where an attacking team must send the ball or puck in order to score points.
The goal line is the chalked or painted line dividing the end zone from the field of play in American football and Canadian football.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
The Great Britain national American football team, known as the GB Lions represents the UK in international gridiron.
Gregg Edmund Easterbrook (born March 3, 1953) is an American writer and a contributing editor of both The New Republic and The Atlantic Monthly.
A gridiron is a metal grate with parallel bars typically used for grilling meat, fish, vegetables, or combinations of such foods.
In American and Canadian football, a guard (G) is a player who lines up between the center and the tackles on the offensive line of a football team on the line of scrimmage used primarily for blocking.
In American football, a gunner, also known as a shooter, flyer, headhunter, or kamikaze, is a player on kickoffs and punts who specializes in running down the sideline very quickly in an attempt to tackle the kick or punt returner.
In several team sports, matches are played in two halves.
A halfback (HB) is an offensive position in American football, whose duties involve lining up in the backfield and carrying the ball on most rushing plays, i.e. a running back.
Harris Insights & Analytics, headquartered in Rochester, New York, is a market research firm, known for "The Harris Poll".
Hash marks are short lines, running perpendicular to sidelines or sideboards, used to mark locations, primarily in sports.
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada.
The professional American football franchise currently known as the Indianapolis Colts was originally based in Baltimore, Maryland as the Baltimore Colts from 1953 to 1984.
In American football and Canadian football, the holder is the player who receives the snap from the long snapper during field goal or extra point attempts made by the placekicker.
In gridiron football, holding is the illegal restraining of another player who is not in possession of the ball.
The Hungarian National American Football Team is the official American football senior national team of Hungary.
IFAF Americas is the federation that governs the sport of American football in the Americas and qualifies teams from North America, Central America, the Caribbean and South America in the IFAF World Cup.
IFAF Asia is the governing body of American football in Asia.
IFAF Europe is the governing body of American football in Europe.
The IFAF Flag Football World Championship is the international championship in flag football, organized by International Federation of American Football.
IFAF Oceania is the governing body of American football in Oceania.
The IFAF U19 World Cup is the world championship of American football for players under the age of 19 organized by the International Federation of American Football.
The IFAF Women's World Championship is the international championship for women in American football.
The IFAF World Championship of American Football (also known as the IFAF World Cup) is an international American football competition held every four years and contested by teams representing member nations.
In the United States, indoor football is football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas (as opposed to certain NFL teams which have large indoor stadiums, such as the New Orleans Saints who play in the Mercedes-Benz Superdome).
The Indoor Football League (IFL) is a professional indoor American football league created in 2008 out of the merger between the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football.
In gridiron football, an ineligible receiver downfield, or an ineligible man downfield, is a penalty called against the offensive team when a forward pass is thrown while an ineligible player is beyond the line of scrimmage without blocking an opponent at the time of the pass.
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby usually gains possession of the ball for their team.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Federation of American Football (IFAF) is the international governing body of American football associations.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The Israel national American football team is the official American football senior national team of Israel.
Italian Football League (IFL) is an American football league in Italy.
The Italy national American football team, nicknamed the Blue Team is the national American football team for Italy.
Joseph William Namath (born May 31, 1943), nicknamed "Broadway Joe", is a former American football quarterback and actor.
A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet.
The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri.
A kickoff is a method of starting a drive in American football and Canadian football.
Knee pads or kneepads are protective gear worn on knees to protect them against impact injury from falling to the ground or hitting an obstacle, or to provide padding for extended kneeling.
Larry Darnell Fitzgerald Jr. (born August 31, 1983) is an American football wide receiver for the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League (NFL).
The Library of America (LOA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Liga de Fútbol Americano Profesional (LFA) is a professional American football league in Mexico.
The Ligue Élite de Football Américain or LEFA (Elite League of American Football in English) is the top-level American Football league of France.
A linebacker (LB or backer) is a playing position in American football and Canadian football.
This is a list of current and defunct leagues of American football and Canadian football.
