Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. [1]

96 relations: Amygdala hijack, Anatomical terms of location, Anxiety disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Axon terminal, Basal ganglia, Basolateral amygdala, BELBIC, Bhikkhu, Binge drinking, Bipolar disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brain, Central nucleus of the amygdala, Classical conditioning, Common degu, Decision-making, Dopamine receptor D1, Emotion, Emotion and memory, Emotional intelligence, Episodic memory, Ethanol, Explicit memory, Extended amygdala, Facial nerve, Fear conditioning, Fear processing in the brain, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Greek language, Heinrich Klüver, Hippocampus, Human Brain Mapping (journal), Hypersexuality, Hypothalamus, Insular cortex, Intercalated cells of the amygdala, James McGaugh, Klüver–Bucy syndrome, Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, Latin, Limbic system, List of regions in the human brain, Locus coeruleus, Long-term memory, Long-term potentiation, Magnetic resonance imaging, Memory, ..., Memory consolidation, Mental disorder, Mettā, Morphine, Motivational salience, Neural oscillation, NeuroImage, Neuroimaging, NeuroNames, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Nucleus accumbens, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory system, Paranoia, Pheromone, Posttraumatic stress disorder, PRKCE, Proxemics, Psychopathy, Radiofrequency ablation, Reward system, Rorschach test, S.M. (patient), Scholarpedia, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sensory neuron, Sexual dimorphism, Social anxiety disorder, Social network, Stria terminalis, Subliminal stimuli, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Temporal lobe, Temporoparietal junction, Thalamic reticular nucleus, Theta wave, Toxoplasma gondii, Trends (journals), Trigeminal nerve, Triune brain, Urbach–Wiethe disease, Ventral tegmental area, Visual agnosia, 5-HT receptor. Expand index (46 more) »

Amygdala hijack

Amygdala hijack is a term coined by Daniel Goleman in his 1996 book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.

New!!: Amygdala and Amygdala hijack · See more »

Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

New!!: Amygdala and Anatomical terms of location · See more »

Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

New!!: Amygdala and Anxiety disorder · See more »

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

New!!: Amygdala and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder · See more »


Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.

New!!: Amygdala and Autism · See more »

Axon terminal

Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.

New!!: Amygdala and Axon terminal · See more »

Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.

New!!: Amygdala and Basal ganglia · See more »

Basolateral amygdala

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) or basolateral complex, consists of the lateral, basal and accessory-basal nuclei of the amygdala.

New!!: Amygdala and Basolateral amygdala · See more »


In recent years, the use of biologically inspired methods such as the evolutionary algorithm have been increasingly employed to solve and analyze complex computational problems.

New!!: Amygdala and BELBIC · See more »


A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

New!!: Amygdala and Bhikkhu · See more »

Binge drinking

Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.

New!!: Amygdala and Binge drinking · See more »

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

New!!: Amygdala and Bipolar disorder · See more »

Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

New!!: Amygdala and Borderline personality disorder · See more »


The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

New!!: Amygdala and Brain · See more »

Central nucleus of the amygdala

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA or aCeN) is a nucleus within the amygdala.

New!!: Amygdala and Central nucleus of the amygdala · See more »

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

New!!: Amygdala and Classical conditioning · See more »

Common degu

The common degu (Octodon degus) is a small caviomorph rodent endemic to the Chilean matorral ecoregion of central Chile.

New!!: Amygdala and Common degu · See more »


In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

New!!: Amygdala and Decision-making · See more »

Dopamine receptor D1

Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.

New!!: Amygdala and Dopamine receptor D1 · See more »


Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

New!!: Amygdala and Emotion · See more »

Emotion and memory

Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.

New!!: Amygdala and Emotion and memory · See more »

Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional quotient (EQ) and Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ), is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s).

New!!: Amygdala and Emotional intelligence · See more »

Episodic memory

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

New!!: Amygdala and Episodic memory · See more »


Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

New!!: Amygdala and Ethanol · See more »

Explicit memory

Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.

