432 relations: Aëtius of Amida, Absorption refrigerator, Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acid, Acrylonitrile, Acyl chloride, Advanced meat recovery, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Airship, Alanine, Albertus Magnus, Alchemy, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alembic, Alfred Werner, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alloy, Alprazolam, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia (data page), Ammonia fountain, Ammonia production, Ammonia solution, Ammoniacal nitrogen, Ammonium, Ammonium acetate, Ammonium bicarbonate, Ammonium carbonate, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium perchlorate, Ammonium sulfate, Ammoxidation, Amphibian, Amun, Ancient Egyptian deities, Andrussow process, Anhydrous, Animal, Animal feed, Antiseptic, Apicius, Arrian, ..., Arsine, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Autoignition temperature, Barium, Base 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Directive (67/548/EEC), Deamination, Debye, Dehydration, Deimos (moon), Density, Deuterium, Diesel fuel, Diethanolamine, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Dipole, Dissociation constant, Distillation, Draco (constellation), Dry distillation, Dye, Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolysis, Electronegativity, Energy conversion efficiency, Energy density, Enthalpy of vaporization, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Ester, Ethanol, Ethanolamine, Ether, Ethyl carbamate, Ethylene oxide, Europium, Excitation temperature, Exothermic process, Explosive material, Fertilizer, Fireless locomotive, Fish, Fluoride, Food, Formamide, Forming gas, Fossil fuel, Fritz Haber, Fulminate, Gas, Gas carrier, Gas giant, Germanium, Glutamine, Gold, Goldsworthy Gurney, Guano, H II region, Haber process, Halide, Halite, Haloalkane, Halogen, Hazard, Heat of combustion, Helium, Hepatic encephalopathy, Herodotus, Hertz, Hexamethylenetetramine, HSAB theory, Hydrazine, Hydrazoic acid, 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Aëtius of Amida (Ἀέτιος Ἀμιδηνός; Latin: Aëtius Amidenus; fl. mid-5th century to mid-6th century) was a Byzantine Greek physician and medical writer, particularly distinguished by the extent of his erudition.
An absorption refrigerator is a refrigerator that uses a heat source (e.g., solar energy, a fossil-fueled flame, waste heat from factories, or district heating systems) to provide the energy needed to drive the cooling process.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
Advanced meat recovery (AMR) is a slaughterhouse deboning process by which the last traces of skeletal muscle meat are removed from animal bones after the primal cuts have been carved off manually.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.
An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling chemicals.
Alfred Werner (12 December 1866 – 15 November 1919) was a Swiss chemist who was a student at ETH Zurich and a professor at the University of Zurich.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) is an international professional society devoted to agricultural and biological engineering.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
This page provides supplementary chemical data on ammonia.
The ammonia fountain is a type of chemical demonstration.
Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals.
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water.
Ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), is a measure for the amount of ammonia, a toxic pollutant often found in landfill leachate and in waste products, such as sewage, liquid manure and other liquid organic waste products.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2.
Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with formula (NH4)HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3.
Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
Ammonium perchlorate ("AP") is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO4. It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. Perchlorate is a powerful oxidizer and ammonium is a good fuel. This combination explains the usefulness of this material as a rocket propellant. Its instability has involved it in a number of accidents, such as the PEPCON disaster.
Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
In chemistry, ammoxidation is an industrial process for the production of nitriles using ammonia and oxygen.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt.
The Andrussow process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen cyanide from methane and ammonia in the presence of oxygen and a platinum catalyst.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Apicius is a collection of Roman cookery recipes, usually thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD and written in a language that is in many ways closer to Vulgar than to Classical Latin; later recipes using Vulgar Latin (such as ficatum, bullire) were added to earlier recipes using Classical Latin (such as iecur, fervere).
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Arsine is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist, possibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more likely a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors.
The Baumé scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé in 1768 to measure density of various liquids.
The Becklin–Neugebauer Object (BN) is an object visible only in the infrared in the Orion Molecular Cloud.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.
Bittern (bitterns) is a bitter-tasting solution that remains after evaporation of halite (common salt) from brines and/or seawater.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
The BMA process or Degussa process is a chemical process developed by the German chemical company Degussa for the production of hydrogen cyanide from methane and ammonia in presence of a platinum catalyst.
