222 relations: A Defence of Common Sense, A History of Western Philosophy, A priori and a posteriori, A Theory of Justice, A. C. Grayling, A. J. Ayer, Adolf Hitler, Alasdair MacIntyre, Alfred North Whitehead, Alfred Tarski, Aloysius Martinich, Alvin Plantinga, Amy Gutmann, Analytical Marxism, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Andrea Dworkin, Animal rights, Antony Flew, Applied ethics, Aristotle, Ars Disputandi, Australia, Berlin Circle, Bertrand Russell, Bioethics, Brian Leiter, British idealism, Canada, Cardinal number, Catharine MacKinnon, Charles Stevenson, Charles Taylor (philosopher), Cognitive science, Communitarianism, Consciousness, Consequentialism, Consequentialist libertarianism, Continental philosophy, Copula (linguistics), Daniel Dennett, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, David Chalmers, David Lewis (philosopher), David M. Rosenthal (philosopher), David Malet Armstrong, Dean Zimmerman, Definite description, Deontological ethics, Dewi Zephaniah Phillips, ..., Direct and indirect realism, Doctrine of internal relations, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Edmund Gettier, Edmund Husserl, Emotivism, Environmental ethics, Epistemological anarchism, Erik Olin Wright, Essence, Evidence, Evolution, Existence of God, Existentialism, Expressivism, F. H. Bradley, Factual relativism, Falsifiability, Feminism, First-order logic, Formal grammar, Formal system, Foundationalism, Fred Dretske, Free market, From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs, Functionalism (philosophy of mind), G. E. M. Anscombe, G. E. Moore, Gerald Cohen, Gettier problem, Ghost in the machine, Gilbert Ryle, God, Gottlob Frege, Guy Sircello, Hans Reichenbach, Hans-Johann Glock, Hegelianism, Heterophenomenology, Internalism and externalism, Intuition, Isaiah Berlin, J. L. Austin, J. L. Mackie, J. O. Urmson, Jürgen Habermas, John Locke, John Rawls, John Roemer, John Searle, Jon Elster, Kai Nielsen (philosopher), Kantianism, Karl Marx, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence, Karl Popper, Liberalism, Libertarianism, Logic, Logical atomism, Logical behaviorism, Logical connective, Logical form, Logical holism, Logical positivism, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Marxism, Mathematical logic, Meta-ethics, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Michael Foster (philosopher), Michael J. Sandel, Michael Ruse, Michael Tye (philosopher), Michael Walzer, Mind (journal), Mind–body dualism, Miracle, Modal logic, Modern Moral Philosophy, Modularity of mind, Multiculturalism, Naming and Necessity, Natural science, Natural selection, Naturalism (philosophy), Naturalistic fallacy, Nazism, Nelson Goodman, Neo-Darwinism, Neo-Kantianism, New Zealand, Non-cognitivism, Norman Malcolm, Normative ethics, On Denoting, Ontology, Ordinary language philosophy, Paradigm shift, Paul Feyerabend, Pavel Tichý, Peter Winch, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philippa Foot, Philosophical analysis, Philosophical Investigations, Philosophy, Philosophy of biology, Philosophy of history, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of science, Philosophy of space and time, Postanalytic philosophy, Postmodernism, Pragmatism, Principia Mathematica, Problem of evil, Property (philosophy), Proposition, Psychological nativism, Psychologism, R. M. Hare, Rational choice theory, Reformed epistemology, Richard Swinburne, Robert Merrihew Adams, Robert Nozick, Rudolf Carnap, Rush Rhees, Saul Kripke, Søren Kierkegaard, Scandinavia, Scientific realism, Scientism, Scott Soames, Social constructivism, Socialism, Speech act, Statement (logic), Susanne Langer, Tautology (logic), Term logic, The Foundations of Arithmetic, The Principles of Mathematics, Theory of justification, Thomas Hill Green, Thomas Kuhn, Thomism, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Two Concepts of Liberty, Two Dogmas of Empiricism, Type physicalism, United Kingdom, United States, Universal prescriptivism, Utilitarianism, Value (ethics), Verificationism, Vienna Circle, Virtue epistemology, Virtue ethics, Western world, Wilfrid Sellars, Willard Van Orman Quine, William Alston, William Lycan, World War II. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
"A Defence of Common Sense" is a 1925 essay by philosopher G. E. Moore.
