541 relations: A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, ABO blood group system, Acadia, Aconcagua, Adams–Onís Treaty, Africa, African diaspora in the Americas, Agnosticism, Alabama, Alaska, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska Purchase, ALBA, Aleut, Alfred A. Knopf, Alliance for Progress, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, American (word), American Capital of Culture, American Cordillera, American Revolution, Amerigo Vespucci, Amerrisque Mountains, Andean Community, Andes, Anglo-America, Anglo-Saxons, Animism, Antarctica, Antigua and Barbuda, Antilles, Appalachian Mountains, Arawak, Archaeology, Archaeology of the Americas, Arctic Cordillera, Arctic small tool tradition, Argentina, Argentines, Armadillo, Asia, Asian people, Associated Press, Association of Caribbean States, Association of National Olympic Committees, Asunción, Athabaskan languages, Atheism, Atlantic Ocean, ..., Atlantic slave trade, Attu Island, Aymara language, Aztecs, Bahá'í Faith, Balfour Declaration of 1926, Bank of the South, Barbados, Basin and Range Province, Basse-Terre, Basseterre, Belize, Belmopan, Beringia, Biologist, Bogotá, Bolivia, Bonaire, Boothia Peninsula, Brades, Brasília, Brazil, Brazilian Highlands, Brazilian Portuguese, Bridgetown, Bristol Bay, British North America, British Overseas Territories, British Virgin Islands, Buddhism, Buenos Aires, Cañari, Californio, Canada, Canadian French, Canadian Shield, Cape Froward, Caracas, Caribbean, Caribbean Community, Caribbean Plate, CARICOM Single Market and Economy, Cascade Range, Castries, Catholic Church, Cayenne, Central America, Central American Integration System, Central American Parliament, Central Intelligence Agency, Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands, Chile, Christian, Christianity, Christie's, Christopher Columbus, Churchill River (Hudson Bay), City proper, Civilization, Cloud forest, Cockburn Town, Colorado, Colorado River, Columbia (name), Columbia River, Columbian Exchange, Common Era, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, Complex society, Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Conquistador, Contadora group, Contiguous United States, Continent, Continental drift, Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Cosmographiae Introductio, Costa Rica, Cougar, Creole language, Cuba, Cuban War of Independence, Curaçao, Darién Gap, David Canning, David E. Bloom, Decolonization of the Americas, Demographics of Anguilla, Demographics of Barbados, Demographics of Bermuda, Demographics of Cuba, Demographics of Dominica, Demographics of El Salvador, Demographics of French Guiana, Demographics of Greenland, Demographics of Grenada, Demographics of Guadeloupe, Demographics of Haiti, Demographics of Jamaica, Demographics of Panama, Demographics of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Demographics of Saint Lucia, Demographics of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Demographics of the Cayman Islands, Demographics of the Dominican Republic, Demographics of the United States Virgin Islands, Denali, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Restoration War, Dominican War of Independence, Dominion of Newfoundland, Dorset culture, Drainage basin, Dutch language, Dutch people, Early modern period, Earth, East Asia, Easter Island, Eastern Orthodox Church, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Erin McKean, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Central America, Europe, European colonization of the Americas, European emigration, Evangelicalism, Federal Republic of Central America, Fort-de-France, Fourteener, France, Fraser River, Free Trade Area of the Americas, French America, French Guiana, French language, French people, Geary–Khamis dollar, George Town, Cayman Islands, Georgetown, Guyana, Gerardus Mercator, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germans, Gondwana, Gran Chaco, Gran Colombia, Grand Canyon, Great American Interchange, Great Lakes, Great Plains, Greater Buenos Aires, Greater Mexico City, Greater Rio de Janeiro, Greater São Paulo, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Grytviken, Guarani language, Guatemala City, Gulf of California, Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy, Guyana, H. L. Mencken, Haiti, Haitian Creole, Haitian Revolution, Hamilton, Bermuda, Havana, Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, Hinduism, Hispaniola, History of the Americas, Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hummingbird, Iberian Peninsula, Ibero-America, Immigration, Inca Empire, Indentured servitude, Independence II culture, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Interior Plains, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, Inuit, Irreligion, Isthmus of Panama, Italians, Italy, Jamaica, Kaffeklubben Island, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Kingston, Jamaica, Kingstown, Kralendijk, L'Anse aux Meadows, La Isabela, La Paz, Land, Land bridge, Language, Languages of Africa, Languages of Argentina, Languages of Aruba, Languages of Belize, Languages of Bolivia, Languages of Brazil, Languages of Canada, Languages of Chile, Languages of Colombia, Languages of Costa Rica, Languages of Ecuador, Languages of Europe, Languages of Guatemala, Languages of Guyana, Languages of Honduras, Languages of Mexico, Languages of Nicaragua, Languages of Paraguay, Languages of Peru, Languages of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Languages of the Falkland Islands, Languages of the United States, Languages of Venezuela, Largest cities in the Americas, Latin