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Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900December 2, 1990) was an American composer, composition teacher, writer, and later a conductor of his own and other American music.
Abilene (pronounced) is a city in and the county seat of Dickinson County, Kansas, United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Aces & Eights: Shattered Frontier is an American role-playing game, written by Jolly R. Blackburn, Brian Jelke, Steve Johansson, Dave Kenzer, Jennifer Kenzer and Mark Plemmons, and published by Kenzer & Company in 2007.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The Akokisa were the indigenous tribe that lived on Galveston Bay and the lower Trinity and San Jacinto rivers in Texas, primarily in the present-day Greater Houston area.
Alexander Plaisted Saxton (July 16, 1919 – August 20, 2012) was an American historian, novelist, and university professor.
Alferd Griner Packer (January 21, 1842 – April 23, 1907) was an American prospector who confessed to cannibalism during the winter of 1874.
Allan J. Pinkerton (25 August 1819 – 1 July 1884) was a Scottish American detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton National Detective Agency.
Alvin M. Josephy Jr. (May 18, 1915 – October 16, 2005) was an American historian who specialized in Native American issues.
America's Western Frontiers: The Exploration and Settlement of the Trans-Mississippi West (released in the United Kingdom as The American West) is a book which chronicles the history of the American West from the Pre-Columbian era through the mid-twentieth century.
American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations, with respect to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom.
American pioneers to the Northwest Territory included soldiers of the Revolution and members of the Ohio Company of Associates.
The American Ranch massacre occurred in 1865 during the Colorado War.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The American River (Río de los Americanos during the period before 1847 ruled by Mexico) is a 120-mile-long river in California that runs from the Sierra Nevada mountain range to its confluence with the Sacramento River in the Sacramento Valley.
The Anaconda Copper Mining Company, part of the Amalgamated Copper Company from 1899 to 1915, was an American mining company.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Andy Adams (May 3, 1859Jean Shelley Henry, "Adams, Andy", Handbook of Texas Online (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fad04), accessed June 26, 2012. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. – September 26, 1936) was an American writer of western fiction.
The Aberdeen Angus, sometimes simply Angus, is a Scottish breed of small beef cattle.
Annie Oakley (born Phoebe Ann Mosey; August 13, 1860 – November 3, 1926) was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876),Callcott, Wilfred H., "Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez De,", accessed April 18, 2017 often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
Apache Pass, also known by its earlier Spanish name Puerto del Dado ("Pass of the Die"), is an historic mountain pass in the U.S. state of Arizona between the Dos Cabezas Mountains and Chiricahua Mountains at an elevation of.
The Apache Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and various Apache nations fought in the southwest between 1849 and 1886, though minor hostilities continued until as late as 1924.
The Arapaho (in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.
The Army of New Mexico, also known as Sibley Brigade, was a small Confederate field army in the American Civil War.
Arthur Farwell (March 23, 1872 – January 20, 1952) was an American composer, conductor, educationalist, lithographer, esoteric savant, and music publisher.
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States.
Augustine Chacon (1861 – November 21, 1902), nicknamed El Peludo (English: "The Hairy One"), was a Mexican outlaw and folk hero active in the Arizona Territory and along the U.S.–Mexico border at the end of the 19th century.
Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water.
The Bandit War, or Bandit Wars, refers to a series of raids in Texas, started in 1910 before finally culminating in 1919, that were carried out by Mexican rebels from the states of Tamaulipas, Coahuila and Chihuahua.
The Bannock tribe were originally Northern Paiute but are more culturally affiliated with the Northern Shoshone.
The Barber–Mizell feud was a feud in Brevard and Orange counties, Florida in 1870 resulting in 41 deaths and no criminal convictions that arose when cattle baron Mose Barber disputed the jurisdiction of Orange County Sheriff and tax collector David Mizell over his land.
The Barlow Road (at inception, Mount Hood Road) is a historic road in what is now the U.S. state of Oregon.
A barn raising, also historically called a raising bee or rearing in the U.K., is a collective action of a community, in which a barn for one of the members is built or rebuilt collectively by members of the community.
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning neighborhood.
The Battle of Bear Paw (also sometimes called Battle of the Bears Paw or Battle of the Bears Paw Mountains) was the final engagement of the Nez Perce War of 1877.
The Battle of Birch Coulee occurred September 2, 1862 during the Dakota War of 1862.
The Battle of Cibecue Creek was an engagement of the Apache Wars, fought in August 1881 between the United States and White Mountain Apaches in Arizona, at Cibecue Creek on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation.
The Battle of Crooked River was a skirmish between Latter Day Saints forces and a Missouri state militia unit from southeast of Elmira, Missouri in Ray County under the command of Samuel Bogart.
The Battle of Fort Ridgely was an early battle in the Dakota War of 1862.
The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought from March 26–28, 1862, in the northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (also known as Tohopeka, Cholocco Litabixbee, or The Horseshoe), was fought during the War of 1812 in the Mississippi Territory, now central Alabama.
The Battle of Ingalls was a gunfight on September 1, 1893 between United States Marshals and the Doolin-Dalton Gang, during the closing years of the Old West era, in Ingalls, Oklahoma.
The Battle of Mine Creek, also known as the Battle of the Osage, was a battle that occurred on October 25, 1864, in Kansas as part of Price's Raid during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a military confrontation and a significant United States victory during the Red River War.
The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution.
The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution.
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and also commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain and its Indian allies in the Tecumseh's Confederacy.
The Battle of Wood Lake was a battle in the Dakota War of 1862 in September.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty September 17 or November 23, 1859July 14, 1881, also known as William H. Bonney) was an American Old West outlaw and gunfighter who killed eight men before he was shot and killed at age 21.
Charles Earl Boles (b. 1829; d. after 1888), also known as Black Bart, was an English-born outlaw noted for the poetic messages he left behind after two of his robberies.
The Bluff War, also known as Posey War of 1915, or the Polk and Posse War, was one of the last armed conflicts between the United States and native Americans.
Boot Hill is a western-themed role-playing game designed by Brian Blume, Gary Gygax, and Don Kaye (although Kaye unexpectedly died before the game was published), and first published in 1975.
