507 relations: Acne, Acne conglobata, Acute kidney injury, Addiction (journal), Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adolf Hitler, Aggression, Aldosterone, Alkylation, Allopregnanolone, Allosteric modulator, Amateur sports, Amenorrhea, American College of Sports Medicine, American Journal of Public Health, Amino acid, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Androgen, Androgen ester, Androgen prohormone, Androgen receptor, Androgen replacement therapy, Android fat distribution, Androisoxazole, Androstane, Androstanolone, Androstenediol, Androstenedione, Androstenone, Anemia, Anovulation, Anterior pituitary, Anti-social behaviour, Antiandrogen, Antigonadotropin, Anxiety, Aplastic anemia, Apoptosis, Appetite, Arcuate nucleus, Aromatase, Association of Tennis Professionals, Atherosclerosis, Athlete, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Azoospermia, Basal metabolic rate, Baseball, ..., Ben Johnson (sprinter), Bench press, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Benzodiazepine, Bigger, Stronger, Faster*, Bilirubin, Bioassay, Bipolar disorder, Black market, Blood pressure, Body hair, Bodybuilding, Bolandiol, Bolandione, Bolasterone, Boldenone, Boldenone undecylenate, Boldione, Bone, Bone age, Bone marrow, Bone resorption, Borderline personality disorder, Boxing, Breast atrophy, Breast cancer, Bulbospongiosus muscle, Cachexia, Cancer, Cardiac arrest, Cardiomegaly, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiovascular disease, Castration, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Chemical synthesis, Cholestasis, Cholesterol, Chris Benoit double-murder and suicide, Clitoromegaly, Clostebol, Clostebol acetate, Cloxotestosterone, Cluster B personality disorders, CNS Drugs (journal), Coactivator (genetics), Cognitive deficit, Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, Conduct disorder, Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Coronary artery disease, Correlation and dependence, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, Counterfeit medications, Cricket, Crime Control Act of 1990, Cutaneous condition, Cycling, Cypionic acid, Cytoplasm, Danazol, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Delayed puberty, Delusion, Depression (mood), Derivative (chemistry), Designer drug, Desoxymethyltestosterone, Dexamethasone, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diastole, Dienedione, Dienolone, Dihydrotestosterone, Dimethandrolone, Dimethandrolone undecanoate, Dimethyldienolone, Dimethyltrienolone, Dissociation constant, Doping in sport, Drostanolone, Drostanolone propionate, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug metabolism, Drug reference standard, Drug withdrawal, Dyslipidemia, Dysmenorrhea, Dysphoria, Eastern Bloc, Edema, Embolism, Emotional and behavioral disorders, Endocrine disease, Endogeny (biology), Energy (psychological), Enzyme, Epididymis, Epiphyseal plate, Epoetin alfa, Erectile dysfunction, Erection, Ester, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estrane, Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Ethinylestradiol, Ethisterone, Ethyl group, Ethyldienolone, Ethylestrenol, Euphoria, Facial hair, Failure to thrive, Fatty liver, Fetus, FIFA, First pass effect, Fluoxymesterone, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food and Drug Administration, Football, Functional selectivity, G.D. Searle, LLC, GABAA receptor, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gender dysphoria, Gene, Gene expression, Genotype, Gestrinone, Glucocorticoid, Glucuronide, Gonad, Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GPRC6A, Growth hormone therapy, Gynecomastia, Hair loss, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Hematopoietic stem cell, Hepatocellular adenoma, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatotoxicity, Heptanoic acid, Heterosexuality, High performance sport, High-density lipoprotein, Hirsutism, Histrionic personality disorder, HIV/AIDS, Hoarse voice, Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, Hormone response element, Hot flash, Human body weight, Human development (biology), Human physical appearance, Human skin, Hydrocortisone, Hypertension, Hypertrichosis, Hypogonadism, Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Hypomania, Hypoplasia, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamus, Hypothesis, Idiopathic short stature, Immune disorder, Impact Wrestling, Impaired glucose tolerance, Impulsivity, Infertility, Injection (medicine), Insulin resistance, Integumentary system, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Convention against Doping in Sport, International Olympic Committee, Intersex, Intracellular, Intramuscular injection, Irritability, Δ4-Tibolone, Jaundice, John Bosley Ziegler, John F. Kennedy, Juiced (book), Ketone, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Laboratory rat, Lean