America, Latin American Integration Association, Latin American Parliament, Latin American wars of independence, Latinisation of names, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Leif Erikson, Library of Congress, Lima, Lingua franca, Linguistics, List of conflicts in the Americas, List of continents by GDP (nominal), List of continents by population, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries and dependencies by population density, List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal), List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP), List of former sovereign states, List of Indigenous peoples of South America, List of metropolitan areas in the Americas, List of Ministers of Overseas France, List of mountains in the Andes, List of pre-Columbian cultures, List of rivers by discharge, List of rivers by length, Lists of islands of the Americas, Los Angeles, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Louisiana, Louisiana Purchase, Mackenzie River, Maine, Managua, Marigot, Saint Martin, Martin Waldseemüller, Martinique, Matthias Ringmann, Maya civilization, Métis, Megacity, Mercosur, Mesoamerica, Mestizo, Metropolitan area, Mexico, Mexico City, Microsatellite, Middle America (Americas), Mississippi River, Mixtec, Moche culture, Monarchies in the Americas, Montevideo, Muisca, Mulatto, Na-Dene languages, Nahuatl, Names for United States citizens, NASA, Nassau, Bahamas, NATO, Nature (journal), Netherlands, New Age, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Mexican Spanish, New Mexico, New Oxford American Dictionary, New Spain, New Sweden, New World, New World porcupine, New York City, New York metropolitan area, Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland Act, News & Record, Nondenominational Christianity, Nordostrundingen, Norse colonization of North America, Norsemen, North America, North American Arctic, North American Cordillera, North American English, North American Free Trade Agreement, Northern America, Northern Canada, Northern Hemisphere, Nuuk, Oceania, Old World, Olmecs, Olympic symbols, Opossum, Oranjestad, Aruba, Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Ottawa, Overseas collectivity, Overseas department, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pacific Ocean, Pacific Plate, Paleo-Eskimo, Paleo-Indians, Pampas, Pan American Sports Organization, Pan-Americanism, Panama City, Papiamento, Paraguay, Paramaribo, Paraná River, Patagonia, Patriation, Pentecostalism, Peru, Philipsburg, Sint Maarten, Pleistocene megafauna, Plymouth, Montserrat, Poles, Ponta do Seixas, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Port of Spain, Port-au-Prince, Portuñol, Portugal, Portuguese language, Portuguese people, Pre-Columbian era, Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, Pre-Dorset, ProQuest, Protestantism, Public body (Netherlands), Puerto Rico, Quaternary glaciation, Quebec, Quechuan languages, Quito, Río de la Plata Basin, Reader's Digest, Regional Security System, Religious persecution, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Group, Road Town, Rocky Mountains, Romance languages, Romania, Roseau, Royal Spanish Academy, Russia, Saba, Sacramento River, Saint Barthélemy, Saint John River (Bay of Fundy), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lawrence River, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint-Pierre, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Salton Sea, San José, Costa Rica, San Juan, Puerto Rico, San Salvador, Santiago, Santo Domingo, Savannah River, São Paulo, Scandinavia, Science News, Sea level rise, Settlement of the Americas, Seward Peninsula, Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sikhism, Sint Maarten, Slavery, Soufrière Hills, South America, South Asia, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Southeast Asia, Southern Cone, Southern Rocky Mountains, Southern Thule, Southwestern United States, Spain, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish–American War, St. George's, Grenada, St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda, Stanley, Falkland Islands, Statute of Westminster 1931, Sucre, Summits of the Americas, Supercontinent, Suriname, Surinamese Dutch, Syncretism, Tegucigalpa, Teotihuacan, Territories of the United States, The Bahamas, The Bottom, The Carolinas, The Orchestra of the Americas, The unity of the Realm, The Valley, Anguilla, Thule people, Toltec, Tornado, Tornado Alley, Traditional African religions, Treaty of the Danish West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago, Tropical cyclone, Tropical rainforest, Tropical rainforest climate, Tundra, Turks and Caicos Islands, Union of South American Nations, United Kingdom, United States, Upland and lowland, Upper Paleolithic, Urban area, Uruguay, Uruguayan Portuguese, UTC−10:00, UTC±00:00, Valparaíso, Vermont, Vinland, Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Ward Churchill, Washington, D.C., West Africa, Western Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, Willemstad, World Institute for Development Economics Research, World War II, Yukon, Yukon River, Zambo, Zapotec civilization, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. 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A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside Asia, at, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty,Weeks, p.168.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African diaspora in the Americas is used to refer to people born in the Americas with predominantly African ancestry.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands.
