131 relations: Adaptive predictive coding, Aliasing, Amplifier, Analog signal, Anti-aliasing filter, Audio bit depth, Audio codec, Bandwidth (signal processing), Beta encoder, Binary number, Bit, Bit numbering, Calibration, Candela, Capacitance, Capacitor, Colour banding, Compact disc, Compact Disc Digital Audio, Comparator, Computer hardware, Continuous function, Counter (digital), Delta-sigma modulation, Denys Wilkinson, Die (integrated circuit), Differential nonlinearity, Differential signaling, Digital audio workstation, Digital camera, Digital filter, Digital imaging, Digital signal (signal processing), Digital signal processing, Digital signal processor, Digital storage oscilloscope, Digital-to-analog converter, Digitization, Direct Stream Digital, Discrete time and continuous time, Dither, Dynamic range, Effective number of bits, Electric current, Electricity meter, Electronic component, Electronic filter, Electronic oscillator, Electronics, Feedback, ..., Flash ADC, Floor and ceiling functions, Frequency counter, Frequency mixer, Frequency modulation, Front and back ends, Full scale, Glitch, Gray code, Hardware architecture, Hertz, Heterodyne, Integral linearity, Integral nonlinearity, Integrated circuit, Integrating ADC, Interpolation, Jitter, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Line level, Linearity, Logic gate, Memory-mapped I/O, Microcontroller, Microphone, Microprocessor, Modem, Multiplexer, Noise (signal processing), Noise shaping, Nyquist frequency, Nyquist rate, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Optical storage, Opto-isolator, Oversampling, PH, Phase detector, Phase noise, Photonics, Pixel, Preamplifier, Preprocessor, Pressure, Proportionality (mathematics), Pulse-code modulation, Pulse-frequency modulation, Quantization (signal processing), Radar, Roll-off, Rotary encoder, Sample and hold, Sampling (signal processing), Sawtooth wave, Sensor, Serial communication, Signal processing, Signal strength in telecommunications, Signal-to-noise ratio, Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio, Sliding scale fees, Software-defined radio, Sound recording and reproduction, Spurious-free dynamic range, Successive approximation ADC, Technology, Temperature, Time, Time stretch analog-to-digital converter, Total harmonic distortion, Transistor, TV tuner card, Two's complement, Undersampling, Video, Video camera, Video capture, Volt, Voltage, White noise, 16-bit. Expand index (81 more) »

## Adaptive predictive coding

Adaptive predictive coding (APC) is a narrowband analog-to-digital conversion that uses a one-level or multilevel sampling system in which the value of the signal at each sampling instant is predicted according to a linear function of the past values of the quantized signals.

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## Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

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## Amplifier

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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## Analog signal

An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.

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## Anti-aliasing filter

An anti-aliasing filter (AAF) is a filter used before a signal sampler to restrict the bandwidth of a signal to approximately or completely satisfy the sampling theorem over the band of interest.

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## Audio bit depth

In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample.

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## Audio codec

An audio codec is a codec (a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream) that encodes or decodes audio.

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## Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

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## Beta encoder

A beta encoder is an analog-to-digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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## Bit numbering

In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.

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## Calibration

Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

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## Candela

The candela (or; symbol: cd) is the base unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI); that is, luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction.

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## Capacitance

Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

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## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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## Colour banding

Colour banding, or Color banding (American English) is a problem of inaccurate colour presentation in computer graphics.

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## Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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## Compact Disc Digital Audio

Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA or CD-DA) is the standard format for audio compact discs.

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## Comparator

In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital signal indicating which is larger.

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## Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

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## Counter (digital)

In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal.

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## Delta-sigma modulation

Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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## Denys Wilkinson

Sir Denys Haigh Wilkinson FRS (5 September 1922 – 22 April 2016) was a British nuclear physicist.

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## Die (integrated circuit)

A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.

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## Differential nonlinearity

Differential nonlinearity (acronym DNL) is a term describing the deviation between two analog values corresponding to adjacent input digital values.

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## Differential signaling

Differential signaling is a method for electrically transmitting information using two complementary signals.