A Bowie knife is a pattern of fixed-blade fighting knife created by James Black in the early 19th century for Jim Bowie, who had become famous for his use of a large knife at a duel known as the Sandbar Fight.
The Bozeman Trail was an overland route connecting the gold rush territory of Montana to the Oregon Trail.
Brigham Young (June 1, 1801August 29, 1877) was an American religious leader, politician, and settler.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The Brooks–Baxter War (or sometimes referred to as the Brooks–Baxter Affair) was an armed conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas, in the United States, in 1874 between factions of the Republican Party over the disputed 1872 state gubernatorial election.
The Brooks–McFarland feud was a family feud that took place between 1896 and 1902, in what is now the state of Oklahoma.
William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody (February 26, 1846 – January 10, 1917) was an American scout, bison hunter, and showman.
The Buffalo Hunters' War, or the Staked Plains War, occurred in 1877.
Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
A bullwhip is a single-tailed whip, usually made of braided leather, designed as a tool for working with livestock.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Robert Leroy Parker (April 13, 1866 – November 7, 1908), better known as Butch Cassidy, Bureau of Land Management.
Butte is a town in, and the county seat of Silver Bow County, Montana, United States.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California.
The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political.
Cane Ridge, Kentucky, United States was the site, in 1801, of a large camp meeting that drew thousands of people and had a lasting influence as one of the landmark events of the Second Great Awakening, which took place largely in frontier areas of the United States.
Carl Lotus Becker (September 7, 1873 – April 10, 1945) was an American historian.
Carson City, officially the Consolidated Municipality of Carson City, is an independent city and the capital of the US state of Nevada, named after the mountain man Kit Carson.
The Castaic Range War, also known as the Jenkins-Chormicle Affair, was a range war that happened in Castaic, California from 1890 to 1916, between ranchers and farmers William Willoby Jenkins and William C. Chormicle who both staked claims on a piece of land in the territory.
Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle.
The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America.
Chaps are sturdy coverings for the legs consisting of leggings and a belt.
Charles Crocker (September 16, 1822 – August 14, 1888) was an American railroad executive who founded the Central Pacific Railroad, which constructed the westernmost portion of the first transcontinental railroad, and took control with partners of the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Charles Marion Russell (March 19, 1864 – October 24, 1926), also known as C. M. Russell, Charlie Russell, and "Kid" Russell, was an artist of the Old American West.
Charles Wakefield Cadman (December 24, 1881 – December 30, 1946) was an American composer.
Charles Angelo Siringo (February 7, 1855 – October 18, 1928) was an American lawman, detective, bounty hunter, agent for the Pinkerton National Detective Agency during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family.
The Chicago, Milwaukee, St.
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt (or Hinmatóowyalahtq̓it in Americanist orthography), popularly known as Chief Joseph or Young Joseph (March 3, 1840 – September 21, 1904), was a leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe of the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States, in the latter half of the 19th century.
Chinese Massacre Cove is an area along the Snake River in Wallowa County, Oregon, United States.
The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the post-Civil War era to drive cattle overland, from ranches in Texas to Kansas.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chris Enss (born 1961) is an American author and screenwriter.
The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States in the Reformed tradition with close ties to the Restoration Movement.
Cochise (Cheis or A-da-tli-chi, in Apache K'uu-ch'ish "oak"; c. 1805 – June 8, 1874) was leader of the Chihuicahui local group of the Chokonen ("central" or "real" Chiricahua) and principal chief (or nantan) of the Chokonen band of the Chiricahua Apache.
The Cochise County Cowboys were a loosely associated group of outlaw cowboys in Pima and Cochise County, Arizona Territory in the late 19th century.
The Colfax County War was a range war that occurred from 1873 to 1888 between settlers and the new owners of the Maxwell Land Grant in Colfax County, in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Collis Potter Huntington (October 22, 1821 – August 13, 1900) was one of the Big Four of western railroading (along with Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker) who built the Central Pacific Railroad as part of the first U.S. transcontinental railroad.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Colorado War was an Indian War fought from 1863 to 1865 between the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nations and white settlers and militia in the Colorado Territory and adjacent regions.
The Comanche campaign is a general term for military operations by the United States government against the Comanche tribe in the newly settled west.
A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.
The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Comstock Lode is a lode of silver ore located under the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range in Nevada (then western Utah Territory).
Confederate Arizona, officially the Territory of Arizona, and also known as Arizona Territory, was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
The U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, authorized on 4 July 1838, consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works such as lighthouses and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes.
The Cortina Troubles is the generic name for the First Cortina War, from 1859 to 1860, and the Second Cortina War, in 1861, in which paramilitary forces, led by the Mexican rancher and local leader Juan Nepomuceno Cortina, confronted elements of the United States Army, the Confederate States Army, the Texas Rangers, and the local militias of Brownsville, Texas, and Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks.
The cowboy hat is a high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat best known as the defining piece of attire for the North American cowboy.
Cowboy poetry is a form of poetry which grew out of a tradition of extemporaneous composition carried on by workers on cattle drives and ranches.
Crazy Horse (italic in Standard Lakota Orthography, IPA:,; – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota in the 19th century.
Crow Foot (1873 – December 15, 1890) was the son of Sitting Bull of the Lakota.
The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including the Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The Cumberland Gap is a narrow pass through the long ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, within the Appalachian Mountains, near the junction of the U.S. states of Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee.
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.
The Dakota War of 1862, also known as the Sioux Uprising, Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U.S.–Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow's War, was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of Dakota (also known as the eastern 'Sioux').
The Dalton Gang was a group of outlaws in the American Old West during 1890–1892.
Daniel Boone (September 26, 1820) was an American pioneer, explorer, woodsman, and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States.
David "Davy" Crockett (August 17, 1786 – March 6, 1836) was a 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician.
Deadlands is a genre-mixing alternate history roleplaying game which combines the Western and horror genres, with some steampunk elements.
