193 relations: Acetonitrile, Acid, Acid anhydride, Acid-base extraction, Acyl chloride, Adrenaline, Aldehyde, Alexander Nesmeyanov, Alkene, Alkyl, Alkylation, Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution, Alkyne, Amide, Amide reduction, Amine, Amine alkylation, Amine gas treating, Amino acid, Amitriptyline, Ammonia, Ammonium, Amoxapine, Amphetamine, Analgesic, Aniline, Antihistamine, Aromatic amine, Aromaticity, Aryl, Aryl halide, Atom, Aza-Baylis–Hillman reaction, Azide, Aziridine, Azo compound, Azo dye, Base (chemistry), Biogenic amine, Birch reduction, Buchwald–Hartwig amination, Buffering agent, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbonyl group, Carboxylate, Carboxylic acid, Carbylamine reaction, Chirality (chemistry), Chloramine, ..., Chlorphenamine, Chlorpromazine, Clomipramine, Codeine, Conjugate acid, Conjugated system, Coordination complex, Cope reaction, Copper(I) cyanide, Cyclic compound, Delépine reaction, Derivative (chemistry), Desipramine, Diazonium compound, Diethanolamine, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dimethylamine, Dimethylaniline, Dimethylformamide, Diphenylamine, DNA, Dopamine, Drug Enforcement Administration, Electrosynthesis, Emde degradation, Enamine, Ephedrine, Eschweiler–Clarke reaction, Ethanol, Ethanolamine, Ethylamine, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Flue gas, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Functional group, Gabriel synthesis, Green chemistry, Greenhouse gas, Grignard reaction, Haloalkane, Halocarbon, Heroin, Hexamethylenetetramine, Hinsberg reaction, Histamine, Hofmann elimination, Hofmann rearrangement, Hofmann–Löffler reaction, Hofmann–Martius rearrangement, Hydroamination, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogenation, Imine, Imipramine, Infrared, Inorganic compound, Iron, Isocyanide, Isothiocyanate, Ketone, Kilocalorie per mole, Leuckart reaction, Ligand, Ligand isomerism, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lofepramine, Lone pair, Lysine, Median lethal dose, Menshutkin reaction, Mercury(II) chloride, Metal ammine complex, Methamphetamine, Methanol, Methcathinone, Methyl diethanolamine, Methyl orange, Methylamine, Migraine, Morphine, Neurotransmitter, Nitrile, Nitrile reduction, Nitro compound, Nitrogen, Nitrogen inversion, Nitroso, Nitrous acid, Norepinephrine, Nortriptyline, Nucleophilic acyl substitution, Opiate, Organic acid anhydride, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic reaction, Organic redox reaction, Oxime, P-Anisidine, Peptide, Peroxymonosulfuric acid, Phenol, Phenylephrine, Piperidine, Ponceau 4R, Potassium phthalimide, Protein, Protonation, Psychedelic drug, Pyridinium, Quaternary ammonium cation, Reduction of nitro compounds, Reductive amination, Salt bridge (protein and supramolecular), Schmidt reaction, Schotten–Baumann reaction, Serotonin, Solubility, Solvent, Staudinger reaction, Steric effects, Strychnine, Substituent, Substituted phenethylamine, Substituted tryptamine, Sulfonamide, Sulfonyl halide, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tertiary (chemistry), Tin, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trimer (chemistry), Trimethylamine, Tris, Von Braun reaction, Zinc, Zincke aldehyde, Zincke reaction, 3-Nitroaniline, 4-Nitroaniline. Expand index (143 more) » « Shrink index
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid anhydride is formed when two acid structures combine with loss of a water molecule.
Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid–liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties.
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alexander Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov (Александр Николаевич Несмеянов;, Moscow – 17 January 1980, Moscow) was a prominent Soviet chemist and academician (1943) specializing in organometallic chemistry.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution in organic chemistry is the organic reaction of carbonyl compounds with amines to imines.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amide reduction is a reaction in organic synthesis where an amide is reduced to either an amine or an aldehyde functional group.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amine alkylation (amino-de-halogenation) is a type of organic reaction between an alkyl halide and ammonia or an amine.
Amine gas treating, also known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Amoxapine, sold under the brand name Asendin among others, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA), though it is often classified as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An aromatic amine is an organic compound consisting of an aromatic ring attached to an amine.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
In organic chemistry, an aryl halide (also known as haloarene or halogenoarene) is an aromatic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms directly bonded to an aromatic ring are replaced by a halide.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The aza-Baylis–Hillman reaction or aza-BH reaction in organic chemistry is a variation of the Baylis–Hillman reaction and describes the reaction of an electron deficient alkene usually an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound with an imine in the presence of a nucleophile.
