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Index Amphibian

Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. [1]

353 relations: Adaptive radiation, Adipose tissue, Aestivation, African clawed frog, Albanerpetontidae, Algae, Allobates zaparo, Alpha privative, Alpine salamander, Alveolar septum, Alytidae, Amazon basin, American Museum of Natural History, American spadefoot toad, Ammonia, Amniote, Amphibian Ark, Amphiuma, Amplexus, Ancient Greek, Andrias, Annelid, Apoptosis, Aquatic animal, Arboreal locomotion, Archaeobatrachia, Argentine horned frog, Arthropod, Articular processes, Asiatic salamander, Atrium (heart), Autotomy, Axolotl, Basal (phylogenetics), Basal metabolic rate, Batesian mimicry, Batrachology, Beiyanerpeton, Bile, Biodiversity, Biological specificity, Biology Letters, Biosphere, Black mountain salamander, Black Sea, Blackbelly salamander, Bombinatoridae, Brackish water, Breeding in the wild, Bromeliaceae, ..., Buccal pumping, Buccopharyngeal membrane, Bufotoxin, Caecilia thompsoni, Caecilian, Calamites, Calcification, California giant salamander, Camouflage, Cannibalism, Capillary, Carboniferous, Carboniferous rainforest collapse, Carnivore, Caudata, Cayenne caecilian, Ceratophryidae, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Chinese giant salamander, Chitin, Chitinase, Chromatophore, Chytridiomycosis, Cilium, Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Classical conditioning, Climate change, Climbing salamander, Cloaca, Coelacanth, Coevolution, Common garter snake, Common midwife toad, Common Suriname toad, Common toad, Conservation International, Convergent evolution, Cornea, Crab-eating frog, Cream-backed poison frog, Cryptobranchoidea, Cuban tree frog, Cutaneous respiration, Darrel Frost, Decline in amphibian populations, Dentin, Dermis, Detergent, Detritus, Devonian, Diatom, Dominance (ecology), Dorsal fin, Drosophila, Early Jurassic, Eastern newt, Ecological indicator, Ecosystem, Ectotherm, Edible frog, Eel, Electroreception, Elephant seal, Eleutherodactylus, Embryo, Ensatina, Eocaecilia, Equisetum, Esophagus, European spadefoot toad, Eusthenopteron, Evolution, Evolution of nervous systems, Evolution of tetrapods, Extinction, Eyelid, Family (biology), Fern, Fire salamander, Fire-bellied toad, Fish fin, Fitness (biology), Fossil, Fossorial, Fresh water, Frog, Gallbladder, Gas exchange, Gastric-brooding frog, Gerobatrachus, Giant salamander, Gill, Global strategy, Glycogen, Glycosaminoglycan, Goliath frog, Gondwana, Granular poison frog, Greenhouse frog, Gular skin, Gymnophiona, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Habituation, Hellbender, Herbivore, Herpetology, Hibernation, Holarctic, Homology (biology), Hormone, Hyoid bone, Hyomandibula, Ichthyophis glutinosus, Ichthyostega, Ilium (bone), Inertia, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Introduced species, Intromittent organ, Japanese giant salamander, John Edward Gray, Kayenta Formation, Keratin, Kidney, Labyrinthodontia, Larva, Late Jurassic, Lateral line, Laurasia, Leaf green tree frog, Learning, Lectin, Leiopelmatidae, Lens (anatomy), Lepospondyli, Linnaean taxonomy, Lipid, Lissamphibia, List of amphibians, List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States, Lithobates clamitans, Liver, Lizard, Lung, Lungfish, Lungless salamander, Lynx Edicions, Mammal, Mandible, Mangrove, Mate choice, Mating, Medulla oblongata, Megophryidae, Melanin, Mesobatrachia, Mesozoic, Metamorphosis, Mexican burrowing caecilian, Mexican burrowing toad, Microhylidae, Midbrain, Miocene, Mole salamander, Molecular genetics, Molecular phylogenetics, Mosquito, Moss, Mountain yellow-legged frog, Mucoprotein, Mucous gland, Mucus, Multilocus sequence typing, Nannophrys ceylonensis, NatureServe, Nectophrynoides, Necturus, Neobatrachia, Neontology, Neoteny, Nervous system, New Guinea, Newt, Northern short-tailed shrew, Northwestern salamander, Occipital bone, Ocean, Olfaction, Olm, Operant conditioning, Order (biology), Ossification, Osteoderm, Overexploitation, Oviduct, Ovoviviparity, Ozone layer, Pacific giant salamander, Paedophryne amauensis, Pain in amphibians, Paleontology, Paleozoic, Pancreas, Pangaea, Paraphyly, Parotoid gland, Parsley frog, Pedicellate teeth, Pelvis, Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Phantasmal poison frog, Pharynx, Phylogenetic nomenclature, Phylogenetics, Physiology, Pineal gland, Pipidae, Pituitary gland, Platymantis, Poison dart frog, Pouched frog, Predation, Present, Prionosuchus, Prolactin, Prosalirus, Prostate, Protein, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary artery, Pyxicephalus, Red-backed salamander, Reproduction, Reptiliomorpha, Rhinophrynidae, Ribosomal DNA, Rosette (botany), Rough-skinned newt, Salamander, Salamandridae, Salamandroidea, Sarcopterygii, Sensu, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual selection, Seymouria, Shoulder girdle, Siphonops annulatus, Siren (genus), Sirenidae, Skin, Somatosensory system, Sperm, Spermatheca, Spermatophore, Squamata, Stapes, Stereospondyli, Substrate (biology), Symplesiomorphy, Tadpole, Tailed frog, Túngara frog, Teleost, Telmatobius culeus, Temnospondyli, Tentacle, Terrestrial animal, Tetraodontidae, Tetrapod, Tetrapodomorpha, Tetrodotoxin, Thorius pennatulus, Thyroid, Thyroid hormones, Tiger salamander, Tiktaalik, Toad, Transitional fossil, Triadobatrachus, Triassic, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, True toad, Tubercle, Tympanum (anatomy), Ultraviolet, University of California, Berkeley, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary bladder, Ventricle (heart), Vertebrate, Viviparity, Vomer, Western terrestrial garter snake, Wood frog, Xenohyla truncata, Yosemite toad. Expand index (303 more) »

Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Aestivation or æstivation (from aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.

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African clawed frog

The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae.

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The Albanerpetontidae are an extinct family of superficially salamander-like batrachians.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Allobates zaparo

The sanguine poison frog or Zaparo's poison frog (Allobates zaparo; in Spanish rana venenosa) is a species of frog in the family Aromobatidae.

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Alpha privative

An alpha privative or, rarely, privative a (from Latin alpha prīvātīvum, from Ancient Greek α στερητικόν) is the prefix a- or an- (before vowels) that is used in Greek and in words borrowed from Greek to express negation or absence, for example the English words atypical, anesthetic, and analgesic.

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Alpine salamander

The alpine salamander (Salamandra atra) is a shiny black salamander found in the central, eastern and Dinaric Alps, at altitudes above.

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Alveolar septum

The alveolar septum separates adjacent alveoli in lung tissue.

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The Alytidae are a family of primitive frogs.

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Amazon basin

The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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American Museum of Natural History

The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.

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American spadefoot toad

The Scaphiopodidae are a family of American spadefoot toads native to southern Canada, the United States, and extend to southern Mexico.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibian Ark

The Amphibian Ark (or AArk) is a joint effort of three principal partners: the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), and the IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (ASG).

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Amphiuma is a genus of aquatic salamanders from the United States, the only extant genus within the family Amphiumidae.

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Amplexus (Latin "embrace") is a type of mating behavior exhibited by some externally fertilizing species (chiefly amphibians and horseshoe crabs) in which a male grasps a female with his front legs as part of the mating process, and at the same time or with some time delay, he fertilizes the female eggs as they are released from the body.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andrias is a genus of giant salamanders.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Aquatic animal

A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.