The following is an incomplete list of current American football stadiums ranked by capacity.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major territories, and various minor islands.
Lists of American football players include.
In American and Canadian football, the long snapper is a special teams specialist whose duty is to snap the football over a longer distance, typically around 15 yards during punts, and 7–8 yards during field goals and extra point attempts.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, also known as MEDAL, was first published in 2002 by Macmillan Education.
The Maracanã (Estádio do Maracanã, standard Brazilian Portuguese:, local pronunciation), officially Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, is a football stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Minor leagues are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
A mouthguard is a protective device for the mouth that covers the teeth and gums to prevent and reduce injury to the teeth, arches, lips and gums.
The National Arena League (NAL) is a professional indoor football league that began play in 2017.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions and conferences.
The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) is the body that writes the rules of competition for most high school sports and activities in the United States.
The National Football Conference (NFC) is one of the two conferences of the National Football League (NFL), the highest professional level of American football in the United States.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States.
Division II is an intermediate-level division of competition in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
Division III (D-III) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States.
The Dutch Lions is the Dutch national American Football team.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies.
In gridiron football, the neutral zone is an area in which no member of either team may be, other than the person holding the ball.
New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area.
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area.
The New York Jets are a professional American football team located in the New York metropolitan area.
The World League of American Football (shortened to WLAF or World LeagueThe abbreviation "World League" was often used in /// in 1991 and 1992, but "World League of American Football" was often used on TV and posters), later renamed the NFL Europe League (NFL Europe for short) and then NFL Europa, was a professional American football league which operated between 1991 and 2007.
Starting in the 2007 season, the National Football League (NFL) has hosted regular season American football games outside the United States every year.
Nic Harris (born October 6, 1986 in Alexandria, Louisiana) is an American football linebacker of the National Football League.
Nigel David Melville (born 6 January 1961) is a former England national rugby union team scrum half and captain and currently serves as Director of Professional Rugby for Rugby Football Union.
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team is the intercollegiate football team representing the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
In sports, offense (US) or offence (Can.) (see spelling differences; pronounced with first-syllable stress; from Latin offensus), also known as attack, is the action of attacking or engaging an opposing team with the objective of scoring points or goals.
In American football, an official is a person who has responsibility in enforcing the rules and maintaining the order of the game.
Olympic sports are sports that are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games.
OregonLive.com is a website covering local news in Oregon and Southwest Washington.
Padding is thin cushioned material sometimes added to clothes.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
In American and Canadian gridiron football, pass interference (PI) is a foul that occurs when a player interferes with an eligible receiver's ability to make a fair attempt to catch a forward pass.
Paul Frederick Rusch (1897 – 1979) was a lay missionary of the Anglican Church in Japan.
In American football and Canadian football, a penalty is a sanction called against a team for a violation of the rules, called a foul.
The penalty flag (or just "flag") is a yellow cloth used in several field sports including American football and lacrosse by game officials to identify and sometimes mark the location of penalties or infractions that occur during regular play.
The Phoenix New Times is a free alternative weekly Phoenix, Arizona newspaper, published each Thursday.
The Pittsburgh Athletic Club or the Pittsburg Athletic Club football team, established in 1891, was based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the "PG", is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
Placekicker, or simply kicker (PK or K), is the player in American and Canadian football who is responsible for the kicking duties of field goals and extra points.
A play clock, also called a delay-of-game timer, is a countdown clock intended to speed up the pace of the game, and hopefully the scoring, in American football and Canadian football.
The Poland National American Football team represents Poland in international American football competitions.
Pop Warner Little Scholars, commonly known simply as Pop Warner, is a nonprofit organization that provides activities such as American football, for over 425,000 youths aged 5 to 16 years old, in several nationals.
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
The Pottsville Maroons were an American football team based in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, in the Northeastern part of the state.
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
The Princeton Tigers football program represents Princeton University and competes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) level as a member of the Ivy League.
The Pro Bowl is the all-star game of the National Football League (NFL).
The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame for professional American football, located in Canton, Ohio.