Bottled gas is a term used for substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure (STP) and have been compressed and stored in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or composite bottles known as gas cylinders.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, fish, or vegetables have been simmered.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Carbamoyl phosphate is an anion of biochemical significance.
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine or ammonia and bicarbonate.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carl Bosch (27 August 1874 – 26 April 1940) was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Centrifugation is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and rotor speed.
Cepheus is a constellation in the northern sky, which is named after Cepheus (a King in the Greek mythology).
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chemistry: A European Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on all areas of chemistry and related fields.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, Refrigerant-40, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is the inorganic compound of the formula.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Claude Louis Berthollet (9 December 1748 in Talloires, France – 6 November 1822 in Arcueil, France) was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
In electrical power generation, the distinct ways of generating electricity incur significantly different costs.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (abbreviated as Cp−).
The Dangerous Substances Directive (as amended) was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008), starting in 2016.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Deimos (systematic designation: Mars II) is the smaller and outer of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, the other being Phobos.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA or DEOA, is an organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CH2OH)2.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope is a radio telescope in the Ahr Hills (part of the Eifel) in Bad Münstereifel, Germany.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol, monoethanolamine, ETA, or MEA) is an organic chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethyl carbamate (also called urethane) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2OC(O)NH2.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
The Excitation Temperature (T_) is defined for a population of particles via the Boltzmann factor.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A fireless locomotive is a type of locomotive which uses reciprocating engines powered from a reservoir of compressed air or steam, which is filled at intervals from an external source.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
Forming gas is a mixture of hydrogen (mole fraction varies) and nitrogen.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.
Fulminates are chemical compounds which include the fulminate ion.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas carrier (or gas tanker) is a ship designed to transport LPG, LNG or liquefied chemical gases in bulk.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Sir Goldsworthy Gurney (1793–1875) was a surgeon, chemist, lecturer, consultant, architect, builder and prototypical British gentleman scientist and inventor, of the Victorian era.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
An H II region or HII region is a region of interstellar atomic hydrogen that is ionized.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
A hazard is an agent which has the potential to cause harm to a vulnerable target.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrazoic acid, also known as hydrogen azide or azoimide, This also contains a detailed description of the contemporaneous production process.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen.
Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Hyperammonemia (or hyperammonaemia) is a metabolic disturbance characterised by an excess of ammonia in the blood.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
IC 342 (also known as Caldwell 5) is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Camelopardalis relatively close to the Milky Way.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
Infrared cirrus are filamentary structures seen in space that emit infrared light.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) was formed in 1980 and is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, to establish a scientific basis for safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Jane B. Reece (born 15 April 1944) is an American scientist and textbook author.
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kalina cycle, developed by Dr.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The Gerard P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) was a national facility operated by NASA to support research in infrared astronomy.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Because of Archimedes' principle, a lifting gas is required for aerostats to create buoyancy.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lighter than air refers to materials (usually gases) that are buoyant in air because they have average densities lower than that of air.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
This is the list of extremely hazardous substances defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002).
R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations.
S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium amide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Li+NH2−, i.e. it is composed of a lithium cation, and the conjugate base of ammonia.
Lithium nitrate is an inorganic compound with the formula LiNO3.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium nitride, which possesses the chemical formula Mg3N2, is an inorganic compound of magnesium and nitrogen.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercerisation is a treatment for cellulosic material, typically cotton threads, that strengthens them and gives them a lustrous appearance.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2.
Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides (often abbreviated as metal silylamides) are coordination complexes composed of a cationic metal with anionic bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Molecular autoionization (or self-ionization) is a reaction between molecules of the same substance to produce ions.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos.
A mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
In chemistry, nitrogen inversion is a fluxional process in nitrogen and amines, whereby the molecule "turns inside out".
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3.
Nitrogen triiodide is the inorganic compound with the formula NI3.
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
Norsk Hydro Rjukan is an industrial facility operated by Norsk Hydro at Rjukan in Tinn, Norway, from 1911 to 1991.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
The Olin Raschig process is a chemical process for the production of hydrazine.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Organic acidemia, also called organic aciduria, is a term used to classify a group of metabolic disorders which disrupt normal amino acid metabolism, particularly branched-chain amino acids, causing a buildup of acids which are usually not present.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
The Orion Molecular Cloud Complex (or, simply, the Orion Complex) is a star forming region with stellar ages ranging up to 12 Myr.