The Alaska Purchase (r) was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate, and signed by President Andrew Johnson.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Aleuts (Алеу́ты Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect), Alaska Native Language Center.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
The Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso), initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used.
The non-governmental organization American Capital of Culture Organization selects one city in the Americas annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year.
The American Cordillera is a chain of mountain ranges (cordilleras) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, South America and Antarctica.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
The Amerrisque Mountains (Serranías de Amerrisque, Cordillera de Amerrisque) are the central spine of Nicaragua and part of the Central American Range which extends throughout central Nicaragua for about 700 km (436 mi) from Honduras in the NW to Costa Rica in the SW, just a few miles from the Caribbean.
The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anglo-America most often refers to a region in the Americas in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Antilles (Antilles in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The archaeology of the Americas is the study of the archaeology of North America (Mesoamerica included), Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
The Arctic Cordillera is a vast, deeply dissected chain of mountain ranges extending along the northeastern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from Ellesmere Island to the northeasternmost part of the Labrador Peninsula in northern Labrador and northern Quebec, Canada.
The Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) was a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2500 BC.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argentines, also known as Argentinians (argentinos; feminine argentinas), are the citizens of the Argentine Republic, or their descendants abroad.
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; Asociación de Estados del Caribe; Association des États de la Caraïbe) is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin.
The Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) is an international organization that affiliates the current 206 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Attu (Atan) is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska, the United States, North America, and the Americas.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.
The Bank of the South (Banco del Sur, Banco do Sul, Bank van het Zuiden) or BancoSur is a monetary fund and lending organization established on 26 September 2009 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela with promises of initial capital of US$20 billion.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Basin and Range Province is a vast physiographic region covering much of the inland Western United States and northwestern Mexico.
Basse-Terre is a French commune in the Guadaloupe department of France in the Lesser Antilles.
Basseterre, estimated population 13,000 in 2011, is the capital of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Belmopan is the capital city of Belize.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.
Boothia Peninsula (formerly Boothia Felix, Inuktitut Kingngailap Nunanga) is a large peninsula in Nunavut's northern Canadian Arctic, south of Somerset Island.
Brades (also Brades Estate) is a town and the de facto capital of Montserrat since 1998 with an approximate population of 1,000.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Highlands or Brazilian Plateau (Planalto Brasileiro) are an extensive geographical region, covering most of the eastern, southern and central portions of Brazil, in all approximately half of the country's land area, or some 4,500,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi).
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Bridgetown (UN/LOCODE: BB BGI) is the capital and largest city of Barbados.
Bristol Bay (Iilgayaq in Central Yup'ik, Залив Бристольский) is the eastern-most arm of the Bering Sea, at 57° to 59° North 157° to 162° West in Southwest Alaska.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially simply "Virgin Islands", are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.
Californio (historical and regional Spanish for "Californian") is a Spanish term with widely varying interpretations.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.
The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton or Laurentia).
Cape Froward is the southernmost point of mainland South America.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies whose main objective is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.
The CARICOM Single Market and Economy, also known as the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), is an integrated development strategy envisioned at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) which took place in July 1990 in Grand Anse, Grenada.
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.
Castries, population 20,000, aggl.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central American Integration System (Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA) has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since February 1, 1993.
The Central American Parliament (Parlamento Centroamericano), also known as PARLACEN, is the political institution and parliamentary body of the Central American Integration System (SICA).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Charlotte Amalie, located on the island of St. Thomas, is the capital and the largest city of the United States Virgin Islands, founded in 1666 as Taphus (meaning "beer house" or "beer hall").