A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
A Theory of Justice is a work of political philosophy and ethics by John Rawls, in which the author attempts to solve the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society) by utilising a variant of the familiar device of the social contract.
Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
Aloysius Patrick Martinich (born June 28, 1946) is an American analytic philosopher.
Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.
Amy Gutmann (born November 19, 1949) is the eighth president of the University of Pennsylvania, an award-winning political theorist, the author of 16 books, and a university professor.
Analytical Marxism is an approach to Marxist theory that was prominent amongst English-speaking philosophers and social scientists during the 1980s.
The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.
Anarchy, State, and Utopia is a 1974 book by the American political philosopher Robert Nozick.
Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she argued was linked to rape and other forms of violence against women.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Antony Garrard Newton Flew (11 February 1923 – 8 April 2010) was an English philosopher.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Ars Disputandi (Latin: the art of debate) was an online peer-reviewed academic journal of the philosophy of religion that was established in 2001 and published by Utrecht University's Igitur Publishing.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Berlin Circle (die Berliner Gruppe) was a group that maintained logical empiricist views about philosophy.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
Brian Leiter (born 1963) is an American philosopher and legal scholar who is Karl N. Llewellyn Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Chicago Law School and founder and Director of Chicago's Center for Law, Philosophy & Human Values.
A species of absolute idealism, British idealism was a philosophical movement that was influential in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets.
Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born October 7, 1946) is an American scholar, lawyer, teacher, writer, and activist.
Charles Leslie Stevenson (June 27, 1908 – March 14, 1979) was an American analytic philosopher best known for his work in ethics and aesthetics. Stevenson was educated at Yale, receiving in 1930 a B.A. in English literature, at Cambridge where in 1933 he was awarded a B.A. in philosophy, and at Harvard, getting his Ph.D. there in 1935. He was a professor at Yale University from 1939 to 1946, but was denied tenure because of his defense of emotivism. He then taught at the University of Michigan from 1946 to 1977. He studied in England with Wittgenstein and G. E. Moore. Among his students was Joel Feinberg. He gave the most sophisticated defense of emotivism in the post-war period. In his papers "The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms" (1937) and "Persuasive Definitions" (1938), and his book Ethics and Language (1944), he developed a theory of emotive meaning; which he then used to provide a foundation for his theory of a persuasive definition. He furthermore advanced emotivism as a meta-ethical theory that sharply delineated between cognitive, scientific uses of language (used to state facts and to give reasons, and subject to the laws of science) and non-cognitive uses (used to state feelings and exercise influence).
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Consequentialist libertarianism (also known as libertarian consequentialism or consequentialist liberalism, in Europe) refers to the libertarian position that is supportive of a free market and strong private property rights only on the grounds that they bring about favorable consequences, such as prosperity or efficiency.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life is a 1995 book by Daniel Dennett, in which the author looks at some of the repercussions of Darwinian theory.
David John Chalmers (born 20 April 1966) is an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist specializing in the areas of philosophy of mind and philosophy of language.
David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.
David M. Rosenthal is a philosopher at the City University of New York (CUNY) who has made significant contributions to the philosophy of mind, particularly in the area of consciousness.
David Malet Armstrong (8 July 1926 – 13 May 2014), often D. M. Armstrong, was an Australian philosopher.
Dean W. Zimmerman is an American professor of philosophy at Rutgers University specializing in metaphysics and philosophy of religion.
