283 relations: Aceclofenac, Acemetacin, Acetanilide, Acetone, Actinic keratosis, Adaptive enzyme, Adjective, Adjuvant, Alcoholism, Alfentanil, Alternative medicine, AM404, American Civil War, Amfenac, Aminophenazone, Amitriptyline, Ampiroxicam, Amtolmetin guacil, Anandamide, Anesthetic, Anileridine, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anodyne, Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Antiemetic, Antihistamine, Antipyretic, Arginine, Aspirin, Audioanalgesia, Azapropazone, Bendazac, Benorilate, Benzydamine, Bromfenac, Bufexamac, Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, Caffeine, Cancer pain, Cannabidiol, Cannabinoid, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Capsaicin, Carbamazepine, Carisoprodol, Cataract, Celecoxib, ..., Central nervous system, Cerebrum, Chloroform, Chronic pain, Clomipramine, Clonidine, Clonixin, Cocaine, Codeine, Congenital insensitivity to pain, Conjunctivitis, Constipation, Contact dermatitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cyclizine, Cyclobenzaprine, Cyclooxygenase, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Dentistry, Desmetramadol, Dexibuprofen, Dextroamphetamine, Dextromethorphan, Dextromoramide, Dextropropoxyphene, Dezocine, Dichloromethane, Diclofenac, Diflunisal, Dihydrocodeine, Dihydromorphine, Diisopropanolamine, Dipipanone, Dronabinol, Drug, Drug class, Duloxetine, Dysmenorrhea, Ephedrine, Epirizole, Episcleritis, Eptazocine, Ethanol, Ethenzamide, Ethylmorphine, Etodolac, Etofenamate, Etoricoxib, Felbinac, Fenbufen, Fenoprofen, Fentanyl, Fentiazac, Feprazone, Fever, Fibromyalgia, Floctafenine, Flufenamic acid, Flupirtine, Flurbiprofen, Funapide, Gabapentin, Gene expression, Glucocorticoid, Gout, Greek language, Heroin, Hiccup, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Hydroxyzine, Hyoscine, Hypertension, Ibuprofen, Indometacin, Inflammation, Intravenous therapy, Itch, Κ-opioid receptor, Μ-opioid receptor, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, Kebuzone, Ketamine, Ketobemidone, Ketoprofen, Ketorolac, Lactulose, Laxative, Levacetylmethadol, Levomethadone, Levorphanol, Lidocaine, Liquor, Lornoxicam, Loxoprofen, Lumiracoxib, Macrogol, Magnesium salicylate, Meclofenamic acid, Medication, Mefenamic acid, Meloxicam, Menorrhagia, Meptazinol, Methadone, Methamphetamine, Methanol, Methylphenidate, Mexiletine, Migraine, Milnacipran, Mofezolac, Morniflumate, Morphine, Mouth ulcer, Multiple sclerosis, Myocardial infarction, Myoclonus, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, Nabiximols, Nabumetone, Nalbuphine, Naproxen, Nausea, Nefopam, Nepafenac, Neuropathic pain, Niacin, Nicomorphine, Niflumic acid, Nimesulide, NMDA receptor antagonist, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Nortilidine, Opioid, Opioid receptor, Opioid rotation, Orphenadrine, Osteoarthritis, Otitis media, Over-the-counter drug, Oxaprozin, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Oxyphenbutazone, Pain, Pain in babies, Pain ladder, Pain management, Paracetamol, Paranasal sinuses, Parecoxib, Partial agonist, Patent ductus arteriosus, Patient-controlled analgesia, Pentazocine, Peripheral nervous system, Pethidine, Phenacetin, Phenazone, Phenyl salicylate, Phenylbutazone, Piketoprofen, Piritramide, Piroxicam, Placebo, Pranoprofen, Pregabalin, Proglumetacin, Promethazine, Propacetamol, Proquazone, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, Pseudoephedrine, PTGS1, Ralfinamide, Rectum, Remifentanil, Renal colic, Retigabine, Reye syndrome, Rheumatic fever, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rofecoxib, Salicylamide, Salicylic acid, Salsalate, Sense, Serotonin releasing agent, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Sodium channel, Sodium channel blocker, Sodium salicylate, Spasm, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Stroke, Sufentanil, Sulfonamide, Sulindac, Suxibuzone, Tapentadol, Tendinitis, Tenoxicam, Terephthalic acid, Tiaprofenic acid, Tilidine, Tolfenamic acid, Tolmetin, Topical medication, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Tramadol, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tripelennamine, Tris, Ufenamate, Vaginitis, Valdecoxib, Venlafaxine, Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, Vixotrigine, Vomiting, World Health Organization, Ziconotide. Expand index (233 more) » « Shrink index
Aceclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) analog of diclofenac.
Acemetacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lower back pain, and relieving post-operative pain.
Acetanilide is an odourless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-cancerous patch of thick, scaly, or crusty skin.
An adaptive enzyme or inducible enzyme is an enzyme that is expressed only under conditions in which it is clear of adaptive value, as opposed to a constitutive enzyme which is produced all the time.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adjuvant is a pharmacological or immunological agent that modifies the effect of other agents.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
AM404, also known as N-arachidonoylaminophenol, is an active metabolite of paracetamol (acetaminophen), responsible for all or part of its analgesic action and anticonvulsant effects.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Amfenac, also known as 2-amino-3-benzoylbenzeneacetic acid, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with acetic acid moiety.
Aminophenazone (or aminopyrine, amidopyrine, Piramidon) is a pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of agranulocytosis.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Ampiroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anileridine (trade name: Leritine) is a synthetic analgesic drug and is a member of the piperidine class of analgesic agents developed by Merck & Co.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.
An anodyne is a drug used to lessen pain through reducing the sensitivity of the brain or nervous system.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Audioanalgesia (also known as audio-analgesia) is the relief of pain using white noise or music without using pharmacological agents while doing painful medical procedures such as dental treatments.
Azapropazone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Bendazac (or bendazolic acid) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for joint and muscular pain.
Benorilate (INN), or benorylate, is an ester-linked codrug of aspirin with paracetamol.
Benzydamine (also known as Tantum Verde and branded in some countries as Difflam and Septabene), available as the hydrochloride salt, is a locally-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with local anaesthetic and analgesic properties for pain relief and anti-inflammatory treatment of inflammatory conditions of the mouth and throat.
Bromfenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) marketed in the US as an ophthalmic solution (current brand names Prolensa and Bromday,Drugs.com: for bromfenac sodium. prior formulation brand name Xibrom, which has since been discontinued) by ISTA Pharmaceuticals for short-term, local use.
Bufexamac is a drug used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, as well as rectally.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Butorphanol (BC 2627) is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist–antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Carisoprodol, marketed under the brand name Soma among others, is a prescription drug marketed since 1959.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Celecoxib, sold under the brand name Celebrex among others, is a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Clonixin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP), also known as congenital analgesia, is one or more rare conditions in which a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Cyclizine, sold under a number of brand names, is a medication used to treat and prevent nausea, vomiting and dizziness due to motion sickness or vertigo.
Cyclobenzaprine, sold under the brand name Flexeril among others, is a muscle relaxer medication used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P4502C8 (abbreviated CYP2C8), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Desmetramadol, also known as O-desmethyltramadol (O-DSMT), is an opioid analgesic and the main active metabolite of tramadol.
Dexibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextromoramide (Palfium, Palphium, Jetrium, Dimorlin) is a powerful opioid analgesic approximately three times more potent than morphine but shorter acting.
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
Dezocine (INN, USAN) (brand name Dalgan) is a marketed opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan group.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.
Diflunisal is a salicylic acid derivative with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.
Dihydromorphine (Paramorfan, Paramorphan) is a semi-synthetic opioid structurally related to and derived from morphine.
Diisopropanolamine is a chemical compound with the molecular formula used as an emulsifier, stabilizer, and chemical intermediate.
Dipipanone (Pipadone) is a strong opioid analgesic drug, used for very severe pain in cases where other analgesics are unsuitable, for instance where morphine is indicated but cannot be used due to the patient being allergic to morphine.
Dronabinol – trade names Marinol and Syndros – is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Epirizole (INN) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
Episcleritis is a benign, self-limiting inflammatory disease affecting part of the eye called the episclera.
Eptazocine (Sedapain) is an opioid analgesic which was introduced in Japan by Morishita in 1987.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethenzamide (2-ethoxybenzamide) is a common analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains.
Ethylmorphine (also known as codethyline, dionine, and ethyl morphine) is an opioid analgesic and antitussive.
Etodolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January 1991.
Etofenamate is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for the treatment of joint and muscular pain.
Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor from Merck & Co. Currently it is approved in more than 80 countries worldwide but not in the US, where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required additional safety and efficacy data for etoricoxib before it will issue approval.
Felbinac (INN, or biphenylylacetic acid) is a topical medicine, belonging to the family of medicines known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) of the arylacetic acid (not arylpropionic acid) class, which is used to treat muscle inflammation and arthritis.
Fenbufen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the propionic acid derivatives class.
Fenoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Fentiazac is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent used for joint and muscular pain.
Feprazone (or prenazone) is a drug used for joint and muscular pain.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
Floctafenine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Flufenamic acid is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives (or fenamate) class of NSAID drugs Like other members of the class, it is a COX inhibitor and prevents formation of prostaglandins.
Flupirtine is an aminopyridine that functions as a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic that was originally used as an analgesic for acute and chronic pain but in 2013 due to issues with liver toxicity, the European Medicines Agency restricted its use to acute pain, for no more than two weeks, and only for people who cannot use other painkillers.
Flurbiprofen is a member of the phenylalkanoic acid derivative family of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Funapide (INN) (former developmental code names TV-45070 and XEN402) is a novel analgesic under development by Xenon Pharmaceuticals in partnership with Teva Pharmaceutical Industries for the treatment of a variety of chronic pain conditions, including osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, postherpetic neuralgia, and erythromelalgia, as well as dental pain.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.
Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common form of arthritis in children and adolescents.
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
Kebuzone (or ketophenylbutazone) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Ketobemidone, sold under the brand name Ketogan among others, is a powerful opioid painkiller.
Ketoprofen, (RS)-2-(3-benzoylphenyl)-propionic acid (chemical formula C16H14O3) is one of the propionic acid class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects.
Ketorolac, sold under the brand name Toradol among others, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid derivatives, used as an analgesic.
Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Levacetylmethadol (INN), levomethadyl acetate (USAN), OrLAAM (trade name) or levo-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) is a synthetic opioid similar in structure to methadone.
Levomethadone (INN; L-Polamidon, L-Polamivet, Levadone, Levothyl), or levamethadone, is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive which is marketed in Europe and is used for pain management and in opioid maintenance therapy.
Levorphanol (INN; brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Lornoxicam (INN, or chlortenoxicam; trade name Xefo, among others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the oxicam class with analgesic (pain relieving), anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (fever reducing) properties.
Loxoprofen (INN) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the propionic acid derivatives group, which also includes ibuprofen and naproxen among others.
Lumiracoxib (rINN) is a carboxylic acid COX-2 selective inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, manufactured by Novartis and still sold in few countries, including Mexico, Ecuador and the Dominican Republic, under the trade name Prexige (sometimes misquoted as "Prestige" by the media).
Macrogol is the international nonproprietary name for polyethylene glycol (PEG) used in medicine.
Magnesium salicylate is a common analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate muscular pain.
Meclofenamic acid (meclofenamate sodium, brand Meclomen) is a drug used for joint, muscular pain, arthritis and dysmenorrhea.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mefenamic acid is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives (or fenamate) class of NSAID drugs, and is used to treat mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain, and is sometimes used to prevent migraines associated with menstruation.
Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and anti-pyretic effects.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
Meptazinol (trade name Meptid) is an opioid analgesic developed by Wyeth in the 1970s.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Mexiletine (INN) (sold under the trade name Mexitil) is a non-selective voltage-gated sodium channel blocker which belongs to the Class IB anti-arrhythmic group of medicines.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.
Mofezolac (INN) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Morniflumate is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
A mouth ulcer is an ulcer that occurs on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
Nabiximols (USAN, trade name Sativex) is a specific extract of Cannabis that was approved as a botanical drug in the United Kingdom in 2010 as a mouth spray to alleviate neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder, and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis; it was developed by the UK company GW Pharmaceuticals.
Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Nalbuphine, sold under the brand names Nubain and Nalpain among others, is a opioid analgesic which is used in the treatment of pain.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nefopam, sold under the brand names Acupan among others, is a painkilling medication.
Nepafenac (brand name Nevanac or Ilevro) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), usually sold as a prescription eye drop 0.1% solution (Nevanac) or 0.3% solution (Ilevro).
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicomorphine (Vilan, Subellan, Gevilan, MorZet) is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine.
Niflumic acid is a drug used for joint and muscular pain.
Nimesulide is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with pain medication and fever reducing properties.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
Nortilidine is the major active metabolite of tilidine.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Opioid rotation or opioid switching is the process of changing one opioid to another to improve pain control or reduce unwanted side effects.
Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxaprozin, also known as Oxaprozinum, (sold under the names: Daypro, Dayrun, Duraprox) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.
Oxyphenbutazone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain in babies, and whether babies feel pain, has been a large subject of debate within the medical profession for centuries.
"Pain ladder", or analgesic ladder, was created by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a guideline for the use of drugs in the management of pain.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.
Parecoxib is a water-soluble and injectable prodrug of valdecoxib.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition wherein the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth.