body mass, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Leopold Ružička, Leukemia, Levator ani, Levonorgestrel, Leydig cell, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Linda McMahon, List of androgen esters, List of androgens/anabolic steroids available in the United States, List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens, Liver disease, Liver function tests, Low-density lipoprotein, Luteinizing hormone, Major League Baseball, Male contraceptive, Male infertility, Male reproductive system, Mania, Marburg, Masculinity, Mebolazine, Median, Membrane androgen receptor, Menopause, Menstrual cycle, Menstrual disorder, Mepitiostane, Mesabolone, Mestanolone, Mesterolone, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metandienone, Metenolone, Metenolone acetate, Metenolone enanthate, Methandriol, Methasterone, Methoxydienone, Methyl group, Methyl-1-testosterone, Methylclostebol, Methyldiazinol, Methyldienolone, Methylestradiol, Methylstenbolone, Methyltestosterone, Metribolone, Mibolerone, Mixed martial arts, Molecular modification, Mood disorder, Mood swing, Muscle, Muscle dysmorphia, Muscle hypertrophy, Musculoskeletal disorder, Myocardial infarction, Myocyte, Nandrolone, Nandrolone decanoate, Nandrolone phenylpropionate, Narcissistic personality disorder, National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Natural product, Nazi Germany, Negative feedback, Neurological disorder, Neuron, Neurosteroid, Neurotoxicity, Nitrogen balance, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nocturnal emission, Norboletone, Norclostebol acetate, Norethandrolone, Norethisterone, Norgestrienone, Normethandrone, OECD, Off-label use, Oligomenorrhea, Oligospermia, Olympic Games, Olympic weightlifting, Oral administration, Organic compound, Organized crime, Osteoporosis, Oxabolone, Oxabolone cipionate, Oxandrolone, Oxymesterone, Oxymetholone, Paranoid personality disorder, Passive–aggressive personality disorder, Pattern hair loss, Pediatric endocrinology, Peliosis hepatis, Penis, Peptide, Performance-enhancing substance, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacodynamics, Phenotype, Physical strength, Police corruption, Polycythemia, Prasterone, Precocious puberty, Precursor (chemistry), Pregnenolone sulfate, Prenatal development, Priapism, Prodrug, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Prostanozol, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Psychosis, Puberty, Quality of life, Quinbolone, Racing, Randomized controlled trial, Receptor (biochemistry), Recklessness (psychology), Red blood cell, Renal cell carcinoma, Reproductive system disease, Rhabdomyolysis, Route of administration, RU-2309, Scalp, Schizotypal personality disorder, Sebaceous gland, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Secondary sex characteristic, Selective androgen receptor modulator, Seminal vesicle, Seoul, Sex steroid, Sex-hormonal agent, Sexual function, Short stature, Shot put, Side effect, Signal transduction, Silandrone, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Smuggling, Sperm, Spermatogenesis, Sport, SRD5A2, Stanozolol, Steric effects, Steroid, Steroid rosacea, Steroid use in Bollywood, Steroidogenic enzyme, Sterol, Strain (injury), Stretch marks, Stroke, Stunted growth, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Suicide, Tendon rupture, Teratology, Testicle, Testicular atrophy, Testicular cancer, Testosterone, Testosterone (medication), Testosterone cypionate, Testosterone enanthate, Testosterone propionate, Testosterone undecanoate, Tetrahydrogestrinone, The Lancet, Thrombosis, Tibolone, Tiomesterone, Track and field, Trans man, Trans woman, Transdermal patch, Transgender hormone therapy (female-to-male), Trapezius, Trenbolone, Trenbolone acetate, Trenbolone enanthate, Trestolone, Undecylic acid, United States Congress, United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Uterine hypoplasia, Vas deferens, Vastus lateralis muscle, Ventricle (heart), Veterinary medicine, Vince McMahon, Violence, Virilization, Vladimir Putin, Vocal folds, Voice change, Wasting, Water retention (medicine), Well-being, Word stem, World Anti-Doping Agency, Wrestling, WWE, Young Mania Rating Scale, Zürich, ZIP9, 1-Testosterone, 11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone, 17α-Alkylated anabolic steroid, 1988 Summer Olympics, 3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α-Androstanediol, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-Androstanediol, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 4-Hydroxytestosterone, 5α-Dihydronandrolone, 5α-Reductase, 5α-Reductase deficiency, 7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione. Expand index (457 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Acne conglobata is a highly inflammatory disease presenting with comedones, nodules, abscesses, and draining sinus tracts.