Deadwood Dick is a fictional character who appears in a series of stories, or dime novels, published between 1877 and 1897 by Edward Lytton Wheeler (1854/5–1885).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
The Department of the Platte was a military administrative district established by the U.S. Army on March 5, 1866, with boundaries encompassing Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota Territory, Utah Territory and a small portion of Idaho.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Desert Magazine was a monthly regional publication based in the Colorado Desert published between 1937 and 1985.
The dime novel is a form of late 19th-century and early 20th-century U.S. popular fiction issued in series of inexpensive paperbound editions.
Doc is a 1971 American western film, which tells the story of the gunfight at the O.K. Corral and of one of its protagonists, Doc Holliday.
Dodge City is the county seat of Ford County, Kansas, United States, named after nearby Fort Dodge.
The Donner Party, or Donner–Reed Party, was a group of American pioneers who set out for California in a wagon train in May 1846.
A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action.
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&DMead, Malcomson; ''Dungeons & Dragons'' FAQ or DnD) is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game (RPG) originally designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson.
Dust Devils is an independently published role-playing game set in the Old West, written by Matt Snyder.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
The Early–Hasley Feud (1865–1869) was a family feud that took place immediately following the Civil War, in Bell County, Texas.
The Earp Vendetta Ride was a deadly search by Deputy U.S. Marshal Wyatt Earp, leading a federal posse, for outlaw Cowboys they believed had ambushed and maimed Virgil Earp and killed Morgan Earp.
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817 – April 11, 1873) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.
Edward Lytton Wheeler (1854/5 – 1885) was a nineteenth century writer of dime novels.
Edwin Legrand Sabin (December 23, 1870 – November 24, 1952) was an American author, primarily of boys' adventure stories, mostly set in the American West.
Ellsworth is a city in and the county seat of Ellsworth County, Kansas, United States.
Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad is a book written by David Haward Bain, published in 2000.
Empire Ranch is a working cattle ranch in southeastern Pima County, Arizona, that was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.
Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1872.
Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process or supervision from a court or tribunal through a legal proceeding.
The Falls of the Ohio National Wildlife Conservation Area is a national, bi-state area on the Ohio River near Louisville, Kentucky in the United States, administered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Feuds in the United States deals with the phenomena of historic blood feuding in America.
Fast draw, also known as quick draw, is the ability to quickly draw a pistol and fire it accurately on a target.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
The Fence Cutting Wars occurred near end of the 19th century in the American Old West, and were a series of disputes between farmers and cattlemen with larger land holdings.
Finnish Americans (Finnish: Amerikansuomalaiset) comprise Americans with ancestral roots from Finland or Finnish people who emigrated to and reside in the United States.
The First Transcontinental Railroad (also called the Great Transcontinental Railroad, known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.
The first transcontinental telegraph (completed October 24, 1861) was a line that connected the existing network in the eastern United States to a small network in California, by means of a link between Omaha, Nebraska and Carson City, Nevada, via Salt Lake City.
The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Fort Abercrombie, in North Dakota, was an American fort established by authority of an act of Congress, March 3, 1857.
Fort Astoria (also named Fort George) was the primary fur trading post of John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company (PFC).
Fort Bowie was a 19th-century outpost of the United States Army located in southeastern Arizona near the present day town of Willcox, Arizona.
Fort Hall is a census-designated place (CDP) in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Idaho which is split between Bannock County in the south and Bingham County in the north.
Fort Huachuca is a United States Army installation, established 3 March 1877 as Camp Huachuca.
Fort Kearny was a historic outpost of the United States Army founded in 1848 in the western U.S. during the middle and late 19th century.
Fort Laramie (founded as Fort William and then known for a while as Fort John) was a significant 19th century trading post and diplomatic site located at the confluence of the Laramie River and the North Platte River in the upper Platte River Valley in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Wyoming.
Fort Omaha, originally known as Sherman Barracks and then Omaha Barracks, is an Indian War-era United States Army supply installation.
Fort Sill, Oklahoma is a United States Army post north of Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City.
Fort Smith National Historic Site is a National Historic Site located in Fort Smith, Arkansas, along the Arkansas River.
Fort Snelling, originally known as Fort Saint Anthony, was a United States military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers in Hennepin County, Minnesota.
Fort Union National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service of the United States, and is located north of Watrous in Mora County, New Mexico.
Fort Walla Walla is a United States Army fort located in Walla Walla, Washington.
Fort Worth is the 15th-largest city in the United States and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas.
Frank C. Stilwell (1856 – March 20, 1882) was an outlaw Cowboy who killed at least two men in Cochise County during 1877–82.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frederic Sackrider Remington (October 4, 1861 – December 26, 1909) was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the American Old West, specifically concentrating on scenes from the last quarter of the 19th century in the Western United States and featuring images of cowboys, American Indians, and the U.S. Cavalry, among other figures from Western culture.
Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was an American historian in the early 20th century, based at the University of Wisconsin until 1910, and then at Harvard.
The Fredonian Rebellion (December 21, 1826 – January 23, 1827) was the first attempt by white Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico.
The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts that occurred in North America between 1688 and 1763 and were related to the European dynastic wars.
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary.
Frontier justice (also called vigilante justice or street justice) is extrajudicial punishment that is motivated by the nonexistence of law and order or dissatisfaction with justice.
The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
The Gadsden Purchase (known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla, "Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States purchased via a treaty signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico at that time.
The General Land Office (GLO) was an independent agency of the United States government responsible for public domain lands in the United States.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars.
George Catlin (July 26, 1796 – December 23, 1872) was an American painter, author, and traveler, who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West.
George Hearst (September 3, 1820 – February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman and politician.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Geronimo (Goyaałé "the one who yawns"; June 16, 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader and medicine man from the Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache tribe.
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city, usually one that contains substantial visible remains.
Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865October 4, 1946) was an American forester and politician.
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
The Goliad massacre was an event that occurred on March 27, 1836, during the Texas Revolution, followed the Battle of Goliad in which 425-445 prisoners of war from the Texian Army of the Republic of Texas were killed by the Mexican Army in the town of Goliad, Texas.
The Great Northern Railway was an American Class I railroad.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.
The Great Sioux War of 1876, also known as the Black Hills War, was a series of battles and negotiations which occurred in 1876 and 1877 between the Lakota Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and the government of the United States.
