108 relations: Afghanistan, Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge, Alay Valley, Alexander the Great, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Aral Sea, Arnold J. Toynbee, Avestan, Balkh, Bartang River, Basmachi movement, Brahmanda Purana, Bukhara, Caspian Sea, Caspian tiger, Central Asia, Classical antiquity, Common Era, Cotton, Daşoguz, Distributary, Drainage basin, Drainage divide, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Iranica, Flashman at the Charge, Garden of Eden, Genghis Khan, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, George MacDonald Fraser, Gihon, Glacier, Greater Iran, Greek language, Herat, Hindu Kush, Ibrahim Bek, Ice cave, Iran, Irrigation, Ishkashim, Afghanistan, Islam, John Wood (explorer), Kafiristan, Karakum Canal, Kazakhstan, Kerki, Konye-Urgench, Kyrgyzstan, ..., Kyzyl-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, Latin, Levant, List of rivers of Afghanistan, Little Pamir, Main Turkmen Canal, Matthew Arnold, Middle Persian, Mohammed Alim Khan, Mount Imeon, Oxford University Press, Pamir Mountains, Pamir River, Panj River, Peshawar, Precipitation, Presidencies and provinces of British India, River delta, Robert Byron, Royal Geographical Society, Russian conquest of Central Asia, Sasanian Empire, Sherabad River, Siberian tiger, Silk Road, Sohrab and Rustum, South Aral Sea, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Surxondaryo River, Syr Darya, Tajik–Afghan bridge at Panji Poyon, Tajikistan, Türkmenabat, Termez, The Far-Distant Oxus, The Great Game, The Road to Oxiana, Tian Shan, Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve, Transoxiana, Turan, Turkmenistan, Tuyamuyun Hydro Complex, Urgench, Uzbekistan, Uzboy, Vakhsh River, Vedic Sanskrit, Wakhan, Wakhan Corridor, Wakhan River, Wakhjir Pass, William Brice (ethnographer), William Moorcroft (explorer), Zeravshan River, Zorkul, 19th century. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge is a road and rail bridge across the river Amu Darya, connecting the town of Hairatan in the northern Balkh province of Afghanistan with Termez in Uzbekistan.
The Alay Valley (Алай өрөөнү) is a broad, dry valley running east-west across most of southern Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Bartang river, a view from the air The Bartang river is a river of Central Asia, tributary to the Panj river and consequently to the Amu-Darya.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
The Brahmanda Purana (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण)(r.c.9.hulk) is a Sanskrit text and one of the eighteen major Puranas, a genre of Hindu texts.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Daşoguz (Дашогу́з, also Dashoguz, Dasoguz; roughly "stone spring" in Turkmen), formerly known as Tashauz (until 1992; Ташау́з) and Dashkhovuz (1992-1999; Дашхову́з), is a city in northern Turkmenistan and the capital of Daşoguz Province.
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Flashman at the Charge is a 1973 novel by George MacDonald Fraser.
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.
George MacDonald Fraser OBE FRSL (2 April 1925 – 2 January 2008) was a Scottish author who wrote historical novels, non-fiction books and several screenplays.
Gihon is the name of the second river mentioned in the second chapter of the biblical Book of Genesis.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Ibrahim Bek (1889 – 31 August 1931) was the leader of an anti-Soviet group known as the Basmachi.
An ice cave is any type of natural cave (most commonly lava tubes or limestone caves) that contains significant amounts of perennial (year-round) ice.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Ishkashim اشکاشم, or Ashkasham, also transliterated Ishkashem or Eshkashem, is a town in Badakhshan Province in north-eastern Afghanistan, the capital of Ishkashim District.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
John Wood (1812 – 14 November 1871) was a Scottish naval officer, surveyor, cartographer and explorer, principally remembered for his exploration of central Asia.
Kāfiristān, or Kāfirstān (کافرستان), is a historical region that covered present-day Nuristan Province in Afghanistan and its surroundings.
The Karakum Canal (Qaraqum Canal, Kara Kum Canal, Garagum Canal; Каракумский канал, Karakumsky Kanal, Turkmen: Garagum kanaly, گَرَگوُم كَنَلیٛ, Гарагум каналы) in Turkmenistan is one of the largest irrigation and water supply canals in the world.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kerki is a town in eastern Turkmenistan.
Konye-Urgench (Köneürgenç; Куня Ургенч, Kunya Urgench – from Persian: Kuhna Gurgānj کهنه گرگانج) – Old Gurgānj also known as Kunya-Urgench, Old Urgench or Urganj, is a municipality of about 30,000 inhabitants in north Turkmenistan, just south from its border with Uzbekistan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Kyzyl-Suu (formerly known as Pokrovka) is a village in the Issyk-Kul Region of Kyrgyzstan.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
This is a list of rivers wholly or partly in Afghanistan, arranged geographically by river basin.
The Little Pamir (Wakhi: Wuch Pamir; Kyrgyz: Kichik Pamir; translit) is a broad U-shaped grassy valley or pamir in the eastern part of the Wakhan in north-eastern Afghanistan.
The Main Turkmen Canal was a large-scale irrigation project in Soviet Turkmenistan.
Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Emir Said Mir Mohammed Alim Khan (Said Mir Muhammad Olimxon, 3 January 1880 – 28 April 1944) was the last emir representative of the Uzbek Manghit Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Bukhara in Central Asia.