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Addiction is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and other Drugs.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is a large sports medicine and exercise science membership organization.
The American Journal of Public Health is a monthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by the American Public Health Association covering health policy and public health.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
An androgen or anabolic steroid ester is an ester of an androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) such as the natural testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or the synthetic nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
An androgen prohormone, or proandrogen, is a prohormone (or prodrug) of an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS).
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Androgen replacement therapy (ART), often referred to as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), is a class of hormone replacement therapy in which androgens, often testosterone, are replaced.
Android fat distribution describes the distribution of human adipose tissue mainly around the trunk and upper body, in areas such as the abdomen, chest, shoulder and nape of the neck.
Androisoxazole (brand names Androxan, Neo-Ponden, Neo-Pondus), also known as 17α-methyl-5α-androstanoisoxazol-17β-ol, is an orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) that is marketed in Spain and Italy.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
Androstanolone, or stanolone, also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sold under the brand name Andractim among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication and hormone which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Anti-social behaviours are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Bob Briner, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
Benjamin Sinclair Johnson, (born December 30, 1961) is a Jamaican-born Canadian former sprinter, who won two Olympic bronze medals and an Olympic gold medal, which was later rescinded.
The bench press is an upper body strength training exercise that consists of pressing a weight upwards from a supine position.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bigger, Stronger, Faster* is a 2008 documentary film directed by Christopher Bell, about the use of anabolic steroids as performance-enhancing drugs in the United States and how this practice relates to the American Dream.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Bolandiol (INN), also known as 19-nor-4-androstenediol, estr-4-en-3β,17β-diol, or 3β-dihydronandrolone, is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) that was never marketed.
Bolandione, also known as 19-norandrostenedione, as well as 19-norandrost-4-en-3,17-dione or estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, is a precursor of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
Bolasterone (brand names Myagen, Methosarb; former developmental code name U-19763), also known as 7α,17α-dimethyltestosterone, is a 17α-alkylated androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in veterinary medicine.
Boldenone (developmental code name RU-18761), also known as Δ1-testosterone, is a naturally occurring anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and the 1(2)-dehydrogenated analogue of testosterone.
Boldenone undecylenate, or boldenone undecenoate, sold under the brand names Equipoise and Parenabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in veterinary medicine, mainly in horses.
Boldione, also known as androstadienedione or 1-dehydroandrostenedione, as well as 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, is an important industrial precursor for various steroid hormones.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone age is the degree of maturation of a child's bones.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Breast atrophy is the normal or spontaneous atrophy or shrinkage of the breasts.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
The bulbospongiosus muscle (bulbocavernosus in older texts) is one of the superficial muscles of the perineum.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged.
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Over a three-day period between June 22 and June 24, 2007, Chris Benoit, a 40-year-old veteran professional wrestler employed by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), killed his wife Nancy Benoit and strangled their 7-year-old son Daniel before hanging himself.
Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris that is mostly congenital or acquired, though deliberately induced clitoris enlargement as a form of female genital body modification is achieved through various uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, and may also be referred to as clitoromegaly. Clitoromegaly is not the same as normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during sexual arousal.
Clostebol, also known as 4-chlorotestosterone, usually as the ester clostebol acetate, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS).
Clostebol acetate (BAN) (brand names Macrobin, Steranabol, Alfa-Trofodermin, Megagrisevit), also known as 4-chlorotestosterone 17β-acetate (4-CLTA) or as 4-chloroandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate, is a synthetic, injected anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of testosterone that is marketed in Germany and Italy.