The Green River, located in the western United States, is the chief tributary of the Colorado River.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897).
The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral was a 30-second shootout between lawmen and members of a loosely organized group of outlaws called the Cowboys that took place at about 3:00 p.m. on Wednesday, October 26, 1881, in Tombstone, Arizona Territory.
Gunfight at the O.K. Corral is a 1957 American western film starring Burt Lancaster as Wyatt Earp and Kirk Douglas as Doc Holliday, based on a real event which took place on October 26, 1881.
Gunslinger and gunfighter are literary words used historically to refer to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation of being dangerous with a gun and had participated in gunfights and shootouts.
Guthrie is a city and county seat in Logan County, Oklahoma, United States, and a part of the Oklahoma City Metroplex.
Habitants were French settlers and the inhabitants of French origin who farmed the land along the two shores of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf in what is the present-day Province of Quebec in Canada.
Micajah "Big" Harpe, born Joshua Harper (before 1768 – August 1799), and Wiley "Little" Harpe, born William Harper (before 1770 – February 8, 1804), were murderers, highwaymen, and river pirates who operated in Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Mississippi in the late 18th century.
Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City.
The Haun's Mill Massacre (also Hawn's Mill Massacre) was an event in the history of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Henry Hopkins Sibley (May 25, 1816 – August 23, 1886) was a career officer in the United States Army, who commanded a Confederate cavalry brigade in the Civil War. In 1862, he attempted to forge a supply-route from California, in defiance of the Union Blockade of the Atlantic and Gulf ports, while also aiming to appropriate the Colorado gold mines to replenish the Confederate treasury.
Henry Villard (April 10, 1835 – November 12, 1900) was an American journalist and financier who was an early president of the Northern Pacific Railway.
The Hereford (pronounced hair-uh-furd in the UK and hur-furd or hur-uh-ford in the US) is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England.
Hetch Hetchy is the name of a valley, a reservoir and a water system in California in the United States.
A highwayman was a robber who stole from travellers.
Hiram Sibley (February 6, 1807 – July 12, 1888), was an American industrialist, entrepreneur, and philanthropist who was a pioneer of the telegraph in the United States.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Chinese Americans or the history of ethnic Chinese in the United States relates to the three major waves of Chinese immigration to the United States with the first beginning in the 19th century.
The history of Kansas, argued historian Carl L. Becker a century ago, reflects American ideals.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).
The history of the Union Pacific Railroad stretches from 1862 to the present.
The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
Hole-in-the-Wall is a remote pass in the Big Horn Mountains of Johnson County, Wyoming.
The Homestead Acts were several United States federal laws under which an applicant, upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, could acquire ownership of land, typically called a "homestead.” In all, more than 270 million acres of public land, or nearly 10% of the total area of the U.S., was transferred to 1.6 million homesteaders; most of the homesteads were west of the Mississippi River.
The Horrell brothers, sometimes referred to as the lawless Horrell boys (circa 1873–1878), were five brothers from the Horrell family of Lampasas County, Texas, who were outlaws of the Old West, and who committed numerous murders over a five-year period before four of the brothers were killed in different incidents.
The Hot Springs gunfight, also known as the Gunfight at Hot Springs, or the Hot Springs Shootout, was a gunfight on March 16, 1899, between two separate law enforcement agencies that occurred in Hot Springs, Arkansas during the Old West period in the United States.
Hour of the Gun is a 1967 Western film depicting Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday during their 1881 battles against Ike Clanton and his brothers in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, and the gunfight's aftermath in and around Tombstone, Arizona, starring James Garner as Earp, Jason Robards as Holliday, and Robert Ryan as Clanton.
Hugh Glass (1783 – 1833) was an American frontiersman, fur trapper and trader, hunter, and explorer.
Hutchinson is the largest city in McLeod County, Minnesota, United States, along the South Fork of the Crow River.
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
Independence is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West is a history of the American West.
John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Jack Powers whose real name was John A. Power, (1827 – November 1860), was an Irish born immigrant who came to New York as a child, who became a soldier in the Mexican American War, in the garrison of Santa Barbara, California.
Jacksonian democracy is a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man as that term was then defined.
James Cooksey Earp (June 28, 1841 – January 25, 1926) was a lesser known older brother of Old West lawman Virgil Earp and lawman/gambler Wyatt Earp.
James Jerome Hill (September 16, 1838 – May 29, 1916), was a Canadian-American railroad executive.
The James–Younger Gang was a notable 19th-century gang of American outlaws that centered around Jesse James and his brother Frank James.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Jay Cooke (August 12, 1821 – February 16, 1905) was an American financier who helped finance the Union war effort during the American Civil War and the postwar development of railroads in the northwestern United States.
Jedediah Strong Smith (January 6, 1799 – May 27, 1831), was a clerk, frontiersman, hunter, trapper, author, cartographer, and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the North American West, and the Southwest during the early 19th century.
Jeffersonian democracy, named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s.
Jesse Woodson James (September 5, 1847April 3, 1882) was an American outlaw, bank and train robber, guerrilla, and leader of the James–Younger Gang.
Joaquin Murrieta Carrillo (sometimes spelled Murieta or Murietta) (1829 – July 25, 1853), also called The Robin Hood of the West or the Robin Hood of El Dorado, was a famous vaquero, and gold miner in California during the California Gold Rush of the 1850s.
John Bradbury (1768–1823) was a Scottish botanist noted for his travels in the United States Midwest and West in the early 19th Century and his eyewitness account of the New Madrid earthquake.
John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813July 13, 1890) was an American explorer, politician, and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States.
John Ford (February 1, 1894 – August 31, 1973) was an American film director.
John Jacob Astor (July 17, 1763 – March 29, 1848) (born Johann Jakob Astor) was a German–American businessman, merchant, real estate mogul and investor who mainly made his fortune in fur trade and by investing in real estate in or around New York City.
John James Audubon (born Jean Rabin; April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter.
John Mack Faragher (born Phoenix, Arizona) is an American historian.