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christie's is a British auction house.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The Churchill River (French: Rivière Churchill) is a major river in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada.
A city proper is the area contained within city limits.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.
Cockburn Town is the capital city of the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
"Columbia" is a historical name used by both Europeans and Americans to describe the Americas, the New World, and often, more specifically, the United States of America.
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC; Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos; Communauté des États Latino-Américains et Caribéens; Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten) is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
Henry Watson Fowler The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
The Contadora Group was an initiative launched in the early 1980s by the foreign ministers of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela to deal with the Central American crisis (military conflicts in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala), which were threatening to destabilize the entire Central American region.
The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.
Cosmographiae Introductio ("Introduction to Cosmography"; Saint-Dié, 1507) was a book published in 1507 to accompany Martin Waldseemüller's printed globe and wall-map (Universalis Cosmographia), which were the first appearance of the name 'America'.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban War of Independence (1895–98) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880).
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The Darién Gap is a break in the Pan-American Highway consisting of a large swath of undeveloped swampland and forest within Panama's Darién Province in Central America and the northern portion of Colombia's Chocó Department in South America.
David Canning is a British economist.
David E. Bloom (born October 16, 1955) is an American author, professor, economist, and demographer.
Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Anguilla, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographics of Barbados, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bermuda, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The demographic characteristics of Cuba are known through census which have been conducted and analyzed by different bureaus since 1774.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Dominica, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of El Salvador, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
According to INSEE the population of French Guiana was 239,450 of January 1, 2012.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Greenland, including population density, ethnicity, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Grenada, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Guadeloupe has a population of 403,977 (2012).
Although Haiti averages approximately 255 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Jamaica, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Panama, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographics of the population of Saint Kitts and Nevis, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Saint Lucia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographics of the population of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Cayman Islands, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Dominican Republic, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of the United States Virgin Islands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Denali (also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of above sea level.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
The Dominican Restoration War was a guerrilla war between 1863 and 1865 in the Dominican Republic between nationalists and Spain, who had recolonized the country 17 years after its independence.
The Dominican Independence War gave the Dominican Republic autonomy from Haiti on February 27, 1844.
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
The Dorset was a Paleo-Eskimo culture, lasting from 500 BC to between 1000 and 1500 AD, that followed the Pre-Dorset and preceded the Inuit in the Arctic of North America.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Erin McKean (born 1971) is an American lexicographer, based in the San Francisco Bay Area.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Central America is a region formed by 6 Latin American countries and one Anglo American nation, (Belize).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
European emigration can be defined as subsequent emigration waves from the European continent to other continents.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Fort-de-France is the capital of France's Caribbean overseas department of Martinique.
In the mountaineering parlance of the Western United States, a fourteener is a mountain peak with an elevation of at least.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Fraser River is the longest river within British Columbia, Canada, rising at Fraser Pass near Blackrock Mountain in the Rocky Mountains and flowing for, into the Strait of Georgia at the city of Vancouver.
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA; Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLÉA; Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA; Vrijhandelszone van Amerika) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.
French America is the French-speaking community of people and their diaspora, notably those tracing back origins to New France, the early French colonization of the Americas.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
George Town is a city situated on Grand Cayman island of the Cayman Islands.
Georgetown is the capital of Guyana, located in Region 4, which is also known as the Demerara-Mahaica region.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region.
Gran Colombia ("Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Greater Buenos Aires (Gran Buenos Aires, GBA), Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area or Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos (districts) in the Province of Buenos Aires.
Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México), constituted by Mexico City itself composed of 16 Municipalities—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.
Greater Rio de Janeiro, officially Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region (Grande Rio, officially Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, in Portuguese) is a large metropolitan area located in Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil, the second largest in Brazil and third largest in South America.
The Greater São Paulo (Grande São Paulo) is a nonspecific term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Grytviken is a settlement on the island of South Georgia, part of a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez, Sea of Cortés or Vermilion Sea; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or Mar Bermejo or Golfo de California) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland.