In the United States and Canada, the term professional football includes the professional forms of American and Canadian gridiron football.
The Professional Football Researchers Association (PFRA) is an organization of researchers whose mission is to preserve and, in some cases, reconstruct professional football history.
Profootballtalk.com (PFT) is a news and rumor website that focuses on the National Football League.
In American and Canadian football, a punt is a kick performed by dropping the ball from the hands and then kicking the ball before it hits the ground.
A punter (P) in American or Canadian football is a special teams player who receives the snapped ball directly from the line of scrimmage and then punts (kicks) the football to the opposing team so as to limit any field position advantage.
A quarterback (commonly abbreviated "QB") is a position in American and Canadian football.
In American football and Canadian football, a sack occurs when the quarterback (or another offensive player acting as a passer) is tackled behind the line of scrimmage before he can throw a forward pass, when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage in the "pocket" and his intent is unclear, or when a passer runs out of bounds behind the line of scrimmage due to defensive pressure.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
A return specialist or kick returner is a player on the special teams unit of an American football or Canadian football team who specializes in returning punts and kickoffs.
The Rice Bowl is an annual American football national championship game held in Japan every January 3 that pits the champion of college football and the champion of the corporate X-League.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Romania national American football team is the official American football senior national team of Romania.
Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina.
The Rose Bowl Game, officially the Rose Bowl Game presented by Northwestern Mutual for sponsorship purposes, and more frequently known as simply the Rose Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rushing is an action taken by the offense that means to advance the ball by running with it, as opposed to passing, or kicking.
The Russia national American football team (Сборная России по американскому футболу) is the official American football senior national team of Russia.
The Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team represents Rutgers University in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA).
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.
Sada Cruzeiro Futebol Americano (SCFA) is a professional American football team competing in the South Conference of the national league (Superliga Nacional de Futebol Americano), which it won in 2017.
Safety, historically known as a safetyman, is a position in American and Canadian football played by a member of the defense.
In gridiron football, the safety (American football) or safety touch (Canadian football) is a scoring play that results in two points (or, in rare cases, one point) being awarded to the scoring team.
The San Francisco 49ers are a professional American football team located in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The Province of Santa Fe (Provincia de Santa Fe) is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country.
A scrum (short for scrummage) is a method of restarting play in rugby that involves players packing closely together with their heads down and attempting to gain possession of the ball.
A semi-professional athlete is one for whom sport is not a full-time occupation.
The Serbian National American Football Team is the official American football senior national team of Serbia.
Shoulder pads are a piece of protective equipment used in many contact sports such as American football, Canadian football, lacrosse and hockey.
The "sidelines" are the white or colored lines which mark the outer boundaries of a sports field, running parallel to each other and perpendicular to the goal lines.
In Canadian football, a single (single point, or rouge), scoring one point, is awarded when the ball is kicked into the end zone by any legal means, other than a convert (successful or not) or a successful field goal, and the receiving team does not return, or kick, the ball out of its end zone.
A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as a result of blunt force trauma.
A snap (colloquially called a "hike", "snapback", or "pass from center") is the backwards passing of the ball in American and Canadian football at the start of play from scrimmage.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
The Spain national American football team is the official American football senior national team of Spain.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation.
Sports in the United States are an important part of American culture.
A sprain, also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion.
The use of anabolic steroids and performance-enhancing drugs in American football is officially prohibited by virtually every sanctioning body.
A strain (also known colloquially as a pulled muscle or torn muscle) is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both (contractile components).
In team sports, substitution (or interchange) is replacing one player with another during a match.
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).
Super Sunday is the day on which the Super Bowl, the National Football League (NFL)'s annual championship game, is played.
Super Bowl XLIX was an American football game played to determine the champion of the National Football League (NFL) for the 2014 season.
Super Bowl XLVI was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion New York Giants and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion New England Patriots to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2011 season.
The Superliga Nacional de Futebol Americano (National American Football League, previously Liga Brasileira de Futebol Americano, Brazilian American Football League) is an American football league in Brazil.