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) (also called ornithine carbamoyltransferase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and ornithine (Orn) to form citrulline (Cit) and phosphate (Pi).
The Ostwald process is a chemical process for making nitric acid (HNO3).
An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine.
An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
The Pearson symbol, or Pearson notation, is used in crystallography as a means of describing a crystal structure, and was originated by W.B. Pearson.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
The peroxide process is a method for the industrial production of hydrazine.
Peter Woulfe (1727 – 1803) was an Irish chemist and mineralogist.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Pnictogen hydrides or hydrogen pnictides are binary compounds of hydrogen with pnictogen atoms (elements of group 15: nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth) covalently bonded to hydrogen.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium ferricyanide is the chemical compound with the formula K3.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) is an inorganic compound consisting of potassium cations and the tetraiodomercurate(II) anion.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed mainly for transport applications, as well as for stationary fuel-cell applications and portable fuel-cell applications.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds.
Randolph Norris Shreve (March 9, 1885 – February 17, 1975) was a chemical engineer, inventor, entrepreneur, educator and collector.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
The Raschig process is a chemical process for the production of hydroxylamine, developed by German chemist Friedrich Raschig.
The Raschig–Hooker process is a chemical process for the production of phenol, named after German chemist Friedrich Raschig.
The Reaction Motors XLR99 engine was the first large, throttleable, restartable liquid-propellant rocket engine.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Rhizobia are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae).
Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Schweizer's reagent is the chemical complex tetraamminediaquacopper dihydroxide, (OH)2.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, and water.
A short-term exposure limit (STEL) is the acceptable average exposure over a short period of time, usually 15 minutes as long as the time-weighted average is not exceeded.
Silage is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants (cud-chewing animals) or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, water-insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.
Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
Smelling salts, also known as ammonia inhalants, spirit of hartshorn or sal volatile, are chemical compounds often used to arouse consciousness.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Sodium thiocyanate (sometimes called sodium sulphocyanide) is the chemical compound with the formula NaSCN.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvated electron is a free electron in (solvated in) a solution, and is the smallest possible anion.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
A spectrochemical series is a list of ligands ordered on ligand strength and a list of metal ions based on oxidation number, group and its identity.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
The standard enthalpy of reaction (denoted ΔHr⊖) is the enthalpy change that occurs in a system when matter is transformed by a given chemical reaction, when all reactants and products are in their standard states.
Stibine is a chemical compound with the formula SbH3.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, was discovered by German chemist Adolph Strecker, and is a term used for a series of chemical reactions that synthesize an amino acid from an aldehyde or ketone.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) is a phosphate mineral with formula: NH4MgPO4·6H2O.
Sulfur sticks are used in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems to detect minor ammonia leaks.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Synesius (Συνέσιος; c. 373 – c. 414), a Greek bishop of Ptolemais in the Libyan Pentapolis after 410, was born of wealthy parents who claimed descent from Spartan kings, at Balagrae (now Bayda, Libya) near Cyrene between 370 and 375.
Telemark is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
Tollens' reagent is a chemical reagent used to determine the presence of an aldehyde, aromatic aldehyde and alpha-hydroxy ketone functional groups.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Triethanolamine aka Trolamine (abbr. as TEOA to distinguish it from TEA which is for triethylamine) is a viscous organic compound that is both a tertiary amine and a triol.
In chemistry, a trigonal pyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base, resembling a tetrahedron (not to be confused with the tetrahedral geometry).
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
An umbrella or parasol is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is usually mounted on a wooden, metal, or plastic pole.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Vapor-compression refrigeration or vapor-compression refrigeration system (VCRS), in which the refrigerant undergoes phase changes, is one of the many refrigeration cycles and is the most widely used method for air-conditioning of buildings and automobiles.
Vemork is the name of a hydroelectric power plant outside Rjukan in Tinn, Norway.
The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthesis gas.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea.
In chemistry, a weak base is a base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.
The Whyalla Steelworks is a fully integrated steelworks and the only manufacturer of rail in Australia.
Windex in a metal can Windex is a glass and hard-surface cleaner.
A working fluid is a pressurized gas or liquid that actuates a machine.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
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