New!!: Amygdala and Explicit memory · See more »

Extended amygdala

The extended amygdala is a macrostructure in the brain that is involved in reward cognition and defined by connectivity and neurochemical staining.

New!!: Amygdala and Extended amygdala · See more »

Facial nerve

The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII.

New!!: Amygdala and Facial nerve · See more »

Fear conditioning

Fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events.

New!!: Amygdala and Fear conditioning · See more »

Fear processing in the brain

Many experiments have been done to find out how the brain interprets stimuli and how animals develop fear responses.

New!!: Amygdala and Fear processing in the brain · See more »

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

New!!: Amygdala and Functional magnetic resonance imaging · See more »

Glutamate (neurotransmitter)

In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.

New!!: Amygdala and Glutamate (neurotransmitter) · See more »

Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

New!!: Amygdala and Greek language · See more »

Heinrich Klüver

Heinrich Klüver (May 25, 1897 – February 8, 1979) was a German and American psychologist born in Holstein.

New!!: Amygdala and Heinrich Klüver · See more »


The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

New!!: Amygdala and Hippocampus · See more »

Human Brain Mapping (journal)

Human Brain Mapping is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons covering research on human brain mapping.

New!!: Amygdala and Human Brain Mapping (journal) · See more »


Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.

New!!: Amygdala and Hypersexuality · See more »


The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

New!!: Amygdala and Hypothalamus · See more »

Insular cortex

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

New!!: Amygdala and Insular cortex · See more »

Intercalated cells of the amygdala

The intercalated (ITC) cells of the amygdala are a group of GABAergic neurons situated between the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala that are important for inhibitory control over the amygdala.

New!!: Amygdala and Intercalated cells of the amygdala · See more »

James McGaugh

James L. McGaugh (born December 17, 1931) is an American neurobiologist and author working in the field of learning and memory.

New!!: Amygdala and James McGaugh · See more »

Klüver–Bucy syndrome

Klüver–Bucy syndrome is a syndrome resulting from bilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (including amygdaloid nucleus).

New!!: Amygdala and Klüver–Bucy syndrome · See more »

Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (or lateroposterior tegmental nucleus) is a nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the midbrain tegmentum and the pontine tegmentum.

New!!: Amygdala and Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus · See more »


Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

New!!: Amygdala and Latin · See more »

Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

New!!: Amygdala and Limbic system · See more »

List of regions in the human brain

The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.

New!!: Amygdala and List of regions in the human brain · See more »

Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

New!!: Amygdala and Locus coeruleus · See more »

Long-term memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

New!!: Amygdala and Long-term memory · See more »

Long-term potentiation

In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.

New!!: Amygdala and Long-term potentiation · See more »

Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

New!!: Amygdala and Magnetic resonance imaging · See more »


Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

New!!: Amygdala and Memory · See more »

Memory consolidation

Memory consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition.

New!!: Amygdala and Memory consolidation · See more »

Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

New!!: Amygdala and Mental disorder · See more »


Mettā (Pali) or maitrī (Sanskrit) means benevolence, loving-kindness,Warder (2004), pp.

New!!: Amygdala and Mettā · See more »


Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

New!!: Amygdala and Morphine · See more »

Motivational salience

Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.

New!!: Amygdala and Motivational salience · See more »

Neural oscillation

Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.

New!!: Amygdala and Neural oscillation · See more »


NeuroImage is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on neuroimaging, including functional neuroimaging and functional human brain mapping.

New!!: Amygdala and NeuroImage · See more »


Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

New!!: Amygdala and Neuroimaging · See more »


NeuroNames is an integrated nomenclature for structures in the brain and spinal cord of the four species most studied by neuroscientists: human, macaque, rat and mouse.

New!!: Amygdala and NeuroNames · See more »

Nucleus (neuroanatomy)

In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.