A definite description is a denoting phrase in the form of "the X" where X is a noun-phrase or a singular common noun.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Dewi Zephaniah Phillips (24 November 1934 – 25 July 2006), known as D. Z. Phillips, Dewi Z, or simply DZ, was a leading proponent of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion.
The question of direct or naïve realism, as opposed to indirect or representational realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience;Lehar, Steve.
The doctrine of internal relations is the philosophical doctrine that all relations are internal to their bearers, in the sense that they are essential to them and the bearers would not be what they are without them.
Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.
Edmund L. Gettier III (born October 31, 1927) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Emotivism is a meta-ethical view that claims that ethical sentences do not express propositions but emotional attitudes.
Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.
Epistemological anarchism is an epistemological theory advanced by Austrian philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend which holds that there are no useful and exception-free methodological rules governing the progress of science or the growth of knowledge.
Erik Olin Wright (born 9 February 1947) is an American analytical Marxist sociologist, specializing in social stratification, and in egalitarian alternative futures to capitalism.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Expressivism in meta-ethics is a theory about the meaning of moral language.
Francis Herbert Bradley OM (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher.
Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.
Frederick Irwin "Fred" Dretske (December 9, 1932 – July 24, 2013) was an American philosopher noted for his contributions to epistemology and the philosophy of mind.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" is a slogan popularised by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.
Functionalism is a view in the theory of the mind.
Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001), usually cited as G. E. M.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
Gerald Allan "Jerry" Cohen, FBA (14 April 1941 – 5 August 2009) was a Marxist political philosopher who held the positions of Quain Professor of Jurisprudence, University College London and Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory, All Souls College, Oxford.
The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem concerning our understanding of knowledge.
The "ghost in the machine" is British philosopher Gilbert Ryle's description of René Descartes' mind-body dualism.
Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
Guy Sircello (1936–1992) was an American philosopher best known for his analytic approach to philosophical aesthetics.
Hans Reichenbach (September 26, 1891 – April 9, 1953) was a leading philosopher of science, educator, and proponent of logical empiricism.
Hans-Johann Glock (born February 12, 1960, Freudenstadt) is a German philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of Zurich.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Heterophenomenology ("phenomenology of another, not oneself") is a term coined by Daniel Dennett to describe an explicitly third-person, scientific approach to the study of consciousness and other mental phenomena.
Internalism and externalism are two opposing ways of explaining various subjects in several areas of philosophy.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
John Langshaw "J.
John Leslie Mackie (25 August 1917 – 12 December 1981) was an Australian philosopher, originally from Sydney.
James Opie Urmson (4 March 1915 – 29 January 2012), usually cited as J. O. Urmson, was a philosopher and classicist who spent most of his professional career at Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
John E. Roemer (born February 1, 1945 in Washington D.C.) is an American economist and political scientist.
John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.
Jon Elster (born 22 February 1940, Oslo) is a Norwegian social and political theorist who has authored works in the philosophy of social science and rational choice theory.
Kai Nielsen (born 1926) is professor emeritus of philosophy at the University of Calgary.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence is a 1978 book by Gerald Cohen, the culmination of his attempts to reformulate Karl Marx's doctrines of alienation, exploitation, and historical materialism.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy.
Logical behaviorism (also known as analytical behaviorism) is a theory of mind that mental concepts can be explained in terms of behavioral concepts.
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.
In philosophy and mathematics, a logical form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified semantic version of that expression in a formal system.
Logical holism is the belief that the world operates in such a way that no part can be known without the whole being known first.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Michael Beresford Foster (1903–1959) was a tutor in philosophy of Oxford University's Christ Church.
Michael J. Sandel (born March 5, 1953) is an American political philosopher.
Michael Ruse, (born 21 June 1940) is a philosopher of science who specializes in the philosophy of biology and works on the relationship between science and religion, the creation–evolution controversy, and the demarcation problem within science.
Michael Tye (born 1950) is a British philosopher who is currently Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin.
Michael Walzer (March 3, 1935) is a prominent American political theorist and public intellectual.
Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
"Modern Moral Philosophy" is an article on moral philosophy by G. E. M. Anscombe, originally published in the journal Philosophy, vol.
Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Naming and Necessity is a 1980 book with the transcript of three lectures, given by philosopher Saul Kripke, at Princeton University in 1970, in which he dealt with the debates of proper names in the philosophy of language.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
In philosophical ethics, the term "naturalistic fallacy" was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Henry Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906 – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, irrealism, and aesthetics.
Neo-Darwinism is the interpretation of Darwinian evolution through natural selection as it has variously been modified since it was first proposed.
Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions (i.e., statements) and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt).
Norman Malcolm (11 June 1911 – 4 August 1990) was an American philosopher.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
"On Denoting" is an essay by Bertrand Russell.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use.
A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.
Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958–1989).
Pavel Tichý (18 February 1936 Brno, Czechoslovakia – 26 October 1994 Dunedin, New Zealand) was a Czech logician, philosopher and mathematician.
Peter Guy Winch (14 January 1926, London – 27 April 1997, Champaign, Illinois) was a British philosopher known for his contributions to the philosophy of social science, Wittgenstein scholarship, ethics, and the philosophy of religion.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philippa Ruth Foot, FBA (née Bosanquet; 3 October 1920 3 October 2010) was a British philosopher.
Philosophical analysis (from Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues.
Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of biology is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are "native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.
Psychologism is a philosophical position, according to which psychology plays a central role in grounding or explaining some other, non-psychological type of fact or law.
Richard Mervyn Hare (21 March 1919 – 29 January 2002), usually cited as R. M. Hare, was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
In the philosophy of religion, Reformed epistemology is a school of philosophical thought concerning the nature of knowledge (epistemology) as it applies to religious beliefs.
Richard G. Swinburne (born 26 December 1934) is a British philosopher.
Robert Merrihew Adams (born September 8, 1937), known to intimates as "Bob", is an American analytic philosopher of metaphysics, religion and morality.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
Rush Rhees (19 March 1905 – 22 May 1989) was an American philosopher.
Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.
Scientism is the ideology of science.
Scott Soames (born August 11, 1946) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Southern California.
Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge according to which human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.
In logic, the term statement is variously understood to mean either: In the latter case, a statement is distinct from a sentence in that a sentence is only one formulation of a statement, whereas there may be many other formulations expressing the same statement.
Susanne Katherina Langer (née Knauth; December 20, 1895 – July 17, 1985) was an American philosopher, writer, and educator and was well known for her theories on the influences of art on the mind.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century.
The Foundations of Arithmetic (Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik) is a book by Gottlob Frege, published in 1884, which investigates the philosophical foundations of arithmetic.
The Principles of Mathematics (PoM) is a book written by Bertrand Russell in 1903.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Thomas Hill Green (7 April 1836 – 15 March 1882) was an English philosopher, political radical and temperance reformer, and a member of the British idealism movement.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.
"Two Concepts of Liberty" was the inaugural lecture delivered by the liberal philosopher Isaiah Berlin before the University of Oxford on 31 October 1958.
"Two Dogmas of Empiricism" is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951.
Type physicalism (also known as reductive materialism, type identity theory, mind–brain identity theory and identity theory of mind) is a physicalist theory, in the philosophy of mind.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Universal prescriptivism (often simply called prescriptivism) is the meta-ethical view which claims that, rather than expressing propositions, ethical sentences function similarly to imperatives which are universalizable—whoever makes a moral judgment is committed to the same judgment in any situation where the same relevant facts obtain.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).
The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.
Virtue epistemology is a contemporary philosophical approach to epistemology that stresses the importance of intellectual, and specifically epistemic virtues.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 – July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher and prominent developer of critical realism, who "revolutionized both the content and the method of philosophy in the United States".
Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.
William Payne Alston (November 29, 1921 – September 13, 2009) was an American philosopher.
William G. Lycan (born September 26, 1945) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was formerly the William Rand Kenan, Jr.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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