The Swedish national American football team is the official American football team for Sweden.
A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a public holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States.
The Atlantic Cup is a pre/mid season football tournament held in Algarve, Portugal for European football clubs from national leagues which do not operate in the winter months.
The Carillon is the student published newspaper at the University of Regina in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.
The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The tight end (TE) is a position in American football, arena football, and formerly Canadian football, on the offense.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
Touch football is a variant of American football in which the basic rules are similar to those of the mainstream game (called "tackle football" for contrast), but instead of tackling players to the ground, the person carrying the ball need only be touched by a member of the opposite team to end a down.
A touchdown is a means of scoring in both American and Canadian football.
A try is a way of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league football.
In gridiron football, a turnover occurs when the team with the ball loses possession of the ball without kicking it, which is then gained by the other team.
In American football and Canadian football, a turnover on downs occurs when a team's offense has used all their downs but has not progressed downfield enough to earn another set of downs, which gives possession of the ball to the team on defense.
In the National Football League (NFL), the two-minute warning is given when two minutes of game time remain on the game clock in each half of a game, i.e. near the end of the second and fourth quarters.
In American and Canadian football, a two-point conversion or two-point convert is a play a team attempts instead of kicking a one-point conversion immediately after it scores a touchdown.
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
Uniform numbers in American football are unusual compared to those in other sports.
The United Football League (UFL) was a professional American football league based in the United States that began play in October 2009 and played four seasons, the most recent being cut short in October 2012.
The United States Football League (USFL) was an American football league that played for three seasons, 1983 through 1985.
The University of Delaware Press (UDP) is a publishing house and a department of the University of Delaware in the United States, whose main campus is at Newark, Delaware, where the University Press is also based.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
In American football, the upback (also known as the punt protector or personal protector) is a blocking back who lines up approximately 1-3 yards behind the line of scrimmage in punting situations.
The United Paramount Network (UPN) was an American broadcast television network that launched on January 16, 1995.
USA Football is the national governing body for amateur American football in the United States.
USA Rugby (officially the United States of America Rugby Football Union, Ltd.) is the national governing body for the sport of rugby union in the United States.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The Vince Lombardi Trophy is the trophy awarded each year to the winning team of the National Football League's championship game, the Super Bowl.
Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24, 1945) is an American professional wrestling promoter and executive, American football executive, businessman, film producer, actor and sporadic professional wrestler.
Walter Chauncey Camp (April 7, 1859 – March 14, 1925) was an American football player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football".
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A whistle is an instrument which produces sound from a stream of gas, most commonly air.
A wide receiver, also referred to as wideouts or simply receivers, is an offensive position in American and Canadian football, and is a key player.
Willard Carroll Smith Jr. (born September 25, 1968) is an American actor, producer, rapper, comedian, and songwriter.
William Walter "Pudge" Heffelfinger (December 20, 1867 – April 2, 1954) was an American football player and coach.
Women's gridiron football, more commonly known as women's American football, women's Canadian football, or simply women's football, is a form of gridiron football (American or Canadian) played by women.
The World Football League (WFL) was a short-lived American football league that played in 1974 and part of 1975.
The X-League (Xリーグ) is the top-level American football league in Japan.
The XFL was a professional American football league that played its only season in 2001.
Yard lines are a place on the field in American football marking the distance from the line of scrimmage to the closest goal line.
The 1869 New Jersey vs.
The 1880 college football season had no clear-cut champion, with the Official NCAA Division I Football Records Book listing Princeton and Yale as having been selected national champions.
The 1958 National Football League Championship Game was the 26th NFL championship game, played on December 28 at Yankee Stadium in New York City.
The 1964 American Football League season was the fifth regular season of the American Football League.
The 1970 NFL season was the 51st regular season of the National Football League, and the first one after the AFL–NFL merger.
The 2009 Pro Bowl was the National Football League's all-star game for the 2008 season.
The 2011 NFL season was the 92nd regular season of the National Football League.
The 2012 UFL season was the fourth and final season of the United Football League.
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