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Arboreal locomotion

Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.

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The Archaeobatrachia are a suborder of Anura containing various primitive frogs and toads.

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Argentine horned frog

The Argentine horned frog (Ceratophrys ornata), also known as the Argentine wide-mouthed frog or ornate pacman frog, is the most common species of horned frog, from the grasslands of Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Articular processes

The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek ζυγον.

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Asiatic salamander

The Asiatic salamanders (family Hynobiidae) are primitive salamanders found all over Asia, and in European Russia.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Autotomy (from the Greek auto- "self-" and tome "severing", αὐτονομία) or self-amputation is the behaviour whereby an animal sheds or discards one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism to elude a predator's grasp or to distract the predator and thereby allow escape.

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The axolotl (from āxōlōtl) also known as a Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) or a Mexican walking fish, is a neotenic salamander, closely related to the tiger salamander.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Batesian mimicry

Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.

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Batrachology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians including frogs and toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians.

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Beiyanerpeton is an extinct genus of salamandroid amphibians known from the Late Jurassic of western Liaoning Province, China.

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Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Biology Letters

Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Black mountain salamander

The Black mountain salamander (Desmognathus welteri) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Blackbelly salamander

The blackbelly salamander (Desmognathus quadramaculatus) is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae.

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The Bombinatoridae are often referred to as fire-bellied toads because of their brightly colored ventral sides, which show they are highly toxic.

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Brackish water

Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

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Breeding in the wild

Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species.

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The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana.

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Buccal pumping

Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.

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Buccopharyngeal membrane

The region where the crescentic masses of the ectoderm and endoderm come into direct contact with each other constitutes a thin membrane, the buccopharyngeal membrane (or oropharyngeal membrane), which forms a septum between the primitive mouth and pharynx.

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Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones.

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Caecilia thompsoni

Caecilia thompsoni, commonly called Thompson's caecilian is a species of amphibian in the family Caeciliidae.

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Caecilians (New Latin for "blind ones") are a group of limbless, serpentine amphibians.

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Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent (tree-like) horsetails to which the modern horsetails (genus Equisetum) are closely related.

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Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

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California giant salamander

The California giant salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) is a species of salamander in the family Dicamptodontidae.

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Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carboniferous rainforest collapse

The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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The Caudata are a group of amphibians containing the salamanders (Urodela) and all extinct species of salamander-like amphibians more closely related to salamanders than to frogs.

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Cayenne caecilian

The Cayenne caecilian, Typhlonectes compressicauda, is a species of amphibian in the Typhlonectidae family that lives in water.

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The Ceratophryidae, known as common horned frogs, are a family of frogs found in South America.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Chinese giant salamander

The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is the largest salamander and largest amphibian in the world, reaching a length of, although it rarely reaches that size today.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl glucosamidinase, poly glycanohydrolase, (1->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.

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Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.

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Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease in amphibians, caused by the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, a nonhyphal zoosporic fungus.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Climbing salamander

Climbing salamanders is the common name for plethodontid (lungless) salamanders of the genus Aneides.

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In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.

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The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) primarily found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).

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In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.

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Common garter snake

The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is a species of natricine snake, which is indigenous to North America and found widely across the continent.

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Common midwife toad

The common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) is a species of midwife frog in the family Alytidae (formerly Discoglossidae).

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Common Suriname toad

The common Suriname toad or star-fingered toad (Pipa pipa) is a species of frog in the Pipidae family found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

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Common toad

The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa.

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Conservation International

Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Crab-eating frog

The crab-eating frog (Fejervarya cancrivora) is a frog native to south-eastern Asia including Taiwan, China, the Philippines and more rarely as far west as Orissa in India.

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Cream-backed poison frog

The cream-backed poison frog (Hyloxalus subpunctatus) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae endemic to Colombia.