New!!: Amygdala and Nucleus (neuroanatomy) · See more »

Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

New!!: Amygdala and Nucleus accumbens · See more »

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

New!!: Amygdala and Obsessive–compulsive disorder · See more »

Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

New!!: Amygdala and Olfactory bulb · See more »

Olfactory system

The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).

New!!: Amygdala and Olfactory system · See more »


Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

New!!: Amygdala and Paranoia · See more »


A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

New!!: Amygdala and Pheromone · See more »

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

New!!: Amygdala and Posttraumatic stress disorder · See more »


Protein kinase C epsilon type (PKCε) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCE gene.

New!!: Amygdala and PRKCE · See more »


Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behaviour, communication, and social interaction.

New!!: Amygdala and Proxemics · See more »


Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.

New!!: Amygdala and Psychopathy · See more »

Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).

New!!: Amygdala and Radiofrequency ablation · See more »

Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

New!!: Amygdala and Reward system · See more »

Rorschach test

The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.

New!!: Amygdala and Rorschach test · See more »

S.M. (patient)

S.M., also sometimes referred to as SM-046, is a female patient first described in 1994 who has had exclusive and complete bilateral amygdala destruction since late childhood as a consequence of an extremely rare genetic condition known as Urbach–Wiethe disease.

New!!: Amygdala and S.M. (patient) · See more »


Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

New!!: Amygdala and Scholarpedia · See more »

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

New!!: Amygdala and Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor · See more »

Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

New!!: Amygdala and Sensory neuron · See more »

Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

New!!: Amygdala and Sexual dimorphism · See more »

Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

New!!: Amygdala and Social anxiety disorder · See more »

Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

New!!: Amygdala and Social network · See more »

Stria terminalis

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus.

New!!: Amygdala and Stria terminalis · See more »

Subliminal stimuli

Subliminal stimuli (the prefix sup- literally "below, or less than", while the prefix sub- literally "up to"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.

New!!: Amygdala and Subliminal stimuli · See more »


In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

New!!: Amygdala and Synapse · See more »

Synaptic plasticity

In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

New!!: Amygdala and Synaptic plasticity · See more »

Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

New!!: Amygdala and Temporal lobe · See more »

Temporoparietal junction

The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is an area of the brain where the temporal and parietal lobes meet, at the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure.

New!!: Amygdala and Temporoparietal junction · See more »

Thalamic reticular nucleus

The thalamic reticular nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally.

New!!: Amygdala and Thalamic reticular nucleus · See more »

Theta wave

Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillatory pattern that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes attached to the scalp.

New!!: Amygdala and Theta wave · See more »

Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.

New!!: Amygdala and Toxoplasma gondii · See more »

Trends (journals)

Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.

New!!: Amygdala and Trends (journals) · See more »

Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.

New!!: Amygdala and Trigeminal nerve · See more »

Triune brain

The triune brain is a model of the evolution of the vertebrate forebrain and behavior, proposed by the American physician and neuroscientist Paul D. MacLean.

New!!: Amygdala and Triune brain · See more »

Urbach–Wiethe disease

Urbach–Wiethe disease (also known as lipoid proteinosis and hyalinosis cutis et mucosae) is a rare recessive genetic disorder, with approximately 400 reported cases since its discovery.

New!!: Amygdala and Urbach–Wiethe disease · See more »

Ventral tegmental area

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.

New!!: Amygdala and Ventral tegmental area · See more »

Visual agnosia

Visual agnosia is an impairment in recognition of visually presented objects.

New!!: Amygdala and Visual agnosia · See more »

5-HT receptor

5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

New!!: Amygdala and 5-HT receptor · See more »

Redirects here:

Amagdyla, Amalgyma, Amigdala, Amigdela, Amigdila, Amigdula, Amygadala, Amygdalae, Amygdalar cortices, Amygdaloid body, Amygdaloid nucleus, Amygdalæ, Central medial amygdala, Corticomedial amygdala.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amygdala

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »