32 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Angiogenesis, Apoptosis, Barrett's esophagus, Basal metabolic rate, Bilirubin, Biliverdin, Brain tumor, Carbon monoxide, Cell growth, Chlorophyll, Citric acid cycle, Cytosol, Electron transport chain, Fibrosis, Food and Drug Administration, Glioma, Glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase, Glutamyl-tRNA reductase, Heme, Hemoglobin, Hepatotoxicity, Hyperthermia, Inflammation, Mitochondrion, Neurosurgery, Peripheral neuropathy, Photodynamic therapy, Porphyrin, Progression-free survival, Protochlorophyllide, Protoporphyrin IX.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Barrett's esophagus refers to an (abnormal) change in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus. It is characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (which are usually found lower in the gastrointestinal tract). The medical significance of Barrett's esophagus is its strong association (0.1 per 1 cm Prague C>M> total segment length per patient-year) with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a very often deadly cancer, because of which it is considered to be a premalignant condition. The main cause of Barrett's esophagus is thought to be an adaptation to chronic acid exposure from reflux esophagitis The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased substantially in the Western world in recent years. The condition is found in 5–15% of patients who seek medical care for heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux disease), although a large subgroup of patients with Barrett's esophagus do not have symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy (more specifically, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a procedure in which a fibreoptic cable is inserted through the mouth to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) and biopsy. The cells of Barrett's esophagus, after biopsy, are classified into four general categories: nondysplastic, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and frank carcinoma. High-grade dysplasia and early stages of adenocarcinoma can be treated by endoscopic resection and new endoscopic therapies such as radiofrequency ablation, whereas advanced stages (submucosal) are generally advised to undergo surgical treatment. Nondysplastic and low-grade patients are generally advised to undergo annual observation with endoscopy, with radiofrequency ablation as a therapeutic option. In high-grade dysplasia, the risk of developing cancer might be at 10% per patient-year or greater. The condition is named after the Australian-born British thoracic surgeon Norman Barrett (1903–1979), who described it in 1950. Those with the eating disorder bulimia are more likely to develop Barrett’s esophagus because bulimia can cause severe acid reflux, and because purging also floods the esophagus with acid.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
Biliverdin is a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, and is a product of heme catabolism.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.
In enzymology, a glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-glutamate-1-semialdehyde, and one product, 5-aminolevulinate.
A glutamyl-tRNA reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are L-glutamate 1-semialdehyde, NADP+, and tRNA(Glu), whereas its 3 products are L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu), NADPH, and H+.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), sometimes called photochemotherapy, is a form of phototherapy involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, used in conjunction with molecular oxygen to elicit cell death (phototoxicity).
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.
Progression-free survival (PFS) is "the length of time during and after the treatment of a disease, such as cancer, that a patient lives with the disease but it does not get worse".
Protochlorophyllide,KEGG compound database entry or monovinyl protochlorophyllide, is an immediate precursor of chlorophyll ''a'' that lacks the phytol side-chain of chlorophyll.
Protoporphyrin IX is an organic compound, which is one of the most common porphyrins in nature.
5-ALA, 5-Aminolevulinic acid, 5-aminolevulinate, 5-aminolevulinic acid, ATC code L01XD04, ATCvet code QL01XD04, Aladerm, Aminolevulinate, Aminolevulinic Acid Hydrochloride, Aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, D-Aminolevulinic acid, DALA, Delta-aminolevulinic acid, Kerastick, Levulan, Levulan Kerastick, Levulan Photodynamic Therapy, NatuALA, Δ-aminolevulinic acid.