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The Cryptobranchoidea are a suborder of salamanders found in the eastern United States, China, Taiwan, and Japan.

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Cuban tree frog

The Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) is an amphibian native to the Caribbean region of the Western Hemisphere.

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Cutaneous respiration

Cutaneous respiration, or cutaneous gas exchange, is a form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin or outer integument of an organism rather than gills or lungs.

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Darrel Frost

Darrel Richmond Frost (born 1951) is an American herpetologist and systematist.

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Decline in amphibian populations

The decline in amphibian populations is an ongoing mass extinction of amphibian species worldwide.

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Dentin (American English) or dentine (British English) (substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth.

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The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

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A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.

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In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Dominance (ecology)

Ecological dominance is the degree to which a taxon is more numerous than its competitors in an ecological community, or makes up more of the biomass.

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Dorsal fin

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.

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Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Early Jurassic

The Early Jurassic epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the Lower Jurassic series) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic period.

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Eastern newt

The eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) is a common newt of eastern North America.

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Ecological indicator

Ecological indicators are used to communicate information about ecosystems and the impact human activity has on ecosystems to groups such as the public or government policy makers.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.

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Edible frog

The edible frog (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) is a name for a common European frog, also known as the common water frog or green frog (however, this latter term is also used for the North American species Rana clamitans).

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An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.

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Electroreception or electroception is the biological ability to perceive natural electrical stimuli.

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Elephant seal

Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga.

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Eleutherodactylus is a genus of frogs in the family Eleutherodactylidae.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Ensatina eschscholtzii (commonly known by its genus name, Ensatina) is a complex of plethodontid (lungless) salamanders found in coniferous forests, oak woodland and chaparral San Diego Field Station, United States Geological Survey Viewed: April 24, 2005, Last updated: March 05, 2003 from British Columbia, through Washington, Oregon, across California (where all seven subspecies variations are located), all the way down to Baja California in Mexico.

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Eocaecilia is an extinct genus of gymnophionan amphibian from the early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona, United States.

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Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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European spadefoot toad

The European spadefoot toads are a family of frogs, the Pelobatidae, with only one extant genus Pelobates, containing four species.

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Eusthenopteron is a genus of prehistoric sarcopterygian (often called lobe-finned fishes) which has attained an iconic status from its close relationships to tetrapods.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolution of nervous systems

The evolution of nervous systems dates back to the first development of nervous systems in animals (or metazoans).

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Evolution of tetrapods

The evolution of tetrapods began about 400 million years ago in the Devonian Period with the earliest tetrapods evolved from lobe-finned fishes.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Fire salamander

The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is possibly the best-known salamander species in Europe.

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Fire-bellied toad

The fire-bellied toads or fire belly toads are a group of eight species of small toads (most species typically no longer than) belonging to the genus Bombina.

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Fish fin

Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Cape ground squirrel. A fossorial (from Latin fossor, "digger") is an animal adapted to digging and lives primarily, but not solely, underground.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

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Gastric-brooding frog

The gastric-brooding frogs or platypus frogs (Rheobatrachus) were a genus of ground-dwelling frogs native to Queensland in eastern Australia.

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Gerobatrachus is an extinct genus of amphibamid temnospondyl (represented by the type species Gerobatrachus hottoni) that lived in the Early Permian, approximately 290 million years ago (Ma), in the area that is now Baylor County, Texas.

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Giant salamander

The Cryptobranchidae are a family of fully aquatic salamanders commonly known as the giant salamanders.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Global strategy

Global strategy as defined in business terms is an organization's strategic guide to globalization.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit.

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Goliath frog

The goliath frog otherwise known as goliath bullfrog or giant slippery frog (Conraua goliath) is the largest living frog on Earth.

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Granular poison frog

The granular poison frog (Oophaga granulifera) is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae, found in Costa Rica and Panama.

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Greenhouse frog

The greenhouse frog, Eleutherodactylus planirostris, is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae, native to Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Cayman Islands, and it has been introduced to other areas, such as Florida, Hawaii, and Guam.