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Aziridines are organic compounds containing the aziridine functional group, a three-membered heterocycle with one amine group (-NH-) and two methylene bridges (--). The parent compound is aziridine (or ethylene imine), with molecular formula.
Azo compounds are compounds bearing the functional group R−N.
Azo dyes are organic compounds bearing the functional group R−N.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups.
The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.
The Buchwald–Hartwig amination is a chemical reaction used in organic chemistry for the synthesis of carbon–nitrogen bonds via the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of amines with aryl halides.
A buffering agent is a weak acid or base used to maintain the acidity (pH) of a solution near a chosen value after the addition of another acid or base.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
The carbylamine reaction, also known as Hoffman's isocyanide test is a chemical test for detection of primary amines.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The Cope reaction or Cope elimination, developed by Arthur C. Cope, is an elimination reaction of the N-oxide of a tertiary amine to form an alkene and a hydroxylamine.
Copper(I) cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula CuCN.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
The Delépine reaction is the organic synthesis of primary amines (4) by reaction of a benzyl or alkyl halides (1) with hexamethylenetetramine (2) followed by acid hydrolysis of the quaternary ammonium salt (3).
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin and Pertofrane among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
Diazonium compounds or diazonium salts are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group where R can be any organic group, such as an alkyl or an aryl, and X is an inorganic or organic anion, such as a halogen.
Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA or DEOA, is an organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CH2OH)2.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
Dimethylamine is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NH.
N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA) is an organic chemical compound, a substituted derivative of aniline.
Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H.
Diphenylamine is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2NH.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Electrosynthesis in chemistry is the synthesis of chemical compounds in an electrochemical cell.
The Emde degradation (also called Emde-reaction or Emde-reduction) is a method for the reduction of a quaternary ammonium cation to a tertiary amine with sodium amalgam This organic reaction was first described in 1909 by the German chemist Hermann Emde and was for a long time of great importance in structure elucidation of many alkaloids, for example that of ephedrine.
An enamine is an unsaturated compound derived by the condensation of an aldehyde or ketone with a secondary amine.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
The Eschweiler–Clarke reaction (also called the Eschweiler–Clarke methylation) is a chemical reaction whereby a primary (or secondary) amine is methylated using excess formic acid and formaldehyde.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol, monoethanolamine, ETA, or MEA) is an organic chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
Ethylamine is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2NH2.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The Gabriel synthesis is a chemical reaction that transforms primary alkyl halides into primary amines.
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4.
The Hinsberg reaction is a l test for the detection of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Hofmann elimination, also known as exhaustive methylation, is a process where a quaternary ammonium reacts to create a Tertiary amine and an alkene by treatment with excess methyl iodide followed by treatment with silver oxide, water, and heat.
The Hofmann rearrangement is the organic reaction of a primary amide to a primary amine with one fewer carbon atom.
The Hofmann–Löffler reaction (also referred to as Hofmann–Löffler–Freytag reaction, Löffler–Freytag reaction, Löffler–Hofmann reaction, as well as Löffler's method) is an organic reaction in which a cyclic amine 2 (pyrrolidine or, in some cases, piperidine) is generated by thermal or photochemical decomposition of N-halogenated amine 1 in the presence of a strong acid (concentrated sulfuric acid or concentrated CF3CO2H).
The Hofmann–Martius rearrangement in organic chemistry is a rearrangement reaction converting an N-alkylated aniline to the corresponding ortho and / or para aryl-alkylated aniline.
Hydroamination is the addition of an N-H bond of an amine across a carbon-carbon multiple bond of an alkene, alkyne, diene, or allene.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C.
Isothiocyanate is the chemical group –N.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The kilocalorie per mole is a unit to measure an amount of energy per number of molecules, atoms, or other similar particles.
The Leuckart reaction is the chemical reaction that converts aldehydes or ketones to amines by reductive amination in the presence of heat.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Ligand isomerism is a type of structural isomerism which arises from the presence of ligands which can adopt different isomeric forms.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Lofepramine, sold under the brand names Gamanil, Lomont, and Tymelyt among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
In organic chemistry, the Menshutkin reaction converts a tertiary amine into a quaternary ammonium salt by reaction with an alkyl halide.
Mercury(II) chloride or mercuric chloride (archaically, corrosive sublimate) is the chemical compound of mercury and chlorine with the formula HgCl2.
In coordination chemistry, metal ammine complexes are metal complexes containing at least one ammonia (NH3) ligand.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "intash") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone.
Methyl diethanolamine, also known as N-methyl diethanolamine and more commonly as MDEA, is the organic compound with the formula CH3N(C2H4OH)2.