John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks", was an influential Scottish-American naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, glaciologist and early advocate for the preservation of wilderness in the United States.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Wesley Hardin (May 26, 1853 – August 19, 1895) was an American, Old West outlaw, gunfighter, and controversial folk icon.
The Johnson County War, also known as the War on Powder River and the Wyoming Range War, was a range conflict that took place in Johnson County, Wyoming from 1889 to 1893.
Jonathan R. Davis was an honorary captain of the Palmetto Regiment of Volunteers of South Carolina in the Mexican–American War and a gold rush prospector.
Journal of the West is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history and culture of the American West.
Juan Nepomuceno Cortina Goseacochea (May 16, 1824 – October 30, 1894), also known by his nicknames Cheno Cortina, the Red Robber of the Rio Grande and the Rio Grande Robin Hood, was a Mexican rancher, politician, military leader, outlaw and folk hero.
Julia Bulette (1832 – January 19/20, 1867), was an English-born American prostitute and madam in Virginia City, Nevada who was murdered in 1867.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce.
The Karankawa (also known as Carancahuas, Carancahuases, Carancouas, Caranhouas, Caronkawa) were a Native American people concentrated in southern Texas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Johann Carl Bodmer (11 February 1809 – 30 October 1893) was a Swiss-French printmaker, etcher, lithographer, zinc engraver, draughtsman, painter, illustrator and hunter.
Karl Friedrich May (also Carl; 25 February 1842 – 30 March 1912) was a German writer best known for his adventure novels set in the American Old West.
Kaskaskia is a historically important village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
A kerchief (from the French couvre-chef, "head cover"), also known as a bandana or bandanna, is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around the head or neck for protective or decorative purposes.
Kintpuash, also known as Captain Jack (c. 1837 – October 3, 1873), was a chief of the Modoc tribe of California and Oregon.
Christopher Houston Carson (December 24, 1809 – May 23, 1868), better known as Kit Carson, was an American frontiersman.
The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.
The Land Ordinance of 1785 was adopted by the United States Congress of the Confederation on May 20, 1785.
The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 was the first land rush into the Unassigned Lands.
Larry Earl Schweikart (born April 21, 1951 in Mesa, Arizona) is an American historian and retired professor of history at the University of Dayton.
The Las Cuevas War was a brief armed conflict fought mainly between a force of Texas Rangers, commanded by Captain Leander McNelly, and an irregular force of Mexican militia.
A lasso, from the Castilian word, Lazo.
Laura Ingalls Wilder (February 7, 1867 – February 10, 1957) was an American writer known for the Little House on the Prairie series of children's books, published between 1932 and 1943, which were based on her childhood in a settler and pioneer family.
Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon, industrialist, politician, and the founder (with his wife, Jane) of Stanford University.
Levi Strauss (born Löb Strauß,; February 26, 1829 – September 26, 1902) was a German-American businessman who founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
The Lincoln County War was an Old West conflict between rival factions, which began in 1878, in New Mexico Territory, the predecessor to the modern state of New Mexico, and dragged on until 1881.
The following list of cowboys and cowgirls from the frontier era of the American Old West (approximately 1830 to 1910) was compiled to show examples of the cowboy and cowgirl genre.
In the history of the European colonization of the Americas, an atrocity termed "Indian massacre" is a specific incident wherein a group of people (military, mob or other) deliberately kill a significant number of unarmed, defenseless people — usually civilian noncombatants — or to the summary execution of prisoners-of-war.
This is a list of Old West gunfighters, referring to outlaws or lawmen, of the American frontier who gained fame or notoriety during the American Wild West or Old West.
This is a list of Old West lawmen; people who served in various law enforcement positions during the Old West period.
This is a list of computer and video games that are set in the Old West or that are defined by a western style (and even mix between different genres, such as science fiction western).
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States.
The Lower Sioux Agency, or Redwood Agency, was the federal administrative center for the Lower Sioux Indian Reservation in what became Redwood County, Minnesota, United States.
Lucie Cheng was a sociologist known for her work in Asian American studies, as well as being the first permanent director of the Asian American Studies Center, UCLA.
Luke L. Short (January22, 1854September8, 1893) was an American Old West gunfighter, cowboy, U.S. Army scout, dispatch rider, gambler, boxing promoter and saloon owner.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802 – November 29, 1847) was an American physician.
Marietta is a city in and the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, United States.
Mark Hopkins (September 1, 1813 – March 29, 1878) was one of four principal investors who formed the Central Pacific Railroad along with Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, and Collis Huntington in 1861.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
The Mason County War, sometimes called the Hoodoo War in reference to masked members of a vigilance committee,Sonnichsen, C.L., 1957, 10 Texas Feuds, University of New Mexico Press, was a period of lawlessness ignited by a "tidal wave of rustling" in Mason County, Texas in 1875 and 1876.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
Meeker Massacre and the White River War, Ute War, or the Ute Campaign, were conflicts that began when the Utes attacked an Indian agency on September 29, 1879, killing the Indian agent Nathan Meeker and his 10 male employees, and taking women and children as hostages.
Merle Eugene Curti (September 15, 1897 – March 9, 1996) was a leading American historian, who taught many graduate students at Columbia University and the University of Wisconsin, and was a leader in developing the fields of social history and intellectual history.
Mescalero or Mescalero Apache is an Apache tribe of Southern Athabaskan Native Americans.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Missouri Executive Order 44, also known as the Extermination Order, was an executive order issued on October 27, 1838, by the Governor of Missouri, Lilburn Boggs.
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers.
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.
The Modoc are a Native American people who originally lived in the area which is now northeastern California and central Southern Oregon.
The Modoc War, or the Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc people and the United States Army in northeastern California and southeastern Oregon from 1872 to 1873.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Monument Valley (Tsé Biiʼ Ndzisgaii,, meaning valley of the rocks) is a region of the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster of vast sandstone buttes, the largest reaching above the valley floor.
Morgan Seth Earp (April 24, 1851 – March 18, 1882) was a Tombstone, Arizona Special Policeman when he helped his brothers Virgil and Wyatt and Doc Holliday confront outlaw Cowboys in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral on October 26, 1881.