Mount Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Pamir is a river in Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
The Panj River (د پنج سیند) (Панҷ, پنج), also known as Pyandzh River or Pyanj River (derived from its Russian name "Пяндж"), is a tributary of the Amu Darya.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Robert Byron (26 February 1905 – 24 February 1941) was a British travel writer, best known for his travelogue The Road to Oxiana.
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.
The Russian conquest of Central Asia took place in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Sherabad River, Shirabad River, Sherabad Darya or Shirabad Darya.
The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sohrab and Rustum: An Episode is a narrative poem with strong tragic themes first published in 1853 by Matthew Arnold.
The South Aral Sea was a lake in the basin of the former Aral Sea which formed in 1986 when that body divided in two, due to diversion of river inflow for agriculture.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Surxondaryo River, also Surkhandarya River, Surxon River, Surkhan River, Surkhan Darya (darya means "river") is a river in Uzbekistan, a right tributary of the Amu Darya.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
The Tajikistan-Afghanistan bridge spanning the Panj River between Panji Poyon (or Nizhniy Pyandzh), Tajikistan and Sherkhan Bandar, Afghanistan was opened on 26 August 2007.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Türkmenabat (Cyrillic Түркменабат), formerly and since medieval times, Chardzhou (Чарджоу, Čardžou; Çärjew, Чәрҗев) (Persian: چهارجوی 'Chharjvy', meaning 'four canals') and in ancient times Āmul, is the second-largest city in Turkmenistan and the capital of Lebap Province.
Termez (Termiz/Термиз; Термез; Тирмиз; ترمذ Termez, Tirmiz; ترمذ Tirmidh) is a city in the southernmost part of Uzbekistan near the Hairatan border crossing of Afghanistan.
The Far-Distant Oxus is a children’s novel of 1937, written by Katharine Hull (1921–1977)Carpenter and Prichard, 182.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Road to Oxiana is a travelogue by Robert Byron, first published in 1937.
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve is in Tajikistan close to the Afghan border where the Vakhsh River and the Panj River join to form the Amu Darya.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Turan (Persian: توران Tūrān, "the land of the Tur") is a historical region in Central Asia.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Tuyamuyun Hydro Complex (THC) is a system of four interconnected reservoirs and a series of canals on the lower Amu Darya River, bordering Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
Urgench (Urganch, Урганч, ئۇرگەنج; گرگانج, Gorgånch/Gorgānč/Gorgânc) is a city in western Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzboy (sometimes rendered Uzboj) was a distributary of the Amu Darya which flowed through the northwestern part of the Karakum Desert of Turkmenistan until the 17th century, when it abruptly dried up, eliminating the agricultural population that had thrived along its banks.
The Vakhsh (River) (translit), also known as the Surkhob (Сурхоб), in north-central Tajikistan, and the Kyzyl-Suu (translit), in Kyrgyzstan, is a Central Asian river, and one of the main rivers of Tajikistan.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Wakhan or "the Wakhan" (also spelt Vakhan; Persian and واخان, Vâxân and Wāxān respectively; Вахон, Vaxon) is a very mountainous and rugged part of the Pamir, Hindu Kush and Karakoram regions of Afghanistan.
The Wakhan Corridor (واخان دهلېز Wāxān Dahléz, دالان واخان) is a narrow strip of territory in northeastern Afghanistan that extends to China and separates Tajikistan from Pakistan.
Wakhan River (اب واخان), Abe Vâxân (دریائے واخان) Вахондарё, Vaxondaryo), also known in English as Ab-i-Wakhan, is the name of the Sarhadd branch of the Panj River along its upper length in Wakhan, Afghanistan. The river arises in the Hindu Kush. It is formed by the confluence of the Wakhjir River and the Bozai Darya near Kashch Goz and Bozai Gumbaz, some 40 km west of the Wakhjir Pass. Shortly thereafter, the Little Pamir comes to an end, and the conjoined river contracts into a narrow, deep, rapid river, delimited by cliffs and steep hills. From here the banks have grown birch and juniper trees. 40 km west at Sarhad-e Broghil the river flows in a dramatic basin 3 km wide. Little if any vegetation but dwarf willow grows in this region. At Sarhadd the river contracts into a narrower valley, which is more populated. The river emerges near the villages of Langar and Qila-e Panj, where it is joined by the Pamir River. From that point the river is always locally spoken of as the Panj River.
The Wakhjir Pass,Ludwig W. Adamec.
William Charles Brice (3 July 1921 – 24 July 2007) was a British ethnographer and linguist.
William Moorcroft (1767 – 27 August 1825) was an English explorer employed by the East India Company.
Zarafshan River (also Zaravshan or Zarafshon; Дарёи Зарафшон, Daryoyi Zarafşon; Zeravshon, Зеравшон, زېرەۋشان; from the Persian word Zar-afšān, زرافشان, meaning "the spreader of gold") is a river in Central Asia.
Zorkul (or Sir-i-kol) is a lake in the Pamir Mountains that runs along the border between Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
Amo Darya, Amo River, Amu Dar'ya, Amu Daria, Amu Darya River, Amu Derya, Amu River, Amu daryo, Amu river, Amu-Daria, Amu-Darya, Amudaria, Amudarja, Amudarrya, Amudarya, Amudarya River, Amudaryo, Amuderya, Daryoi Omu, Jayhoun, Jayhun, Kuei River, Omudaryo, Oxus, Oxus River, Oxus river, The Oxus, Âmudaryâ, آمودریا, جيحون.