Cloxotestosterone,https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/53608-96-1 also known as 17β-chloral hemiacetal testosterone, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ether – specifically, the 17β-trichloro hemiacetal ether of testosterone – which was never marketed.
Cluster B personality disorders are a categorization of personality disorders as defined in the DSM-IV and DSM-5.
CNS Drugs is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Adis International (Springer Science + Business Media) that covers drug treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.
A coactivator is a type of transcriptional coregulator that binds to an activator (a transcription factor) to increase the rate of transcription of a gene or set of genes.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is a condition that results in the complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
The United Kingdom Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 aimed to control the possession and supply of numerous listed drugs and drug-like substances as a controlled substance.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The Crime Control Act of 1990 was a large Act of Congress that had a considerable impact on the juvenile crime control policies of the 1990s.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Cypionic acid is a carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C8H14O2.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Danazol, sold under the brand name Danocrine among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, hereditary angioedema, and other conditions.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
Desoxymethyltestosterone (DMT), known by the nicknames Madol and Pheraplex, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-methylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never marketed for medical use.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).
Dienedione, also known as estra-4,9-diene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group that was never introduced for medical use.
Dienolone (developmental code name RU-3118; online product names Trenazone, Dienazone), or nordienolone, also known as 19-nor-δ9(10)-testosterone, δ9(10)-nandrolone, or estra-4,9(10)-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group that was never marketed.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Dimethandrolone (DMA), also known by its developmental code name CDB-1321, is an experimental androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and progestogen medication which is under investigation for potential clinical use.
Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU), also known by its developmental code name CDB-4521, is an experimental androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and progestogen medication which is under development as a potential birth control pill for men.
Dimethyldienolone (developmental code name RU-2788), or 7α,17α-dimethyldienolone, also known as δ9-7α,17α-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone or as 7α,17α-dimethylestr-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a 17α-alkylated androgen/anabolic steroid of the 19-nortestosterone group which was never marketed.
Dimethyltrienolone (developmental code name RU-2420) is a synthetic, orally active, and extremely potent anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and 17α-alkylated 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.
Drostanolone, or dromostanolone, is an anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was never marketed.
Drostanolone propionate, or dromostanolone propionate, sold under the brand names Drolban, Masteril, and Masteron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which was used to treat breast cancer in women but is now no longer marketed.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
A drug reference standard is a standardized substance which is used as a measurement base for similar substances.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; sometimes called emotional disturbance or serious emotional disturbance) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Mental energy or psychic energy is a concept in some psychological theories or models of a postulated unconscious mental functioning on a level between biology and consciousness.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
Epoetin alfa (rINN) is a human erythropoietin produced in cell culture using recombinant DNA technology.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Ethisterone, also known as ethinyltestosterone, pregneninolone, and anhydrohydroxyprogesterone and formerly sold under the brand names Proluton C and Pranone among others, is a progestin medication which was used in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer available.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Ethyldienolone, also known as 17α-methyl-19-nor-δ9-testosterone, as well as 17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
Ethylestrenol, also known as ethyloestrenol or ethylnandrol and sold under the brand names Maxibolin and Orabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used in the past for a variety of indications such as to promote weight gain and to treat anemia and osteoporosis but has been discontinued for use in humans.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.
Failure to thrive (FTT), more recently known as faltering weight or weight faltering, is a term used in pediatric medicine, as well as veterinary medicine (where it is also referred to as ill-thrift), to indicate insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss.
Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Fluoxymesterone, sold under the brand names Halotestin and Ultandren among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, breast cancer in women, and anemia. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of fluoxymesterone include symptoms of masculinization like acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire. It can also cause liver damage and cardiovascular side effects like high blood pressure. The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It has strong androgenic effects and moderate anabolic effects, which make it useful for producing masculinization. Fluoxymesterone was first described in 1956 and was introduced for medical use in 1957. In addition to its medical use, fluoxymesterone is used to improve physique and performance. The drug is a controlled substance in many countries and so non-medical use is generally illicit.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as a leading cause of kidney failure in adults.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”, "ligand bias" and “differential engagement”) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways relative to a reference ligand (often the endogenous hormone or peptide) at the same receptor.