Gustavia is the main town and capital of the island of Saint Barthélemy.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, satirist, cultural critic and scholar of American English.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Hamilton is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Henry I Sinclair, Jarl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin (13451400) was a Scottish and a Norwegian nobleman.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The prehistory of the Americas (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) begins with people migrating to these areas from Asia during the height of an Ice Age.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
Independence II was a Paleo-Eskimo culture that flourished in northern and northeastern Greenland from around 700 to 80 BC, north and south of the Independence Fjord.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Interior Plains is a vast physiographic region that spreads across the Laurentian craton of central North America.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Kaffeklubben Island or Coffee Club Island (Kaffeklubben Ø; Inuit Qeqertaat) is a small island lying off the northern tip of Greenland.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island.
Kingstown is the capital, chief port, and main commercial centre of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
Kralendijk is the capital city and main port of the island of Bonaire in the Caribbean Netherlands.
L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove"), is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
La Isabela in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic was one of the first European settlements in the Americas.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
Land, sometimes referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water.
A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
There are at least 40 spoken languages in Argentina.
There are many languages spoken on the Caribbean island of Aruba.
According to the 2010 censos, the major languages spoken in Belize include English, Spanish and Kriol, all three spoken by more than 40% of the population.
The languages of Bolivia include Spanish; several dozen indigenous languages, most prominently Aymara, Quechua, Chiquitano and Tupi Guaraní; Bolivian Sign Language (closely related to American Sign Language); and language of immigrants such as Plautdietsch.
Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, and is widely spoken by most of population.
A multitude of languages are used in Canada.
The Republic of Chile is an overwhelmingly Spanish-speaking country, with the exceptions of isolated native and immigrant communities.
More than 99.2% of Colombians speak the Colombian language; also 65 Amerindian languages, 2 Creole languages and the Romani language are spoken in the country.
Costa Rica's official and predominant language is Spanish.
The predominant and official language of Ecuador is Spanish, in addition to Northern Quechua and other pre-colonial American languages, which are spoken by 2,300,000 (Adelaar 1991).
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Spanish is the official language of Guatemala.
English is the official language of Guyana, which is the only South American country with English as the official language.
There are a number of languages spoken in Honduras though the official language is Spanish.
Many different languages are spoken in Mexico.
The official language of Nicaragua is Spanish; however, Nicaraguans on the Caribbean coast speak indigenous languages and also English.
The Republic of Paraguay is a mostly bilingual country, where both Spanish, an Indo-European language, and Guaraní, an indigenous language of the Tupian family, have official status.
Peru is a multilingual nation.
The only official language of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is English, and this is spoken by almost everyone on a day-to-day basis.
The only official language of the Falkland Islands is English, and this is spoken by almost everyone on a day-to-day basis.
Many languages are spoken, or historically have been spoken, in the United States.
There are at least 40 languages around Venezuela, but Spanish is the language spoken by the majority of Venezuelans.
This is a list of the 50 largest cities in the Americas by population residing within city limits as of 2015, the most recent year for which official population census results, estimates or short-term projections are available for most of these cities.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latin American Integration Association / Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración / Associação Latino-Americana de Integração (LAIA / ALADI) is an international and regional scope organization.
The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino) is a regional, permanent organization composed by the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson (970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer from Iceland.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Following are lists of conflicts in the Americas.
This article includes a list of continents of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the market value of all final goods and services from a continent in a given year.
This is a list of all major continents' population.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected gross domestic product (nominal) as ranked by the IMF.
This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected Gross Domestic Product, based on the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) methodology, not on market exchange rates.
A historical state or historical sovereign state is a state that once existed, but has since been dissolved due to conflict, war, rebellion, annexation, or uprising.
The following is a list of indigenous peoples of South America.
This is a list of the fifty most populous metropolitan areas in the Americas as of 2015, the most recent year for which official census results, estimates or projections are available for every major metropolitan area in the Americas.
The following is a list of ministers of Overseas France.
A sortable list of mountains above 4,000 metres in the South American Andes.
This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.
This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is their water flow.
This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.
Following are links to lists of islands of the Americas which relates to all islands associated with South America and North America, including those of the Caribbean.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area, also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland, is the 18th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Mackenzie River (Slavey language: Deh-Cho, big river or Inuvialuktun: Kuukpak, great river; fleuve (de) Mackenzie) is the longest river system in Canada, and has the second largest drainage basin of any North American river after the Mississippi River.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Managua is the capital and largest city of Nicaragua, and the center of eponymous department.
Marigot is the main town and capital in the French Collectivity of Saint Martin.