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## Digital audio workstation

A digital audio workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or application software used for recording, editing and producing audio files.

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## Digital camera

A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.

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## Digital filter

In signal processing, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal.

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## Digital imaging

Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.

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## Digital signal (signal processing)

In the context of digital signal processing (DSP), a digital signal is a discrete-time signal for which not only the time but also the amplitude has discrete values; in other words, its samples take on only values from a discrete set (a countable set that can be mapped one-to-one to a subset of integers).

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## Digital signal processing

Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.

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## Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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## Digital storage oscilloscope

A digital storage oscilloscope (often abbreviated DSO) is an oscilloscope which stores and analyses the signal digitally rather than using analog techniques.

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## Digital-to-analog converter

In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.

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## Digitization

Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.

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## Direct Stream Digital

DSD Records (DSD) is a trademark used by Sony and Philips for their system of digitally recreating audible signals for the Super Audio CD (SACD).

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## Discrete time and continuous time

In mathematics and in particular mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which to model variables that evolve over time.

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## Dither

Dither is an intentionally applied form of noise used to randomize quantization error, preventing large-scale patterns such as color banding in images.

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## Dynamic range

Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.

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## Effective number of bits

Effective number of bits (ENOB) is a measure of the dynamic range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and its associated circuitry.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electricity meter

analog electricity meter. Electricity meter with transparent plastic case (Israel) North American domestic electronic electricity meter An electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device.

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## Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

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## Electronic filter

Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.

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## Electronic oscillator

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.

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## Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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## Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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## Flash ADC

A flash ADC (also known as a direct-conversion ADC) is a type of analog-to-digital converter that uses a linear voltage ladder with a comparator at each "rung" of the ladder to compare the input voltage to successive reference voltages.

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## Floor and ceiling functions

In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number x and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to x, denoted \operatorname(x).

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## Frequency counter

A frequency counter is an electronic instrument, or component of one, that is used for measuring frequency.

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## Frequency mixer

In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it.

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## Frequency modulation

In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.

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## Front and back ends

In software engineering, the terms front end and back end refer to the separation of concerns between the presentation layer (front end), and the data access layer (back end) of a piece of software, or the physical infrastructure or hardware.

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## Full scale

In electronics and signal processing, full scale or full code represents the maximum amplitude a system can present.

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## Glitch

A glitch is a short-lived fault in a system, such as a transient fault that corrects itself, making it difficult to troubleshoot.

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## Gray code

The reflected binary code (RBC), also known just as reflected binary (RB) or Gray code after Frank Gray, is an ordering of the binary numeral system such that two successive values differ in only one bit (binary digit).

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## Hardware architecture

In engineering, hardware architecture refers to the identification of a system's physical components and their interrelationships.

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## Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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## Heterodyne

Heterodyning is a signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden that creates new frequencies by combining or mixing two frequencies.

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## Integral linearity

A measurement system consists of a sensor, to input the physical parameter that is of interest, and an output to a medium that is suitable for reading by the system that needs to know the value of the parameter.

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## Integral nonlinearity

Integral nonlinearity (acronym INL) is a commonly used measure of performance in digital-to-analog (DAC) and analog-to-digital (ADC) converters.

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## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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## Integrating ADC

An integrating ADC is a type of analog-to-digital converter that converts an unknown input voltage into a digital representation through the use of an integrator.

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## Interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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## Jitter

In electronics and telecommunications, jitter is the deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal.

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## Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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## Line level

Line level is the specified strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound between audio components such as CD and DVD players, television sets, audio amplifiers, and mixing consoles.

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## Linearity

Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.

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## Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

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## Memory-mapped I/O

Memory-mapped I/O (MMIO) and port-mapped I/O (PMIO) (which is also called isolated I/O) are two complementary methods of performing input/output (I/O) between the central processing unit (CPU) and peripheral devices in a computer.

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## Microcontroller

A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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## Microphone

A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

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## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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## Modem

A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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## Multiplexer

In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.

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## Noise (signal processing)

In signal processing, noise is a general term for unwanted (and, in general, unknown) modifications that a signal may suffer during capture, storage, transmission, processing, or conversion.