G.D. Searle, LLC is a wholly owned trademark of Pfizer.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Gestrinone, sold under the brand names Dimetrose and Nemestran among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPRC6A gene.
Growth hormone therapy refers to the use of growth hormone (GH) as a prescription medication—it is one form of hormone therapy.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Hepatocellular adenoma (also known as hepatic adenoma or hepadenoma) is a rare, benign liver tumor.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Heptanoic acid, also called enanthic acid, is an organic compound composed of a seven-carbon chain terminating in a carboxylic acid.
Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.
High performance sport or elite sport is sport at the highest level of competition.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, usually beginning in early adulthood, including inappropriately seductive behavior and an excessive need for approval.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
Human physical appearance is the outward phenotype or look of human beings.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypertrichosis is an abnormal amount of hair growth over the body.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (HH), or secondary hypogonadism is due to problems with either the hypothalamus or pituitary gland affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis).
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
Hypoplasia (from Ancient Greek ὑπo- hypo-, "under" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"; adjective form hypoplastic) is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to extreme short stature that does not have a diagnostic explanation (idiopathic designates a condition that is unexplained or not understood) after an ordinary growth evaluation.
An immune disorder is a dysfunction of the immune system.
Impact Wrestling is an American professional wrestling promotion currently based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Convention against Doping in Sport is a multilateral UNESCO treaty by which states agree to adopt national measures to prevent and eliminate drug doping in sport.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Δ4-Tibolone (developmental code name ORG-OM-38), also known as 7α-methylnorethisterone or as 7α-methyl-17α-ethynyl-19-nortestosterone, is a synthetic androgen and progestin which was never marketed.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
John Bosley Ziegler (ca. 1920-1983) — known as John Ziegler and Montana Jack — was the American physician who originally developed the anabolic steroid Methandrostenolone (Dianabol, DBOL) which was released in the USA in 1958 by Ciba.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant 'Roids, Smash Hits & How Baseball Got Big is a 2005 book by Jose Canseco and his personal account of steroid usage in Major League Baseball.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.
Lean body mass is a component of body composition, calculated by subtracting body fat weight from total body weight: total body weight is lean plus fat.
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.
Leopold Ružička (13 September 1887 – 26 September 1976) was a Croatian-Swiss scientist and joint winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry who worked most of his life in Switzerland.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The levator ani is a broad, thin muscle, situated on either side of the pelvis.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Linda Marie McMahon (née Edwards; born October 4, 1948) is an American professional wrestling magnate and government official serving as the Administrator of the Small Business Administration in the Trump Administration.
This is a list of androgen esters, including esters (as well as ethers) of natural androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) like nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
This is a complete list of androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) and formulations that are approved by the and available in the United States.
The agents in this list have been classified in Group 2A (probable carcinogens) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female.
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).
Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
Mebolazine (brand names Dostalon and Roxilon; also known as dimethazine, dymethazine, di(methasterone) azine, or 2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one azine) is a synthetic, orally active androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is no longer marketed.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Membrane androgen receptors (mARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which bind and are activated by testosterone and/or other androgens.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
A menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in a woman's menstrual cycle.
Mepitiostane, sold under the brand name Thioderon, is an orally active antiestrogen and anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which is marketed in Japan as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
Mesabolone, also known as 1-testosterone 17β-methoxycyclopentyl ether, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) that was never marketed.
Mestanolone, also known as methylandrostanolone and sold under the brand names Androstalone and Ermalone among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is mostly no longer used.
Mesterolone, sold under the brand name Proviron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Metandienone, also known as methandienone or methandrostenolone and sold under the brand name Dianabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is mostly no longer used.
Metenolone, or methenolone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as metenolone acetate (brand name Primobolan, Nibal) and metenolone enanthate (brand name Primobolan Depot, Nibal Injection).
Metenolone acetate, or methenolone acetate, sold under the brand names Primobolan and Nibal, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of anemia due to bone marrow failure.
Metenolone enanthate, or methenolone enanthate, sold under the brand names Primobolan Depot and Nibal Injection, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of anemia due to bone marrow failure.