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Gular skin

Gular skin (throat skin), in ornithology, is an area of featherless skin on birds that joins the lower mandible of the beak (or bill) to the bird's neck.

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Gymnophiona is the group of amphibians that includes the legless caecilians and all amphibians more closely related to them than to frogs or salamanders (the "stem-caecilians").

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Habitat destruction

Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.

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Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.

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The hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), also known as the hellbender salamander, is a species of aquatic giant salamander endemic to eastern North America.

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).

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Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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The Holarctic is the name for the biogeographic realm that encompasses the majority of habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world, combining Wallace's Palearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North Africa and all of Eurasia (with the exception of the southern Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent), and the Nearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North America, north of Mexico.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hyoid bone

The hyoid bone (lingual bone or tongue-bone) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage.

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The hyomandibula, commonly referred to as hyomandibular (os hyomandibulare, from hyoeides, "upsilon-shaped" (υ), and Latin: mandibula, "jawbone") is a set of bones that is found in the hyoid region in most fishes.

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Ichthyophis glutinosus

The Ceylon caecilian or common yellow-banded caecilian, Ichthyophis glutinosus (sometimes mistakenly spelled Ichthyophis gluinosus) is a species of caecilian in the family Ichthyophiidae endemic to Sri Lanka.

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Ichthyostega (Greek: "fish roof") is an early tetrapodomorph genus that lived at the end of the Upper Devonian period.

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Ilium (bone)

The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.

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Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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Introduced species

An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.

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Intromittent organ

An intromittent organ is a general term for an external organ of a male organism that is specialized to deliver sperm during copulation.

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Japanese giant salamander

The Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) is endemic to Japan, where it is known as, literally meaning "giant pepper fish".

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John Edward Gray

John Edward Gray, FRS (12 February 1800 – 7 March 1875) was a British zoologist.

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Kayenta Formation

Kayenta, Arizona is a settlement in the Navajo reservation. The Kayenta Formation is a geologic layer in the Glen Canyon Group that is spread across the Colorado Plateau province of the United States, including northern Arizona, northwest Colorado, Nevada, and Utah.

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Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Labyrinthodontia (Greek, "maze-toothed") is an extinct amphibian subclass, which constituted some of the dominant animals of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras (about 390 to 150 million years ago).

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Late Jurassic

The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.

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Lateral line

The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, used to detect movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the surrounding water.

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Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).

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Leaf green tree frog

The leaf green tree frog (Litoria phyllochroa) is a species of stream-dwelling frog, native to eastern Australia from the Queensland/New South Wales border south to Sydney.

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Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

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Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.

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The Leiopelmatidae are the family of New Zealand primitive frogs, belonging to the suborder Archaeobatrachia.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lepospondyli is a diverse taxon of reptiliomorph tetrapods.

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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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The Lissamphibia are a group of tetrapods that includes all modern amphibians.

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List of amphibians

List of amphibians organizes the class of amphibian by family and subfamilies and mentions the number of species in each of them.

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List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 93 reptile and amphibian species in the United States are threatened with extinction.

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Lithobates clamitans

The green frog (Lithobates clamitans or Rana clamitans) is a species of frog native to the eastern half of the United States and Canada.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.

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Lungless salamander

The Plethodontidae, or lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders.

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Lynx Edicions

Lynx Edicions is a Spanish ornithological publishing company.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Mate choice

Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.

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In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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The Megophryidae (commonly known as the litter frogs) are a large family of frogs native to the warm southeast of Asia, from the Himalayan foothills eastwards, south to Indonesia and the Greater Sunda Islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, and extending to the Philippines.

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Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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The Mesobatrachia are the second-largest of the Anura suborders of amphibians.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Mexican burrowing caecilian

The Mexican burrowing caecilian (Dermophis mexicanus) is a species of limbless amphibian in the family Dermophiidae.