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is any method of allowing a person in pain to administer their own pain relief.
Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Phenacetin (or acetophenetidin) is a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, which was widely used between its introduction in 1887 and the 1983 ban imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Phenazone (INN and BAN; also known as phenazon, antipyrine (USAN), or analgesine) is an analgesic, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and an antipyretic.
Phenyl salicylate, or salol, is a chemical substance, introduced in 1886 by Marceli Nencki of Basel.
Phenylbutazone, often referred to as "bute," is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the short-term treatment of pain and fever in animals.
Piketoprofen (INN; trade names Calmatel, Picalm) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for topical use in form of a cream.
Piritramide (R-3365, trade names Dipidolor, Piridolan, Pirium and others) is a synthetic opioid analgesic (narcotic painkiller) that is marketed in certain European countries including: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany and the Netherlands.
Piroxicam (INN, BAN, USAN, AAN; in some countries it is spelled piroksikam or piroxikam) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the oxicam class used to relieve the symptoms of painful, inflammatory conditions like arthritis.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Pranoprofen (INN) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in ophthalmology.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Proglumetacin (usually as the maleate salt, trade names Afloxan, Protaxon and Proxil) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Propacetamol is a prodrug form of paracetamol which is formed from esterification of paracetamol, and the carboxylic acid diethylglycine.
Proquazone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (The HUGO official symbol is PTGS2; HGNC ID, HGNC:9605), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS2 gene.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase 1, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 or prostaglandin H2 synthase 1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS1 gene.
Ralfinamide (INN) (code names NW-1029, FCE-26742A, PNU-0154339E) is a multimodal drug which is under investigation by Newron Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of neuropathic pain and other pain conditions such as post-operative dental pain.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Remifentanil is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
Renal colic is a type of abdominal pain commonly caused by kidney stones.
Retigabine or ezogabine is an anticonvulsant used as an adjunctive treatment for partial epilepsies in treatment-experienced adult patients.
Reye syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has now been withdrawn over safety concerns.
Salicylamide (o-hydroxybenzamide or amide of salicyl) is a non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Salsalate is a medication that belongs to the salicylate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) classes.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair the conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.
Sodium salicylate is a sodium salt of salicylic acid.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sufentanil (R30730, brand name Sufenta) is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug approximately 5 to 10 times more potent than its parent drug, fentanyl, and 500 times as potent as morphine.
In chemistry, the sulfonamide functional group (also spelled sulphonamide) is -S(.
Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the arylalkanoic acid class that is marketed in the UK & U.S. by Merck as Clinoril.
Suxibuzone is a analgesic used for joint and muscular pain.
Tapentadol (brand names: Nucynta, Palexia and Tapal) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic of the benzenoid class with a dual mode of action as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI).
Tendinitis (also tendonitis), meaning inflammation of a tendon, is a type of tendinopathy often confused with the more common tendinosis, which has similar symptoms but requires different treatment.
Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
Tiaprofenic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the arylpropionic acid (profen) class, used to treat pain, especially arthritic pain.
Tilidine, or tilidate (brand names: Tilidin, Valoron and Valtran) is a synthetic opioid painkiller, used mainly in Germany, Switzerland, South Africa and Belgium for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic.
Tolfenamic acid (Clotam) is a member of the anthranilic acid derivatives (or fenamate) class of NSAID drugs discovered by scientists at Medica Pharmaceutical Company in Finland. Like other members of the class, it is a COX inhibitor and prevents formation of prostaglandins. It is used in the UK as a treatment for migraine. It is generally not available in the US.NIH LiverTox Database Last updated June 23, 2015. Page accessed July 3, 2015. Quote: "(fenamates generally not available in the United States, such as tolfenamic acid and flufenamic acid)" It is available in some Asian, Latin American and European countries as a generic drug for humans and for animals.
Tolmetin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the heterocyclic acetic acid derivative class.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Tripelennamine, sold under the brand name Pyribenzamine by Novartis, is a drug that is used as an antipruritic and first-generation antihistamine.
Tris, or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or known during medical use as tromethamine or THAM, is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2)3CNH2.
Ufenamate (INN) is a topical analgesic.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina.
Valdecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) or spring catarrh is a recurrent, bilateral, and self-limiting inflammation of conjunctiva, having a periodic seasonal incidence.
Vixotrigine, formerly known as raxatrigine, is an analgesic which is under development by Convergence Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy (sciatica) and trigeminal neuralgia (TGN).
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Ziconotide (SNX-111; Prialt) is an atypical analgesic agent for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain.
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