Methandriol (brand names Crestabolic, Cytobolin, Diandren, Madiol, Stenediol, Mestenediol), also known as methylandrostenediol, as well as 17α-methylandrost-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is a synthetic, orally active androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which was developed by Organon and is used in both oral and injectable (as methandriol dipropionate, methandriol propionate, or methandriol bisenanthoyl acetate) formulations.
Methasterone, also known as methyldrostanolone and known by the nickname Superdrol, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed for medical use.
Methoxydienone, also known as methoxygonadiene, as well as 3-methoxy-17-dehydro-18-methyl-19-nor-δ2,5(10)-testosterone or 13β-ethyl-3-methoxygona-2,5(10)-dien-17-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and progestogen of the 19-nortestosterone group related to levonorgestrel which was never marketed.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methyl-1-testosterone (M1T; developmental code name SC-11195), also known as 17α-methyl-4,5α-dihydro-δ1-testosterone (17α-methyl-δ1-DHT) or 17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one, as well as methyldihydroboldenone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed for medical use.
Methylclostebol, also known as 4-chloro-17α-methyltestosterone or as 4-chloro-17α-methylandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and designer steroid that has been sold on the Internet as a "dietary supplement", but it has never been studied for medical use.
Methyldiazinol (also known as 3,3-azo-17α-methyl-5α-dihydrotestosterone, 3-azi-17α-methyl-DHT, or 3,3-azo-17α-methyl-5α-androstan-17β-ol) is a synthetic and orally active androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed.
Methyldienolone (developmental code name RU-3467), also known as 17α-methyl-19-nor-δ9-testosterone, as well as 17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of 19-nortestosterone.
Methylestradiol, sold under the brand names Ginecosid, Ginecoside, Mediol, and Renodiol, is an estrogen medication which is used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
Methylstenbolone, known by the nicknames M-Sten, Methyl-Sten, and Ultradrol, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-methylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never introduced for medical use.
Methyltestosterone, sold under the brand names Android, Metandren, and Testred among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, at low doses as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, osteoporosis, and low sexual desire in women, and to treat breast cancer in women.
Metribolone (developmental code name R1881), also known as methyltrienolone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was never marketed for medical use but has been widely used in scientific research as a hot ligand in androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding assays (LBAs) and as a photoaffinity label for the AR.
Mibolerone, also known as dimethylnortestosterone (DMNT) and sold under the brand names Cheque Drops and Matenon, is a synthetic, orally active, and extremely potent anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) derivative which was marketed by Upjohn for use as a veterinary drug.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts.
Molecular modification is chemical alteration of a known and previously characterized lead compound for the purpose of enhancing its usefulness as a drug.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle dysmorphia is a subtype of the obsessive mental disorder body dysmorphic disorder, but is often also grouped with eating disorders.
Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the human musculoskeletal system, including the joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
Nandrolone decanoate, sold under the brand name Deca-Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used primarily in the treatment of anemias and wasting syndromes, as well as osteoporosis in menopausal women.
Nandrolone phenylpropionate (NPP), or nandrolone phenpropionate, sold under the brand name Durabolin among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used primarily in the treatment of breast cancer and osteoporosis in women.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Nitrogen balance is a measure of nitrogen input minus nitrogen output.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
A nocturnal emission, informally known as a wet dream or sex dream, is a spontaneous orgasm during sleep that includes ejaculation for a male, or vaginal wetness or an orgasm (or both) for a female.
Norboletone (former proposed brand name Genabol), or norbolethone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed.
Norclostebol acetate (brand name Anabol 4-19), or norchlorotestosterone acetate (NClTA), also known as 4-chloro-19-nortestosterone 17β-acetate or as 4-chloroestr-4-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, injectable anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone).
Norethandrolone, sold under the brand names Nilevar and Pronabol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which has been used to promote muscle growth and to treat severe burns, physical trauma, and aplastic anemia but has mostly been discontinued.
Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norgestrienone, sold under the brand names Ogyline, Planor, and Miniplanor, is a progestin medication which has been used in birth control pills, sometimes in combination with ethinylestradiol.