The Mormon Trail is the 1,300-mile (2,092 km) route that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846 to 1868.
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U.S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales.
A mountain man is an explorer who lives in the wilderness.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
My Darling Clementine is a 1946 American Western film directed by John Ford and starring Henry Fonda as Wyatt Earp during the period leading up to the gunfight at the OK Corral.
The National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum is a museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, with more than 28,000 Western and American Indian art works and artifacts.
The Grange, officially referred to as The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, is a fraternal organization in the United States that encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
The term Navajo Wars covers at least three distinct periods of conflict in the American West: the Navajo against the Spanish (late 16th century through 1821); the Navajo against the Mexican government (1821 through 1848); and the Navajo against the United States (after the 1847–48 Mexican–American War).
Nebraska City is a city in, and the county seat of, Otoe County, Nebraska, United States.
The Territory of Nebraska was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.
Edward Zane Carroll Judson Sr. (March 20, 1821 or 1823 – July 16, 1886), known as E. Z. C. Judson and by his pseudonym Ned Buntline, was an American publisher, journalist, writer, and publicist.
Nell Irvin Painter (born Nell Elizabeth Irvin; August 2, 1942) is an American historian notable for her works on southern history of the nineteenth century.
The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War from February to April 1862 in which Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Uusi Ruotsi; Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War, when Sweden was a great power.
New Ulm is a city in Brown County, Minnesota, United States.
The "new western history" movement emerged among professional historians in the 1980s, a belated manifestation of the 1970s "new social history" movement.
The Reclamation Act (also known as the Lowlands Reclamation Act or National Reclamation Act) of 1902 is a United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
The Nez Perce (autonym: Niimíipuu in their own language, meaning "the walking people" or "we, the people") are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time.
The Nez Perce War was an armed conflict that pitted several bands of the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and their allies, a small band of the Palouse tribe led by Red Echo (Hahtalekin) and Bald Head (Husishusis Kute), against the United States Army.
Nicholas Porter Earp (September 6, 1813 – February 12, 1907) was the father of well-known Western lawmen Virgil, Wyatt, and Morgan, and their lesser-known brothers James, Newton and Warren Earp.
Nicodemus is an unincorporated community in Graham County, Kansas, United States.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Norman is a city in the U.S. state of Oklahoma south of downtown Oklahoma City in its metropolitan area.
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories.
The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States, from Minnesota to the Pacific Northwest.
Northern Paiute is a Numic tribe that has traditionally lived in the Great Basin in eastern California, western Nevada, and southeast Oregon.
Northern Securities Co.
The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Norwegian Americans (norskamerikanere) are Americans with ancestral roots from Norway.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma! is the first musical written by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II.
The Old San Antonio Road (sometimes called "El Camino Real" or "King's Highway") was a historic roadway located in the U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana.
The Old Spanish Trail (Viejo Sendero Español) is a historical trade route that connected the northern New Mexico settlements of (or near) Santa Fe, New Mexico with those of Los Angeles, California and southern California.
Oliver Loving (December 4, 1812 – September 25, 1867) was a rancher and cattle driver.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries, including Prussia, Norway, Sweden, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Spain.
In the Western United States and Canada, open range is rangeland where cattle roam freely regardless of land ownership.
Optimism is a mental attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America.
The Oregon Trail is a historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon.
The Oregon-California Trails Association is an interdisciplinary organization based at Independence, Missouri, United States.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
Owen Wister (July 14, 1860 – July 21, 1938) was an American writer and historian, considered the "father" of western fiction.
Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, politician and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus (1871–2017).
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific Railroad Acts were a series of acts of Congress that promoted the construction of a "transcontinental railroad" (the Pacific Railroad) in the United States through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies.
The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897.
A parvenu is a person who is a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class.
In the United States, a patroon (from Dutch patroon) was a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland on the east coast of North America.
Pikes Peak is the highest summit of the southern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, in North America.
The Plan of Union of 1801 was an agreement between the Congregational churches of New England and the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America for mutual support and joint effort in evangelizing the American frontier.
The Pleasant Valley War, sometimes called the Tonto Basin Feud, or Tonto Basin War, or Tewksbury-Graham Feud, was a range war fought in Pleasant Valley, Arizona in the years 1882-1892.
The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages, newspapers, and mail.
The President of the Republic of Texas was the head of state when Texas was an independent republic from 1836 to 1846.
In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Prostitution is illegal in the vast majority of the United States as a result of state laws rather than federal laws.
A public auction is an auction held on behalf of a government in which the property to be auctioned is either property owned by the government, or property which is sold under the authority of a court of law or a government agency with similar authority.
Quanah Parker (Comanche kwana, "smell, odor") (– February 20, 1911) was a Comanche war leader of the Quahadi ("Antelope") band of the Comanche people.
Quantrill's Raiders were the best-known of the pro-Confederate partisan guerrillas (also known as "bushwhackers") who fought in the American Civil War.
The Raid on Godfrey Ranch occurred from January 15–16, 1865 in which a large band of Lakota and Cheyenne warriors attacked an isolated ranch in Colorado owned by Holon Godfrey.
A range war is a type of usually violent conflict, most commonly in the 19th and early 20th century in the American West.
Ray Allen Billington (September 28, 1903 in Bay City, Michigan - March 7, 1981 in San Marino, California) was an American historian focusing his work on the history of the American frontier and the American West, becoming one of the leading defenders of Frederick Jackson Turner's "Frontier Thesis" from the 1950s to the 1970s, expanding the field of the history of the American West.
Red Cloud (Lakota: Maȟpíya Lúta) (1822 – December 10, 1909) was one of the most important leaders of the Oglala Lakota.
Red Cloud's War (also referred to as the Bozeman War or the Powder River War) was an armed conflict between the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho on one side and the United States in Wyoming and Montana territories from 1866 to 1868.
Red Dead is a series of Western-themed action-adventure video games developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games.
Red Dead Redemption is a Western-themed action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games.
Red Dead Revolver is a Western action-adventure third-person shooter video game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games.