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## Noise shaping

Noise shaping is a technique typically used in digital audio, image, and video processing, usually in combination with dithering, as part of the process of quantization or bit-depth reduction of a digital signal.

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## Nyquist frequency

The Nyquist frequency, named after electronic engineer Harry Nyquist, is half of the sampling rate of a discrete signal processing system.

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## Nyquist rate

In signal processing, the Nyquist rate, named after Harry Nyquist, is twice the bandwidth of a bandlimited function or a bandlimited channel.

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## Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem

In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").

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## Optical storage

Optical storage is the storage of data on an optically readable medium.

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## Opto-isolator

In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.

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## Oversampling

In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate.

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## PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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## Phase detector

A phase detector or phase comparator is a frequency mixer, analog multiplier or logic circuit that generates a voltage signal which represents the difference in phase between two signal inputs.

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## Phase noise

In signal processing, phase noise is the frequency domain representation of rapid, short-term, random fluctuations in the phase of a waveform, caused by time domain instabilities ("jitter").

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## Photonics

Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.

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## Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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## Preamplifier

A preamplifier (preamp or "pre") is an electronic amplifier that converts a weak electrical signal into an output signal strong enough to be noise-tolerant and strong enough for further processing, or for sending to a power amplifier and a loudspeaker.

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## Preprocessor

In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program.

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## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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## Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

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## Pulse-code modulation

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.

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## Pulse-frequency modulation

Pulse-Frequency Modulation (PFM) is a modulation method for representing an analog signal using only two levels (1 and 0).

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## Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.

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## Radar

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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## Roll-off

Roll-off is the steepness of a transmission function with frequency, particularly in electrical network analysis, and most especially in connection with filter circuits in the transition between a passband and a stopband.

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## Rotary encoder

A rotary encoder, also called a shaft encoder, is an electro-mechanical device that converts the angular position or motion of a shaft or axle to analog or digital output signals.

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## Sample and hold

In electronics, a sample and hold (S/H, also "follow-and-hold"Horowitz and Hill, p. 220.) circuit is an analog device that samples (captures, takes) the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal and holds (locks, freezes) its value at a constant level for a specified minimum period of time.

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## Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

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## Sawtooth wave

The sawtooth wave (or saw wave) is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform.

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## Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

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## Serial communication

In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.

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## Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

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## Signal strength in telecommunications

In telecommunications, particularly in radio frequency, signal strength (also referred to as field strength) refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna.

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## Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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## Signal-to-quantization-noise ratio

Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (SQNR or SNqR) is widely used quality measure in analysing digitizing schemes such as PCM (pulse code modulation) and multimedia codecs.

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## Sliding scale fees

Sliding scale fees are variable prices for products, services, or taxes based on a customer's ability to pay.

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## Software-defined radio

Software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components that have been traditionally implemented in hardware (e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators/demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by means of software on a personal computer or embedded system.

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## Sound recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

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## Spurious-free dynamic range

Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is the strength ratio of the fundamental signal to the strongest spurious signal in the output.

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## Successive approximation ADC

A successive approximation ADC is a type of analog-to-digital converter that converts a continuous analog waveform into a discrete digital representation via a binary search through all possible quantization levels before finally converging upon a digital output for each conversion.

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## Technology

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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## Time

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

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## Time stretch analog-to-digital converter

The time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TS-ADC), also known as the time stretch enhanced recorder (TiSER), is an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system that has the capability of digitizing very high bandwidth signals that cannot be captured by conventional electronic ADCs.

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## Total harmonic distortion

The total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.

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## Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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## TV tuner card

A TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer.

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## Two's complement

Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.

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## Undersampling

In signal processing, undersampling or bandpass sampling is a technique where one samples a bandpass-filtered signal at a sample rate below its Nyquist rate (twice the upper cutoff frequency), but is still able to reconstruct the signal.

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## Video

Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.

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## Video camera

A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.

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## Video capture

Video capture is the process of converting an analog video signal—such as that produced by a video camera, DVD player, or television tuner—to digital video and sending it to local storage or to external circuitry.

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## Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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## White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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## 16-bit

16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_converter