Normethandrone, also known as methylestrenolone or methylnortestosterone and sold under the brand name Metalutin among others, is a progestin and androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in combination with an estrogen in the treatment of amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms in women.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Oligomenorrhea (or oligomenorrhoea) is infrequent (or, in occasional usage, very light) menstruation.
Terms oligospermia and oligozoospermia refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Oxabolone is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) group which was never marketed.
Oxabolone cipionate (brand names Steranabol Depo, Steranabol Ritardo; former developmental code name FI-5852), or oxabolone cypionate, also known as 4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone 17β-cypionate or estr-4-en-4,17β-diol-3-one 17β-cypionate, is synthetic and injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) which has been marketed in Europe.
Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.
Oxymesterone (brand names Anamidol, Balnimax, Oranabol, Sanaboral, Theranabol, Tubil), also known as methandrostenediolone, as well as 4-hydroxy-17α-methyltestosterone or 17α-methylandrost-4-en-4,17β-diol-3-one, is an orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS).
Oxymetholone, sold under the brand names Anadrol and Anapolon among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used primarily in the treatment of anemia.
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revision IV (DSM-IV) describes passive–aggressive personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations." Passive-aggressive behavior is the obligatory symptom of the passive–aggressive personality disorder.
Pattern hair loss, known as male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) when it affects males and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) when it affects females, is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp.
Pediatric endocrinology (British: Paediatric) is a medical subspecialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, such as variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, diabetes and many more.
Peliosis hepatis is an uncommon vascular condition characterised by multiple, randomly distributed, blood-filled cavities throughout the liver.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Physical strength is the measure of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects.
Police corruption is a form of police misconduct in which law enforcement officers end up breaking their political contract and abuse their power for personal gain.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
Prasterone, also known as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sold under the brand names Gynodian Depot (as an ester) and Intrarosa among others, is a medication as well as supplement which is used to correct DHEA deficiency due to adrenal insufficiency or old age, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, to treat painful sexual intercourse due to vaginal atrophy, and to prepare the cervix for childbirth among other uses.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Pregnenolone sulfate (PS, PREGS) is an endogenous excitatory neurosteroid that is synthesized from pregnenolone.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Prostanozol, also known as demethylstanozolol tetrahydropyran ether, is an androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and designer steroid which acts as a prodrug of the 17α-demethylated analogue of stanozolol (Winstrol).
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Quinbolone, sold under the brand names Anabolicum and Anabolvis, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which was previously marketed in Italy.
In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion, usually a clock or to a specific point.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recklessness (also called unchariness) is disregard for or indifference to the dangers of a situation or for the consequences of one's actions, as in deciding to act without stopping to think beforehand.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.
A reproductive system disease is any disease of the reproductive system.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
RU-2309, also known as 18-methylmetribolone, δ9,11-17α,18-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone, or 17α,18-dimethylestr-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one, is a 17α-alkylated androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group which was never marketed.
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Selective androgen receptor modulators or SARMs are a novel class of androgen receptor ligands.
The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
A sex-hormonal agent, also known as a sex-hormone receptor modulator, is a type of hormonal agent which specifically modulates the effects of sex hormones and of their biological targets, the sex hormone receptors.
Sexual function is how the body reacts in different stages of the sexual response cycle, or as a result of sexual dysfunction.
Short stature refers to a height of a human being which is below typical.
The shot put (pronounced) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object—the shot—as far as possible.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Silandrone (developmental code names SC-16148, NSC-95147), also known as testosterone 17β-trimethylsilyl ether or 17β-trimethylsilyltestosterone, as well as 17β-(trimethylsiloxy)androst-4-en-3-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ether – specifically, the 17β-trimethylsilyl ether of testosterone – which was developed by the G. D. Searle & Company in the 1960s but was never marketed.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene.
Stanozolol, sold under many brand names, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which was derived from dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid-induced rosacea is an iatrogenic condition (induced by the physician or patient) from the use of either systemic steroid or topical steroids.
The use of steroids by Bollywood actors has become highlighted in a number of newspaper and web articles where actors and models with previously very thin physiques have in a short period of time developed muscular bodies.