Red River is a 1948 American western film directed and produced by Howard Hawks and starring John Wayne and Montgomery Clift, giving a fictional account of the first cattle drive from Texas to Kansas along the Chisholm Trail.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
The Red River War was a military campaign launched by the United States Army in 1874 to remove the Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Native American tribes from the Southern Plains and forcibly relocate them to reservations in Indian Territory.
The Reese–Townsend Feud, also called the Colorado County Feud, lasted from 1898 to 1907 and was a politically motivated feud taking place in the closing days of the Old West, in Columbus, Texas, and other parts of Colorado County.
The 1839-1844 Regulator–Moderator War, or the Shelby County War, was a nineteenth century feud in East Texas during the Republic of Texas years between rival factions.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
Robert Marshall Utley (born October 31, 1929) is an American author and historian who has written sixteen books on the history of the American West.
The Rock Springs massacre, also known as the Rock Springs Riot, occurred on September 2, 1885, in the present-day United States city of Rock Springs in Sweetwater County, Wyoming.
The Rocky Mountain locust (Melanoplus spretus) is an extinct species of locust that ranged through the western half of the United States and some western portions of Canada until the end of the 19th century.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Rodeo is a competitive sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later Central America, South America, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Roy Ellsworth Harris (February 12, 1898 – October 1, 1979) was an American composer.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
Sam Bass (July 21, 1851 ‒ July 21, 1878) was a 19th-century American Old West train robber and outlaw.
Sam Houston (March 2, 1793July 26, 1863) was an American soldier and politician.
Samuel Ryan Curtis (February 3, 1805 – December 26, 1866) was an American military officer, and one of the first Republicans elected to Congress.
The San Elizario Salt War, also known as the Salinero Revolt or the El Paso Salt War, was an extended and complex political, social and military range war over ownership and control of immense salt lakes at the base of the Guadalupe Mountains of West Texas.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
The San Francisco Committee of Vigilance was a vigilante group formed in 1851.
The Sand Creek Massacre (also known as the Chivington Massacre, the Battle of Sand Creek or the Massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was a massacre in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 675-man force of Colorado U.S. Volunteer Cavalry under the command of U.S. Army Colonel John Chivington attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–500 Native Americans, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.
The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Battle of Adobe Walls was fought on June 27, 1874, between Comanche forces and a group of 28 U.S. bison hunters defending the settlement of Adobe Walls, in what is now Hutchinson County, Texas.
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States.
The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Sheep Wars, or the Sheep and Cattle Wars, refers to a series of armed conflicts in the Western United States which were fought between sheepmen and cattlemen over grazing rights.
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated.
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States.
The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.
Silver City is a near ghost town and a small residential community in Lyon County, Nevada, USA, near the Lyon/Carson border.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake in Standard Lakota orthography, also nicknamed Húŋkešni or "Slow"; c. 1831 – December 15, 1890) was a Hunkpapa Lakota leader who led his people during years of resistance to United States government policies.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States.
The Snake War (1864–1868) was a war fought by the United States of America against the "Snake Indians," the settlers' term for Northern Paiute, Bannock and Western Shoshone bands who lived along the Snake River.
South Pass (elevation and) is the collective term for two mountain passes on the Continental Divide, in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming.
The Southern Pacific (or Espee from the railroad initials- SP) was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses.
The State of Deseret was a provisional state of the United States, proposed in 1849 by settlers from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in Salt Lake City.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836) was an American empresario.
Stephen Harriman Long (December 30, 1784 – September 4, 1864) was a U.S. army explorer, topographical engineer, and railway engineer.
Stuart's Stranglers was a well-known vigilante group in Montana that was founded in 1884 and led by Granville Stuart in response to widespread livestock theft at that time.
The Sutton–Taylor feud began as a county law enforcement issue between relatives of Texas state law agent, Creed Taylor, and a local law enforcement officer, William Sutton, in DeWitt County, Texas.
Swedish Americans (Svenskamerikaner) are an American ethnic group of people who have ancestral roots from Sweden.
Tecumseh (March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
John Baker Omohundro (July 26, 1846 – June 28, 1880), also known as "Texas Jack," was an American frontier scout, actor, and cowboy.
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin.
The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos (Texas Mexicans) in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico.
The Texas–Indian wars were a series of 19th-century conflicts between settlers in Texas and the Southern Plains Indians.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants on the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840–60 is a book on overland travel across the Great Plains prior to the Civil War.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The West as America, Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier, 1820–1920, an art exhibition organized by the Smithsonian American Art Museum (then known as the National Museum of American Art, or NMAA) in 1991, caused an unforeseen controversy and according to art critics, "engaged the public in the debate over western revisionism on an unprecedented scale." The paintings at the Smithsonian American Art Museum represent the United States' government’s oldest art collection and in its 160-year history the museum had not received much detrimental publicity before this exhibition.
Theodore Dehone Judah (March 4, 1826 – November 2, 1863) was an American railroad and civil engineer who was a central figure in the original promotion, establishment, and design of the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Nuttall (5 January 1786 – 10 September 1859) was an English botanist and zoologist who lived and worked in America from 1808 until 1841.
This timeline of the American Old West is a chronologically ordered list of events significant to the development of the American West as a region of the United States prior to 1912.
Tombstone is a 1993 American Western film directed by George P. Cosmatos, written by Kevin Jarre (who was also the original director, but was replaced early in production), and starring Kurt Russell and Val Kilmer, with Sam Elliott, Bill Paxton, Powers Boothe, Michael Biehn, and Dana Delany in supporting roles, as well as narration by Robert Mitchum.
Tombstone is a historic city in Cochise County, Arizona, United States, founded in 1879 by prospector Ed Schieffelin in what was then Pima County, Arizona Territory.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
The Transylvania Colony also referred to as the Transylvania Purchase was a short-lived, extra-legal colony founded during 1775 by land speculator Richard Henderson, who controlled the North Carolina-based Transylvania Company.
Transylvania University is a private university in Lexington, Kentucky, United States.
Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal.
The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was signed on September 17, 1851 between United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nations.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie (also the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota and Arapaho Nation, following the failure of the first Fort Laramie treaty, signed in 1851.