Martin Waldseemüller (Latinized as Martinus Ilacomylus, Ilacomilus or Hylacomylus; c. 1470 – 16 March 1520) was a German cartographer.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Matthias Ringmann (also known as Philesius Vogesigena or Ringmannus Philesius; 1482–1511) was an Alsatian German cartographer and humanist poet.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to indigenous North Americans and European settlers.
A megacity is a very large city, typically with a total population in excess of 10 million people.
Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
Middle America is a region in the mid-latitudes of the Americas.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
There are 13 monarchies in the Americas (self-governing states and territories that have a monarch as head of state).
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
The Muisca are an indigenous group of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia, that formed the Muisca Confederation before the Spanish conquest.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Different languages use different terms for citizens of the United States, who are known in English as Americans.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nassau is the capital and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Mexican Spanish (Spanish: español neomexicano) is a variant of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado by the Hispanos of New Mexico.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Uusi Ruotsi; Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War, when Sweden was a great power.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The New World porcupines, family Erethizontidae, are large arboreal rodents, distinguished by their spiny coverings from which they take their name.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Newfoundland Act was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the then-separate Dominions of Canada and Newfoundland on March 23, 1949.
The News & Record is the largest newspaper serving Guilford County, North Carolina, and the surrounding region.
Nondenominational (or non-denominational) Christianity consists of churches which typically distance themselves from the confessionalism or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves non-denominational.
Nordostrundingen (corrupted from Nordøstrundingen which means Northeastern rounding, in English Northeast Foreland), is a headland located at the northeastern end of Greenland Island, a part of the Northeast Greenland National Park.
The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American Arctic comprises the northern portions of Alaska (USA), Northern Canada and Greenland.
The North American Cordillera is the North American portion of the American Cordillera which is a mountain chain (cordillera) along the western side of the Americas.
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Northern America is the northernmost region of North America.
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Nuuk (Godthåb) is the capital and largest city of Greenland and the municipality of Sermersooq.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
The Olympic symbols are icons, flags and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to elevate the Olympic Games.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
Oranjestad (literally "Orange Town") is the capital and largest city of Aruba.
Oranjestad (Dutch: Prins van Oranje) and related articles for more. Town) is a small town of approximately 1,000 inhabitants; it is the capital of the island of Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands.
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal rights, and the encouragement of good governance between countries and dependencies in the Lesser Antilles in the Eastern Caribbean.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.
The Paleo-Eskimo (also pre-Thule or pre-Inuit) were the peoples who inhabited the Arctic region from Chukotka (e.g., Chertov Ovrag) in present-day Russia across North America to Greenland prior to the arrival of the modern Inuit (Eskimo) and related cultures.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The Pampas (from the pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South American lowlands that cover more than and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul.
The Pan American Sports Organization (Panam Sports; Organización Deportiva Panamericana) is an international organization which represents the current 41 National Olympic Committees of North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean.
Pan-Americanism is a movement that seeks to create, encourage, and organize relationships, associations and cooperation among the states of the Americas, through diplomatic, political, economic, and social means.
Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá) is the capital and largest city of Panama.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Paramaribo (nickname: Par′bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District.
The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Patriation was the political process that led to full Canadian sovereignty, culminating with the Constitution Act, 1982.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Philipsburg is the main town and capital of the country of Sint Maarten.
Pleistocene megafauna is the set of large animals that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.
Plymouth was the capital city of the island of Montserrat, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom located in the Leeward Island chain of the Lesser Antilles, West Indies.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Ponta do Seixas, also known as Cape Branco, is a cape on the Atlantic coast of Paraíba state, eastern Brazil, that forms the easternmost point of the American continents, roughly 8 km (5 mi) southeast of João Pessoa, the state capital.
The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.
Port of Spain (also spelled Port-of-Spain) is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's third-largest city, after Chaguanas and San Fernando.
Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.
Portuñol (Spanish spelling) or Portunhol (Portuguese spelling) is the name often given to any unsystematic mixture of Portuguese with Spanish.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories relate to visits or interactions with the Americas and/or indigenous peoples of the Americas by people from Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania before Columbus's first voyage to the Caribbean in 1492.
The Pre-Dorset is a loosely defined term for a Paleo-Eskimo culture or group of cultures that existed in the Eastern Canadian Arctic from c. 3200 to 850 cal BC, and preceded the Dorset culture.
