457 relations: Abdominal pain, Absorption (pharmacology), Acetamide, Acetonitrile, Acetylcholine, Acid dissociation constant, Action potential, Adderall, Addiction, Adenylyl cyclase, Adjuvant therapy, Adrenaline, Adrenergic storm, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aerobic exercise, Agonist, Alcoholism, Alertness, Allyl chloride, Alpha and beta carbon, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amine, Ammonia, Anaerobic exercise, Analgesic, Anorectic, Anorexia (symptom), Anorexia nervosa, Antidepressant, Antihypertensive drug, Antipsychotic, Anuria, Anxiety, Aphrodisiac, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Arousal, Arteriosclerosis, Astrocyte, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autoreceptor, Autoxidation, Axon terminal, Basal ganglia, Behavioral addiction, Benzaldehyde, Benzene, Benzoic acid, Benzoyl-CoA, Benzphetamine, Benzyl chloride, ..., Benzyl group, Binding site, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Bipolar disorder, Black market, Blood plasma, Blood proteins, Blood–brain barrier, Blurred vision, Brand, Bruxism, Bupropion, Butyrate—CoA ligase, C-Fos, C2-Symmetric ligands, Calcium channel, CAMK, Cannabinoid, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac arrest, Cardiogenic shock, Cardiovascular disease, Carnitine, Catecholamine, Cathinone, Caudate nucleus, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical classification, Chemical synapse, Chiral resolution, Chronic pain, Circulatory collapse, Circulatory system, Clandestine chemistry, Clinical trial, Clobenzorex, Cmax (pharmacology), Cocaine, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, Cochrane (organisation), Cognitive behavioral therapy, Coma, Combination therapy, Concentration, Conditioned place preference, Confidence interval, Contraindication, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Corticosteroid, Craving (withdrawal), CREB, Curtius rearrangement, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP2D6, D1-like receptor, Decongestant, Delusion, Depressant, Derivative (chemistry), Detrusor muscle, Dextroamphetamine, Diastereomer, Dietary supplement, Disease, Distribution (pharmacology), Dopamine, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic pathways, Dosage form, Drug action, Drug diversion, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Drug test, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Dysphoria, Dysuria, Effect size, Effective dose (pharmacology), EHMT2, Elimination (pharmacology), Empathogen–entactogen, Enantiomer, Enantiopure drug, Enantioselective synthesis, Endocytosis, Endurance, Energy homeostasis, Enuresis, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique, Ephedrine, Epigenetics, Epileptic seizure, Episodic memory, Epithelium, Erectile dysfunction, Ethyl acetoacetate, Euphoria, Euro, Excretion, Executive functions, Experimental drug, Famprofazone, Fatigue, Fenproporex, Fever, Fixation (psychology), Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, Food and Drug Administration, Formamide, Formetorex, Formic acid, FOSB, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Free base, Functional group, G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, G protein–coupled receptor, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gastrointestinal physiology, Gene expression, Genitourinary system, Gi alpha subunit, Glaucoma, Glossary of gene expression terms, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamate transporter, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glycine N-acyltransferase, Gordon Alles, Gq alpha subunit, Grading in education, Grandiosity, Gs alpha subunit, H2 antagonist, Heart arrhythmia, Hippuric acid, Histamine, Histone methyltransferase, History of Benzedrine, Hofmann rearrangement, Homologous series, Human body temperature, Human brain, Human musculoskeletal system, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Hyperkalemia, Hyperreflexia, Hypersensitivity, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypokalemia, Hypotension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Imine, Immunoassay, In vitro, Indication (medicine), Indirect agonist, Inhaler, Inhibitory control, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), Intelligence quotient, International nonproprietary name, International Programme on Chemical Safety, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Ion, Irritability, Isomer, JunD, Kidney, Kidney failure, Knoevenagel condensation, L-DOPA, Lazăr Edeleanu, Leuckart reaction, Levoamphetamine, Levomethamphetamine, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Lipid, Liquid, Lisdexamfetamine, List of Schedule II drugs (US), Lithium aluminium hydride, Locus coeruleus, Lucid dream, Magnesium, Magnesium aspartate, Magnesium