The Treaty of Fort Stanwix was a treaty between Native Americans and Great Britain, signed in 1768 at Fort Stanwix, in present-day Rome, New York.
The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
True West Magazine (alternate title: True West) is an American magazine that covers the icons like Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday, Billy the Kid, and Jesse James and relates American Old West history back to the present day to show the role contemporary Western heritage plays in keeping the spirit of the Old West alive today.
TSR, Inc. was an American game publishing company and the publisher of Dungeons & Dragons (D&D).
The Tutt–Everett War, also called the Marion County War, or the Tutt, King, Everett War, was a politically motivated feud that took place in Marion County, Arkansas between 1844 and 1850 during the politically charged era preceding the American Civil War.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (November 4, 1877 – January 21, 1934) was an American historian who largely defined the field of the social and economic history of the antebellum American South and slavery.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law-enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932.
This is a United States territorial acquisitions and conquests list, beginning with American independence.
University of Nevada Press is a university press that is run by the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE).
The University of New Mexico (also referred to as UNM) is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder,Poll, Richard D., and Ralph W. Hansen.
Ute people are Native Americans of the Ute tribe and culture and are among the Great Basin classification of Indigenous People.
The Ute Wars were a series of conflicts between the Ute people and the United States which began in 1849 and ended in 1923.
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Vermont Republic is a term used by historians to refer to the government of Vermont that existed from 1777 to 1791.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Virgil Walter Earp (July 18, 1843 – October 19, 1905) was both deputy U.S. Marshal and Tombstone, Arizona City Marshal when he led his brothers Morgan and Wyatt and Doc Holliday in a confrontation with outlaw Cowboys at the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral on October 26, 1881.
Virgil Thomson (November 25, 1896September 30, 1989) was an American composer and critic.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Virginia City is a census-designated place (CDP) that is the county seat of Storey County, Nevada.
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
A wanted poster (or wanted sign) is a poster distributed to let the public know of an alleged criminal whom authorities wish to apprehend.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Warren Baxter Earp (March 9, 1855 – July 6, 1900) was the youngest brother of Wyatt, Morgan, Virgil, James, and Newton Earp.
Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in San Francisco, California, with central offices throughout the country.
The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.
The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.
The Western History Association (WHA), a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, was founded in 1961 at Santa Fe, New Mexico by Ray Allen Billington et al., with the following mission: "The Western History Association strives to be a congenial home for the study and teaching of all aspects of North American Wests, frontiers, homelands, and borderlands.
Western lifestyle or cowboy culture is the lifestyle, or behaviourisms, of, and resulting from the influence of, the (often romanticized) attitudes, ethics and history of the American Western cowboy and cowgirl.
Western music is a form of country and hillbilly music composed by and about the people who settled and worked throughout the Western United States and Western Canada.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
WETA-TV, virtual channel 26 (UHF digital channel 27), is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to the American capital city of Washington, District of Columbia.
The Wham Paymaster robbery was an armed robbery on a United States Army paymaster transporting over US$28,000 in gold and silver coins (about $ in present-day terms) and his escort that occurred on May 11, 1889.
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States.
The Wild Bill Hickok – Davis Tutt shootout was a gunfight that occurred on July 21, 1865 in the town square of Springfield, Missouri between Wild Bill Hickok and gambler Davis Tutt.
The Wild Bunch, also known as the Doolin–Dalton Gang or the Oklahombres, were a gang of American outlaws based in the Indian Territory that were active in Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma Territory during the 1890s—robbing banks and stores, holding up trains, and killing lawmen.
Wild West shows were traveling vaudeville performances in the United States and Europe that existed around 1870–1920.
William Penn Adair "Will" Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was a stage and motion picture actor, vaudeville performer, American cowboy, humorist, newspaper columnist, and social commentator from Oklahoma.
Willa Sibert Cather (December 7, 1873 Cather's birth date is confirmed by a birth certificate and a January 22, 1874, letter of her father's referring to her. While working at McClure's Magazine, Cather claimed to be born in 1875. After 1920, she claimed 1876 as her birth year. That is the date carved into her gravestone at Jaffrey, New Hampshire. – April 24, 1947 Retrieved March 11, 2015.) was an American writer who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers! (1913), The Song of the Lark (1915), and My Ántonia (1918).
The Willamette Valley is a long valley in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
William Barret "Buck" Travis (August 1, 1809 – March 6, 1836) was a 19th-century American lawyer and soldier. At the age of 26, he was a lieutenant colonel in the Texas Army. He died at the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Travis County and Travis Park were named after him for being the commander of the Republic of Texas at the Battle of the Alamo.
William "Bill" Cronon, FBA (born September 11, 1954 in New Haven, Connecticut) is a noted environmental historian and the Frederick Jackson Turner and Vilas Research Professor of History, Geography, and Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841).
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
The Wilmot Proviso proposed an American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War.
Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852.
Winnetou is a fictional Native American hero of several novels written in German by Karl May (1842–1912), one of the best-selling German writers of all time with about 200 million copies worldwide, including the Winnetou-trilogy.
The Wounded Knee Massacre (also called the Battle of Wounded Knee) occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota.
In North America, a wrangler is someone employed to handle animals professionally, especially horses, but sometimes other types of animals as well.
Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp (March 19, 1848 – January 13, 1929) was an American Old West gambler, a deputy sheriff in Pima County, and deputy town marshal in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, who took part in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, during which lawmen killed three outlaw Cochise County Cowboys.
Wyatt Earp is a 1994 American biographical Western film directed, produced and co-written by Lawrence Kasdan, with Dan Gordon.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
Pearl Zane Grey (January 31, 1872 – October 23, 1939) was an American author and dentist best known for his popular adventure novels and stories associated with the Western genre in literature and the arts; he idealized the American frontier.
Zebulon Montgomery Pike (January 5, 1779 – April 27, 1813) was an American brigadier general and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado was renamed (from El Capitan).
The 10th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army.
The Mormon War is a name that is sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the US state of Missouri.
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890.
The 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment formed in 1866.
The 9th Cavalry Regiment includes active duty reconnaissance units of the United States Army.
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