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Mexican burrowing toad

The Mexican burrowing toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis) is the only species in the genus Rhinophrynus and the family Rhinophrynidae of order Anura.

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The Microhylidae, commonly known as narrow-mouthed frogs, are a geographically widespread family of frogs.

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The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Mole salamander

The mole salamanders (genus Ambystoma) are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America, the only genus in the family Ambystomatidae.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Mountain yellow-legged frog

The mountain yellow-legged frog or southern mountain yellow-legged frogHammerson, G. (2008).

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A mucoprotein is a glycoprotein composed primarily of mucopolysaccharides.

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Mucous gland

Mucous gland, also known as muciparous glands, are found in several different parts of the body, and they typically stain lighter than serous glands during standard histological preparation.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Multilocus sequence typing

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a technique in molecular biology for the typing of multiple loci.

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Nannophrys ceylonensis

Nannophrys ceylonensis, commonly known as the Sri Lanka rock frog or the Ceylon streamlined frog, is a species of frog.

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NatureServe, Inc. is an Arlington, Virginia-based non-profit organization that provides proprietary wildlife conservation-related data, tools, and services to private and government clients, partner organizations, and the public.

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Nectophrynoides is a genus of true toads, family Bufonidae.

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Necturus is a genus of aquatic salamanders endemic to the eastern United States and Canada.

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The Neobatrachia are a suborder of the Anura, the order of frogs and toads.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Neoteny, (also called juvenilization)Montagu, A. (1989).

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, also called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase.

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Northern short-tailed shrew

The northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) is the largest shrew in the genus Blarina, and occurs in the northeastern region of North America.

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Northwestern salamander

The northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile) inhabits the northwest Pacific Coast of North America.

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Occipital bone

The occipital bone is a cranial dermal bone, and is the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull).

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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The olm or proteus (Proteus anguinus) is an aquatic salamander in the family Proteidae, the only exclusively cave-dwelling chordate species found in Europe.

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Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.

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Osteoderms are bony deposits forming scales, plates or other structures based in the dermis.

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Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.

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In vertebrates, other than mammals, the passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct.

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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Pacific giant salamander

Pacific giant salamanders (Dicamptodontidae) are a family of large salamanders from the United States and Canada.

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Paedophryne amauensis

The Paedophryne amauensis is a species of frogs from Papua New Guinea.

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Pain in amphibians

Pain is an aversive sensation and feeling associated with actual, or potential, tissue damage.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Parotoid gland

The parotoid gland (alternatively, paratoid gland) is an external skin gland on the back, neck, and shoulder of toads and some frogs and salamanders.

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Parsley frog

The parsley frogs or Pelodytidae are a family of order Anura.

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Pedicellate teeth

Pedicellate teeth are a tooth morphology today unique to modern amphibians, but also seen in a variety of extinct labyrinthodonts.

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The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Phantasmal poison frog

The phantasmal poison frog or phantasmal poison-arrow frog (Epipedobates tricolor) is a species of poison dart frog.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Phylogenetic nomenclature

Phylogenetic nomenclature, often called cladistic nomenclature, is a method of nomenclature for taxa in biology that uses phylogenetic definitions for taxon names as explained below.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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The Pipidae are a family of primitive, tongueless frogs.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Platymantis is a genus of frogs in the family Ceratobatrachidae.

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Poison dart frog

Poison dart frog (also known as dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly known as poison arrow frog) is the common name of a group of frogs in the family Dendrobatidae which are native to tropical Central and South America.

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Pouched frog

The pouched frog (Assa darlingtoni) is a small, terrestrial frog found in rainforests in mountain areas of south-eastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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The present (or here and now) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain).

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Prionosuchus is an extinct genus of large temnospondyl.

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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Prosalirus bitis is the name given to a fossilized prehistoric frog found in Arizona in 1981 by Farish Jenkins.

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The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pulmonary alveolus

A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.

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Pulmonary artery

A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

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Pyxicephalus (πυξίς, pyxis.