chloride, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mania, Marathon, Mast cell, MDMA, Medium spiny neuron, Membrane transport protein, Memory consolidation, Mental chronometry, Mesocarb, Mesolimbic pathway, Messenger RNA, Meta-analysis, Metabolic acidosis, Metabolite, Methamphetamine, Methyl group, Methyl iodide, Methylphenethylamine, Methylphenidate, Millimeter of mercury, Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Model organism, Molar concentration, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase B, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, Monoamine transporter, Mosher's acid, Motivational salience, Muscle contraction, Myalgia, Mydriasis, Myocardial infarction, N-Methylphenethylamine, Narcolepsy, Nausea, Necessity and sufficiency, Neurobiological effects of physical exercise, Neurodegeneration, Neuropeptide, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, NF-κB, Nicotine, Nitro compound, Nitroethane, NMDA receptor, Nootropic, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine transporter, Nucleus accumbens, Obesity, Off-label use, Opioid, Opioid peptide, Opium Law, Oral administration, Orally disintegrating tablet, Organic redox reaction, Organosulfate, Over-the-counter drug, Oxime, P-Hydroxynorephedrine, Paranoia, Performance-enhancing substance, PH, Pharmacotherapy, Phencyclidine, Phenethylamine, Phenyl-2-nitropropene, Phenylacetone, Phenylalanine, Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, Phenylpropanolamine, Phenylpropene, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, Physical strength, Polyphagia, Potency (pharmacology), Prefrontal cortex, Prenylamine, Prescription drug, Priapism, Prodrug, Propofol, Prospective cohort study, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, Proton-pump inhibitor, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor retardation, Psychosis, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary hypertension, Quality of life, Racemic mixture, Randomized controlled trial, Rating of perceived exertion, Raynaud syndrome, Reactive oxygen species, Recall (memory), Recreational drug use, Red blood cell, Reflex syncope, Reinforcement, Relapse, Respiratory alkalosis, Respiratory center, Respiratory system, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Reverse transport, Reward system, Rhabdomyolysis, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Ritter reaction, Salt (chemistry), Schiff base, Sedative, Seizure threshold, Selegiline, Self-administration, Self-confidence, Serine, Serotonin, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Sexual addiction, Side effect, Signal transduction, Skeletal formula, SLC1A1, SLC22A3, SLC22A5, Smith, Kline & French, Smooth muscle tissue, Stereocenter, Stereotypy, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Striatum, Stroke, Structural isomer, Substance abuse, Substance use disorder, Substituent, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Suppository, Sympathomimetic drug, Synaptic vesicle, Systematic review, TAAR1, Tachycardia, Tartaric acid, Teratology, Thyroid, Tic, Tic disorder, Tonne, Tourette syndrome, Trace amine, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Treatment-resistant depression, Tremor, Tuberomammillary nucleus, United Nations, United States Adopted Name, Urinary incontinence, Urinary retention, Ventral tegmental area, Vesicular monoamine transporter, Vesicular monoamine transporter 1, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Viral vector, Volatility (chemistry), Wakefulness, Weight loss, Working memory, Xerostomia, Zinc, Zinc sulfate (medical use), 1,1'-Bi-2-naphthol, 4-Hydroxyamphetamine, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetone, 5-HT1A receptor. Expand index (407 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An adrenergic storm is a sudden and dramatic increase in serum levels of the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine respectively), with a less significant increase in dopamine transmission.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Allyl chloride is the organic compound with the formula CH2.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, is a lyase enzyme.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen (and sometimes UV radiation) and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Benzoyl-CoA is a molecule implied in the activity of the different enzymes 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase, benzoyl-CoA reductase, benzoyl-CoA 3-monooxygenase, benzoate-CoA ligase, 2alpha-hydroxytaxane 2-O-benzoyltransferase, anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase, biphenyl synthase, glycine N-benzoyltransferase, ornithine N-benzoyltransferase and phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase (acylating).