Methyl orange is a pH indicator frequently used in titration because of its clear and distinct colour variance at different pH values.
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
In nitrile reduction a nitrile is reduced to either an amine or an aldehyde with a suitable chemical reagent.
Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
In chemistry, nitrogen inversion is a fluxional process in nitrogen and amines, whereby the molecule "turns inside out".
Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the NO group attached to an organic moiety.
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand names Allegron, Aventyl, Noritren, Nortrilen, and Pamelor among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used to treat clinical depression.
Nucleophilic acyl substitution describe a class of substitution reactions involving nucleophiles and acyl compounds.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.
An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.
para-Anisidine (p-anisidine) is an organic compound with the formula CH3OC6H4NH2.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peroxymonosulfuric acid, (H2SO5), also known as persulfuric acid, peroxysulfuric acid, or Caro's acid, is a liquid at room temperature.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
Ponceau 4R (known by more than 100 synonyms,Abbey J, et at. Colorants. pp 459-465 in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, Vol 2: Hazards and Diseases. Eds, Motarjemi Y et al. Academic Press, 2013. including as C.I. 16255,FDA. 9 November 2008. p37 Cochineal Red A, C.I. Acid Red 18, Brilliant Scarlet 3R, Brilliant Scarlet 4R, New Coccine, is a synthetic colourant that may be used as a food colouring. It is denoted by E Number E124. Its chemical name is 1-(4-sulpho-1-napthylazo)- 2-napthol- 6,8-disulphonic acid, trisodium salt. Ponceau (17th century French for "poppy-coloured") is the generic name for a family of azo dyes. Ponceau 4R is a strawberry red azo dye which can be used in a variety of food products, and is usually synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons; it is stable to light, heat, and acid but fades in the presence of ascorbic acid. It is used in Europe, Asia and Australia, but has not been approved by the US FDA.
Potassium phthalimide is a chemical compound of formula C8H4KNO2.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Pyridinium refers to the cation +. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine.
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.
The chemical reactions described as reduction of nitro compounds can be affected by many reagents and reaction conditions.
Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine.
In chemistry, a salt bridge is a combination of two non-covalent interactions: hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding (Figure 1).
The Schmidt reaction is an organic reaction in which an azide reacts with a carbonyl group to give an amine or amide, with expulsion of nitrogen.
The Schotten–Baumann reaction is a method to synthesise amides from amines and acid chlorides: Sometimes the name for this reaction is also used to indicate the reaction between an acid chloride and an alcohol to form an ester.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The Staudinger reaction is a chemical reaction of an azide with a phosphine or phosphite produces an iminophosphorane.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted tryptamines, or serotonin analogues, are organic compounds which may be thought of as being derived from tryptamine itself.
In chemistry, the sulfonamide functional group (also spelled sulphonamide) is -S(.
Sulfonyl halide groups occur when a sulfonyl functional group is singly bonded to a halogen atom.
Sunset Yellow FCF (also known as Orange Yellow S, or C.I. 15985) is a petroleum-derived orange azo dye with a pH dependent maximum absorption at about 480 nm at pH 1 and 443 nm at pH 13 with a shoulder at 500 nm.
Tertiary is a term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds (e. g. alcohols, alkyl halides, amines) or reactive intermediates (e. g. alkyl radicals, carbocations).
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
In chemistry, a trimer is a molecule or an anion formed by combination or association of three molecules or ions of the same substance.
Trimethylamine (TMA) is an organic compound with the formula N(CH3)3.
Tris, or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or known during medical use as tromethamine or THAM, is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2)3CNH2.
The von Braun reaction is an organic reaction in which a tertiary amine reacts with cyanogen bromide to an organocyanamide.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zincke aldehydes, or 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienals, are the product of the reaction of a pyridinium salt with two equivalents of any secondary amine, followed by basic hydrolysis.
The Zincke reaction is an organic reaction in which a pyridine is transformed into a pyridinium salt by reaction with 2,4-dinitro-chlorobenzene and a primary amine, named after Theodor Zincke.
3-Nitroaniline, also known as 'meta'-nitroaniline and m-nitroaniline, is a non-volatile stable solid commonly used as a raw material for dyes.
4-Nitroaniline, p-nitroaniline or 1-amino-4-nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H6N2O2.
-NH2, Aliphatic amine, Amine group, Amines, Amino, Amino functional group, Amino group, Amino moiety, Arylamine, N-alkylation, Organic amines, Primary Amine, Primary amine, Primary amines, Secondary Amine, Secondary amine, Secondary amines, Tert-Amine, Tertiary Amines, Tertiary amine, Tertiary amino group.