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Red-backed salamander

The red-backed (or redback) salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a small, hardy woodland salamander.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reptiliomorpha is a clade containing the amniotes and those tetrapods that share a more recent common ancestor with amniotes than with living amphibians (lissamphibians).

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The Rhinophrynidae are a family of frogs containing one extant genus, the monotypic Rhinophrynus, and a number of fossil genera.

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Ribosomal DNA

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA.

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Rosette (botany)

In botany, a rosette is a circular arrangement of leaves or of structures resembling leaves.

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Rough-skinned newt

The rough-skinned newt or roughskin newt (Taricha granulosa) is a North American newt known for the strong toxin exuded from its skin.

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Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.

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Salamandridae is a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts.

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The Salamandroidea are a suborder of salamanders, referred to as advanced salamanders.

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The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.

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Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Seymouria was a reptile-like tetrapod from the early Permian of North America and Europe (approximately 280 to 270 million years ago).

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Shoulder girdle

The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones in the appendicular skeleton which connects to the arm on each side.

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Siphonops annulatus

The ringed caecilian (Siphonops annulatus) is a species of amphibian in the family Siphonopidae from South America.

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Siren (genus)

Siren is a genus of aquatic salamanders of the family Sirenidae.

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Sirenidae, the sirens, are a family of aquatic salamanders.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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The spermatheca (pronounced plural: spermathecae), also called receptaculum seminis (plural: receptacula seminis), is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, e.g. bees, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates.

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A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.

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Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles.

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The stapes or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear.

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The Stereospondyli are a group of extinct temnospondyl amphibians.

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Substrate (biology)

In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.

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In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.

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A tadpole (also called a pollywog) is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.

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Tailed frog

The tailed frogs are two species of frogs in the genus Ascaphus, the only taxon in the family Ascaphidae.

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Túngara frog

The túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus; formerly known as Physalaemus pustulosus) is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae.

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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Telmatobius culeus

Telmatobius culeus, commonly known as the Titicaca water frog, is a very large and critically endangered species of frog in the family Telmatobiidae.

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Temnospondyli (from Greek τέμνειν (temnein, "to cut") and σπόνδυλος (spondylos, "vertebra")) is a diverse subclass of extinct small to giant tetrapods—often considered primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.

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In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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Terrestrial animal

Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).

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The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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The Tetrapodomorpha (also known as Choanata) are a clade of vertebrates consisting of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates) and their closest sarcopterygian relatives that are more closely related to living tetrapods than to living lungfish.

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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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Thorius pennatulus

Thorius pennatulus is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae and one of the smallest tetrapods, with adults reaching a length of about.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Tiger salamander

The tiger salamander or eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) is a North American species of mole salamander.

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Tiktaalik is a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned fish) from the late Devonian period, about 375 MYA (million years ago), having many features akin to those of tetrapods (four-legged animals).

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Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.

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Transitional fossil

A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.

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Triadobatrachus ('triple-frog') is an extinct genus of salientian frog-like amphibians, including only one known species, Triadobatrachus massinoti.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.

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True toad

A true toad is any member of the family Bufonidae, in the order Anura (frogs and toads).

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In anatomy, a tubercle is any round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on external or internal organs of a plant or an animal.

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Tympanum (anatomy)

The tympanum is an external hearing structure in animals such as mammals, birds, some reptiles, some amphibians and some insects.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.

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The vomer is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull.

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Western terrestrial garter snake

The western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) is a western North American species of colubrid snake.

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Wood frog

The wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus or Rana sylvatica) has a broad distribution over North America, extending from the Boreal forest of Canada and Alaska to the southern Appalachians, with several notable disjunct populations including lowland eastern North Carolina.

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Xenohyla truncata

Xenohyla truncata is a species of frog in the family Hylidae endemic to Brazil.

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Yosemite toad

The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus, formerly Bufo canorus) is a species of true toad in the family Bufonidae.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibian

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