Steroidogenic enzymes, or steroid-metabolizing enzymes, are enzymes that are involved in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
A strain (also known colloquially as a pulled muscle or torn muscle) is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both (contractile components).
Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Tendon rupture is a condition in which a tendon separates in whole or in part from tissue to which it is attached, or is itself torn or otherwise divided in whole or in part.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Testosterone cypionate, sold under the brand name Depo-Testosterone among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Testosterone enanthate, sold under the brand name Delatestryl among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Testosterone propionate, sold under the brand name Testoviron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Testosterone undecanoate, sold under the brand names Nebido, Aveed, and Andriol among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), known by the nickname The Clear, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed for medical use.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Tibolone, sold under the brand names Livial and Tibofem among others, is a medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and endometriosis.
Tiomesterone (INN, JAN) (brand names Emdabol, Embadol, Emdabolin, Protabol; former developmental code name StA 307), or thiomesterone (BAN), also known as 1α,7α-bis(acetylthio)-17α-methylandrost-4-en-17β-ol-3-one, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of testosterone.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
A trans man (sometimes trans-man or transman) is a man who was assigned female at birth (AFAB).
A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Transgender hormone therapy of the female-to-male (FTM) type, also known as masculinizing hormone therapy, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from feminine (or androgynous) to masculine.
The trapezius (or trapezoid) is a large paired surface muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae of the spine and laterally to the spine of the scapula.
Trenbolone is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone group which itself was never marketed.
Trenbolone acetate, sold under brand names such as Finajet and Finaplix among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in veterinary medicine, specifically to increase the profitability of livestock by promoting muscle growth in cattle.
Trenbolone enanthate, known by the nickname Trenabol, is a synthetic and injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of nandrolone which was never marketed.
Trestolone, also known as 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), is an experimental androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and progestogen medication which has been under development for potential use as a form of hormonal birth control for men and in androgen replacement therapy for low testosterone levels in men but has never been marketed for medical use.
Undecylic acid (systematically named undecanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3(CH2)9COOH.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Committee on Oversight and Government Reform is a United States House of Representatives committee that has existed in varying forms since 1816.
Uterine hypoplasia, also known as naive uterus or infantile uterus, is a reproductive disorder characterized by hypoplasia of the uterus.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
The vastus lateralis, also called the vastus externus is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24, 1945) is an American professional wrestling promoter and executive, American football executive, businessman, film producer, actor and sporadic professional wrestler.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.
A voice change or voice mutation, sometimes referred to as a voice break, commonly refers to the deepening of the voice of people as they reach puberty.
In medicine, wasting, also known as wasting syndrome, refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to "waste" away.
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc., d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company that primarily is known for professional wrestling.
The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), developed by Vincent E Ziegler and popularized by Robert Young, is an eleven-item multiple choice diagnostic questionnaire which psychiatrists use to measure the severity of manic episodes in children and young adults.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zinc transporter ZIP9 also known as Zrt- and Irt-like protein 9 (ZIP9) and solute carrier family 39 member 9 (SLC39A9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC39A9 gene.
1-Testosterone (abbreviated and nicknamed as 1-Testo, 1-T), also known as δ1-dihydrotestosterone (δ1-DHT), as well as dihydroboldenone, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never marketed.
11β-Methyl-19-nortestosterone (11β-MNT) is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) which was developed by the Contraceptive Development Branch (CDB) of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and has not been marketed at this time.
A 17α-alkylated anabolic steroid is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) that features an alkyl group, specifically a methyl or ethyl group, at the C17α position.
The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad (Korean), were an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea.
3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HSD) may refer to.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
4-Hydroxytestosterone (4-OHT), also known as 4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of testosterone that was never marketed.
5α-Dihydronandrolone (5α-DHN), or simply dihydronandrolone (DHN), also known as 5α-dihydro-19-nortestosterone or as 5α-estran-17β-ol-3-one, is a naturally occurring anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 5α-reduced derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5α-Reductase deficiency (5-ARD) is an autosomal recessive intersex condition caused by a mutation of the 5α reductase type II gene.
7α-Methyl-19-norandrostenedione (MENT dione), or 7α-methyl-19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione, also known as trestione, as well as 7α-methylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone).
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