Benzphetamine (brand name Didrex) is a substituted amphetamine used short-term along with a doctor-approved, reduced-calorie diet, exercise, and behavioral program for weight loss.
Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl.
In organic chemistry, benzyl is the substituent or molecular fragment possessing the structure C6H5CH2–.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Butyrate—CoA ligase, also known as xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid-ligase (XM-ligase), is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, carboxylic acid, and CoA, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and acyl-CoA.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
In homogeneous catalysis, a C2-symmetric ligands usually describes bidentate ligands that are dyssymmetric but not asymmetric by virtue of their C2-symmetry.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiogenic shock is a medical emergency resulting from inadequate blood flow due to the dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Cathinone (also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chiral resolution in stereochemistry is a process for the separation of racemic compounds into their enantiomers.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
A circulatory collapse is defined as a general or specific failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral in nature.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clobenzorex (Asenlix, Dinintel, Finedal, Rexigen) is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes used as an appetite suppressant.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the CARTPT gene.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
When going through withdrawal, craving is a psychological urge to administer a discontinued medication or recreational drug.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
The Curtius rearrangement (or Curtius reaction or Curtius degradation), first defined by Theodor Curtius in 1885, is the thermal decomposition of an acyl azide to an isocyanate with loss of nitrogen gas.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
The detrusor muscle, also detrusor urinae muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder.
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Distribution in pharmacology is a branch of pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of a drug from one location to another within the body.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
The action of drugs on the human body is called pharmacodynamics, and what the body does with the drug is called pharmacokinetics.
Drug diversion is a medical and legal concept involving the transfer of any legally prescribed controlled substance from the individual for whom it was prescribed to another person for any illicit use.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva — to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), also known as G9a, is a histone methyltransferase that in humans is encoded by the EHMT2 gene.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form.
Enantioselective synthesis, also called asymmetric synthesis, is a form of chemical synthesis.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow).
Enuresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐνούρησις enoúrēsis) is a repeated inability to control urination.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) is a common method for qualitative and quantitative determination of therapeutic and recreational drugs and certain proteins in serum and urine.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
The organic compound ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) is the ethyl ester of acetoacetic acid.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
An experimental drug is a medicinal product (a drug or vaccine) that has not yet received approval from governmental regulatory authorities for routine use in human or veterinary medicine.
Famprofazone (Gewodin, Gewolen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) of the pyrazolone series which is available over-the-counter in some countries such as Taiwan.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fenproporex (Perphoxene) is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which was developed in the 1960s.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
"Fixation" (Fixierung) is a concept (in human psychology) that was originated by Sigmund Freud (1905) to denote the persistence of anachronistic sexual traits.
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), also known as dimethylaniline monooxygenase 3 and trimethylamine monooxygenase, is a flavoprotein enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
Formetorex (INN), also known as formetamide or N-formylamphetamine, is an amphetamine described as an anorectic which does not appear to have ever been marketed.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.
Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate – the principal excitatory neurotransmitter – across a membrane.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
In enzymology, a glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT), also known as acyl-CoA:glycine N-acyltransferase (ACGNAT), is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and glycine, whereas its two products are CoA and N-acylglycine.
Gordon A. Alles (November 26, 1901 – January 21, 1963), was an American chemist and pharmacologist who did much research on the isolation and properties of insulin for the treatment of diabetics.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course.
Grandiosity refers to an unrealistic sense of superiority, a sustained view of oneself as better than others that causes the narcissist to view others with disdain or as inferior, as well as to a sense of uniqueness: the belief that few others have anything in common with oneself and that one can only be understood by a few or very special people.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hippuric acid (Gr. hippos, horse, ouron, urine) is a carboxylic acid found in the urine of horses and other herbivores.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Histone methyltransferases (HMT) are histone-modifying enzymes (e.g., histone-lysine N-methyltransferases and histone-arginine N-methyltransferases), that catalyze the transfer of one, two, or three methyl groups to lysine and arginine residues of histone proteins.
Benzedrine pills, colloquially referred to as bennies, is the brand name of the first pharmaceutical drug that contained amphetamine.
The Hofmann rearrangement is the organic reaction of a primary amide to a primary amine with one fewer carbon atom.
In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.
In pharmacology, an indirect agonist or indirect-acting agonist is a substance that enhances the release or action of an endogenous neurotransmitter but has no specific agonist activity at the neurotransmitter receptor itself.
An inhaler (puffer or pump) is a medical device used for delivering medication into the body via the lungs.
Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) was formed in 1980 and is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, to establish a scientific basis for safe use of chemicals and to strengthen national capabilities and capacities for chemical safety.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Transcription factor JunD is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUND gene.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The Knoevenagel condensation reaction is an organic reaction named after Emil Knoevenagel.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lazăr Edeleanu (1 September 1861, Bucharest – 7 April 1941) was a Romanian chemist of Jewish origin.
The Leuckart reaction is the chemical reaction that converts aldehydes or ketones to amines by reductive amination in the presence of heat.
Levoamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant known to increase wakefulness and concentration in association with decreased appetite and fatigue.
LevomethamphetamineOther names include l-methamphetamine, levodesoxyephedrine, l-desoxyephedrine, levmetamfetamine (INN and USAN).
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
This is the list of Schedule II drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
A lucid dream is a dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium aspartate, the chelated magnesium salt of aspartic acid, it is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Memory consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
Mesocarb (brand names Sidnocarb, Sydnocarb) is a stimulant drug which was developed in the USSR in the 1970s.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I.
Methylphenethylamine may refer to.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
Mosher's acid, or α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid (MTPA) is a carboxylic acid which was first used by Harry Stone Mosher as a chiral derivatizing agent.
Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
N-Methylphenethylamine (NMPEA) is a naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulator in humans that is derived from the trace amine, phenethylamine (PEA).
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
The are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−2).
Nitroethane is an organic compound having the chemical formula C2H5NO2.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
The Opium Law (or Opiumwet in Dutch) is the section of the Dutch law which covers nearly all psychotropic drugs.
An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.
Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.
Organosulfates are a class of organic compounds sharing a common functional group commonly with the structure R-O-SO3−.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.
p-Hydroxynorephedrine, or 4-hydroxynorephedrine, is the para-hydroxy analog of norephedrine and an active sympathomimetic metabolite of amphetamine in humans.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenyl-2-nitropropene is a chemical compound with the chemical formula is C9H9NO2.
Phenylacetone is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH2COCH3.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.
Phenylpropene is a chemical compound.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Physical strength is the measure of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects.
Polyphagia or hyperphagia is excessive hunger or increased appetite.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prenylamine (Segontin) is a calcium channel blocker of the amphetamine chemical class which was used as a vasodilator in the treatment of angina pectoris; it was introduced in the 1960s by German manufacturer Albert-Roussel pharma gmbh which was acquired by Hoechst AG in 1974 and which in turn became part of Sanofi Aventis in 2005.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 184.108.40.206), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor retardation (also known as "psychomotor impairment" or "motormental retardation" or "psychomotor slowing") involves a slowing-down of thought and a reduction of physical movements in an individual.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
In sports and particularly exercise testing, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), as measured by the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE scale), is a frequently used quantitative measure of perceived exertion during physical activity.
Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Rhinitis medicamentosa (or RM) is a condition of rebound nasal congestion brought on by extended use of topical decongestants (e.g., oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, xylometazoline, and naphazoline nasal sprays) and certain oral medications (e.g., sympathomimetic amines and various 2-imidazolines) that constrict blood vessels in the lining of the nose.
The Ritter reaction is a chemical reaction that transforms a nitrile into an N-alkyl amide using various electrophilic alkylating reagents.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A Schiff base (named after Hugo Schiff) is a compound with the general structure R2C.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
The term seizure threshold is used to describe the balance between excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain which affect how susceptible a person is to seizures.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself.
The concept of self-confidence is commonly used as self-assurance in one's personal judgment, ability, power, etc.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sexual addiction, also known as sex addiction, is a proposed state characterized by compulsive participation or engagement in sexual activity, particularly sexual intercourse, despite negative consequences.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The skeletal formula, also called line-angle formula or shorthand formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of a molecule's bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.
SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene.
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3) also known as the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) or extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A3 gene.
SLC22A5 is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency.
Smith, Kline & French (SKF) was an American pharmaceutical company.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.
A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Tic disorders is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements).
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
The tuberomammillary nucleus is a histaminergic nucleus located within the posterior third of the hypothalamus.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons.
Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) also known as chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT) or solute carrier family 18 member 1 (SLC18A1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A1 gene.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc sulfate is used medically as a dietary supplement.
1,1'-Bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) is an organic compound that is often used as a ligand for transition-metal catalysed asymmetric synthesis.
4-Hydroxyamphetamine (4HA), also known as hydroxyamfetamine, hydroxyamphetamine, oxamphetamine, norpholedrine, para-hydroxyamphetamine, and α-methyltyramine, is a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system.
4-Hydroxyphenylacetone is the para-hydroxy analog of phenylacetone, an inactive metabolite of amphetamine in humans.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
1-Phenyl-2-Aminopropane, 1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane, 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane, 1-phenylpropan-2-amine, 2-Phenylisopropylamine, 2-phenylisopropylamine, ATC code N06BA01, ATCvet code QN06BA01, Actedron, Adipan, Allodene, Alpha-Methylphenethylamine, Alpha-methylphenethylamine, Alpha-methylphenylethylamine, Amfetamin, Amfetamine, Amp aspartate, Amph, Amphet, Amphetamien, Amphetamin, Amphetamine Abuse, Amphetamine Sulfate (2:1), Amphetamine addiction, Amphetamine adipate, Amphetamine aspartate, Amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, Amphetamine base, Amphetamine effects, Amphetamine freebase, Amphetamine hydrochloride, Amphetamine pharmacology, Amphetamine phosphate, Amphetamine polistirex, Amphetamine saccharate, Amphetamine sulfate, Amphetamine tannate, Amphetamine tartrate, Amphetamine-related disorders, Amphetimine, Amphets, Anorexide, Anorexine, Benzadrene, Benzadrine, Benzebar, Benzedrene, Benzedrine, Benzedrine sulfate, Benzidrene, Benzidrine, Benzodrene, Benzolone, Benzyl methyl carbinamine, Centramina, D/l-amphetamine, Desoxynorephedrine, Dexampex, Dl-Amphetamine, Dl-amphetamine, Dyanavel, Dyanavel XR, Elastonon, Evekeo, Fenamin, Fenamine, Ferndex, Greenie (drug), Isoamycin, Isoamyne, Isomyn, Legal status of amphetamine, Mecodrin, Mydrial, NT 0202, NT-0202, NT0202, Norephedrane, Novydrine, Oktedrin, Ortedrine, Percomon, Phenamine, Phenedrine, Phenopromin, Phenyl-2-propylamine, Phenylisopropylamine, Phetamine, Profamina, Propisamine, Psychedrine, Racemic amphetamine, Racemic amphetamine sulfate, Raphetamine, Rhinalator, Side effects of amphetamine, Simpatedrin, Simpatina, Speed (drug), Speedfreak, Sympamine, Sympatedrine, Thyramine, Weckamine, White cross (drug), Α-Methyl-2-phenylethylamine, Α-Methylphenethylamine, Α-methyl-2-phenylethylamine, Α-methyl-phenethylamine, Α-methyl-phenyl-ethyl-amine, Α-methylphenethylamine, Αlpha-methyl-phenethylamine, Αlpha-methyl-phenyl-ethyl-amine, Β-Phenylisopropylamine, Β-phenylisopropylamine.