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
In the Netherlands, the term public body (a literal translation from the Dutch term openbaar lichaam) is the general denomination for administrative divisions within the Dutch state, such as the central government, a province, a municipality or a water board.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
The Río de la Plata basin (Cuenca del Plata, Bacia do Prata), more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata.
Reader's Digest is an American general-interest family magazine, published ten times a year.
The Regional Security System (RSS) is an international agreement for the defence and security of the eastern Caribbean region.
Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Rio Group (G-Rio) is a permanent association of political consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries, created in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on December 18, 1986, with the purpose of creating a better political relationship among the countries.
Road Town, located on Tortola, is the capital of the British Virgin Islands.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Roseau (Dominican Creole: Wozo) is the capital and largest city of Dominica, with a population of 14,725 (as of 2011).
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saba is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality (officially “public body”) of the Netherlands.
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California.
Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.
The Saint John River (Fleuve Saint-Jean; Maliseet: Wolastoq) is a river, approximately long, located principally in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, but also in and arising from the province of Quebec and the U.S. state of Maine.
Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a sovereign state in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies in the West Indies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint-Pierre is the capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of Newfoundland in Canada.
The Salton Sea is a shallow, saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault, predominantly in California's Imperial and Coachella valleys.
San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.
San Juan (Saint John) is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States.
San Salvador ("Holy Savior") is the capital and the most populous city of El Salvador and its eponymous department.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U.S. state of Alaska.
The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Soufrière Hills volcano is an active, complex stratovolcano with many lava domes forming its summit, on the Caribbean island of Montserrat.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
The Southern Rocky Mountains are a major subregion of the Rocky Mountains of North America located in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Wyoming, the central and western portions of Colorado, the northern portion of New Mexico, and extreme eastern portions of Utah.
Southern Thule is a collection of the three southernmost islands in the South Sandwich Islands: Bellingshausen, Cook, and Thule (Morrell).
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The different varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Americas are distinct from Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
Stanley (also known as Port Stanley) is the capital of the Falkland Islands.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the OAS.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Surinamese Dutch (Dutch: Surinaams-Nederlands) is the form of Dutch spoken in Suriname and is the official language in Suriname, a former Dutch colony.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tegucigalpa (formally Tegucigalpa, Municipality of the Central District, Tegucigalpa, Municipio del Distrito Central or Tegucigalpa, M.D.C.), colloquially referred to as Téguz, is the capital and largest city of Honduras along with its twin sister, Comayagüela.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Bottom (formerly Botte) is the capital and largest town of the island of Saba, the Caribbean Netherlands, and is the first stop on the way from Saba's Port in Fort Bay towards the rest of the island.
The Carolinas are the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina, considered collectively.
Guided by Artistic Advisor Plácido Domingo and Music Director Carlos Miguel Prieto, The Orchestra of the Americas is a Latin Grammy Winning world-class symphony orchestra of gifted musical leaders, ages 18 to 30, representing more than 25 countries in the Western Hemisphere.
The term "the unity of the Realm" (Rigsfællesskabet, RigsenhedenSee "Nationale symboler i Det Danske Rige".) refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Valley is the capital of Anguilla, one of its fourteen districts, and the main town on the island.
The Thule or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Inuit.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Tornado Alley is a colloquial term for the area of the United States (or by some definitions extending into Canada) where tornadoes are most frequent.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The Treaty of the Danish West Indies, officially the Convention between the United States and Denmark for cession of the Danish West Indies, was a 1916 treaty transferring sovereignty of the Virgin Islands in the Danish West Indies from Denmark to the United States in exchange for a sum of US$25,000,000 in gold.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Turks and Caicos Islands (and), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean and northern West Indies.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Upland and lowland are conditional descriptions of a plain based on elevation above sea level.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Uruguayan Portuguese (português uruguaio), also known as fronteiriço and portunhol riverense, is a variety of Portuguese with influences from Spanish.
UTC−10:00 is a time offset that subtracts 10 hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
UTC±00:00 is the following time.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.
Ward LeRoy Churchill (born 1947) is an author and political activist.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC), formerly known as the U.S. Army School of the Americas (SOA), is a United States Department of Defense Institute located at Fort Benning near Columbus, Georgia, that provides military training to government personnel in US-allied Latin American nations.
Willemstad is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) is part of the United Nations University (UNU).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America.
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus is a 2005 non-fiction book by American author and science writer Charles C. Mann about the pre-Columbian Americas.
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