152 relations: Adana, Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire, Aegean Sea, Afshar Beylik, Afyonkarahisar, Ahis, Ahlat, Alaşehir, Alaiye, Alanya, Algeria, Amasya, Anatolia, Ankara, Antalya, Aq Qoyunlu, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Artuqids, Atabeg, Aydınids, Çanakkale, İlyas Bey Mosque, İsa Bey Mosque, İzmir, Babadag, Balat, Didim, Balıkesir, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Köse Dağ, Battle of Manzikert, Bergama, Bey, Beyşehir, Beylik of Çubukoğulları, Beylik of Dilmaç, Beylik of Dulkadir, Beylik of Erzincan, Beylik of Lâdik, Beylik of Teke, Beyliks of Canik, Birgi, Bitlis, Black Sea, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Seljuq wars, Cambridge University Press, Chobanids (beylik), Courtyard, Culture of the Ottoman Empire, ..., Danishmends, Denizli, Didymoteicho, Divriği, Diyarbakır, Dome, Eğirdir, Edirne, Eflani, Elâzığ, Elbistan, Empire of Trebizond, Eretnids, Ermenek, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eshrefids, Germiyanids, Ghazi (warrior), Hamidids, Hasankeyf, History of Turkey, House of Mengüjek, Hungarians, Ilkhanate, Inalids, Iran, Isfendiyarids, Islamic architecture, Istanbul, Kadi Burhan al-Din, Kahramanmaraş, Karaman, Karamanids, Karasids, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kütahya, Knights Templar, Konya, Korkuteli, Kozan, Adana, List of Turkic dynasties and countries, Madrasa, Mamluk, Manisa, Manisa Province, March (territorial entity), Mardin, Margrave, Mehmed I, Mehmed the Conqueror, Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Menteshe, Milas, Minaret, Mongols, Monument, Mullah, Murad II, Niğde Province, Oghuz Turks, Osman I, Osmanoğlu family, Ottoman architecture, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Pervâneoğlu, Petty kingdom, Pontus (region), Principality, Ramazanids, Republic, Republic of Genoa, Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Rumelia, Sahib Ataids, Saltukids, Samsun, Sarukhanids, Söğüt, Sea of Marmara, Selçuk, Selim I, Seljuks in Dobruja, Seljuq dynasty, Shah-Armens, Sinop, Turkey, Sivas, State University of New York, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultanate of Rum, Tarsus, Mersin, Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300), Timur, Trabzon, Tunisia, Turkestan, Turkic peoples, Tzachas, Umur of Aydın. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Afshar Beylik was a Turkish beylik (principality) in Eastern Anatolia in the early 16th century.(Afşar and Avşar are alternative names) It was founded by the Afshar tribe which was a Turkmen tribe with Kızılbaş faith.
Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.
The Ahi Brotherhood or Akhts (Turkish: Ahiler, plural of Ahi) was a fraternity and guild which for more than half a century was also a beylik in 14th century Turkey.
Ahlat (Խլաթ, Khlat; اخلاط; ხლათი, Khlati; Xelat; Χαλάτα, Chalata), is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region.
Alaşehir, in Antiquity and the Middle Ages known as Philadelphia (Φιλαδέλφεια, i.e., "the city of him who loves his brother") is a town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Alaiye (علائیه) is the medieval Seljuq name for Alanya (on the southern coast of Turkey).
Alanya, formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort city and a component district of Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey, in the country's Mediterranean Region, east of the city of Antalya.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.
The Artquids or Artuqid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Artuklu Beyliği or Artıklılar, sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural: Artukoğulları; Azeri Turkish: Artıqlı) was a Turkmen dynasty that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.
The Aydinids or Aydinid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Aydınoğulları, Aydınoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Aydin and Beylik of Aydin (Aydın Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks and famous for its seaborne raiding.
Çanakkale (pronounced) is a city and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point.
İlyas Bey Mosque is a historical Islamic religious building at Milet in Didim district of Aydın Province, western Turkey.
The İsabey Mosque (İsa Bey Camii), constructed in 1374–75, is one of the oldest and most impressive works of architectural art remaining from the Anatolian beyliks.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
Babadag (Babadağ, "Father Mountain"), formerly known as Babatag, is a town in Tulcea County, Romania, located on a small lake formed by the Taița river, in the densely wooded highlands of northern Dobruja.
Balat is a village in the District of Didim, Aydın Province, Turkey.
Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province.
The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.
The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Sultanate of Rum ruled by the Seljuq dynasty and the Mongol Empire on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in modern northeastern Turkey; the Mongols achieved a decisive victory.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
Bergama is a populous district, as well as the center city of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
Beyşehir is a large town and district of Konya Province in the Akdeniz region of Turkey.
Beylik of Çubukoğulları (Çubukoğulları Beyliği, literally "sons of Çubuk") was a small and short-lived principality in East Anatolia, Turkey between 1085 and 1112.
Beylik of Dilmaç (Dimleç or Demleç) was a small principality (beylik) in East Anatolia (part of modern Turkey) founded in the 11th century.
The Anatolian beylik of Dulkadir (Modern Turkish: Dulkadiroğulları Beyliği), was one of the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz, Turcoman clans Bayat, Afshar and Begdili after the decline of Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
Beylik of Erzincan was a principality (beylik) in East Anatolia, Turkey in the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries.
Lâdik or Inanjids (Modern Turkish: İnançoğulları Beyliği) was an Anatolian beylik with its capital in Denizli.
The Anatolian beylik of Teke (1321–1423), with its capital at Antalya, was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.
Beyliks of Canik (Canik beylikleri) is a name given to a group of small Turkmen principalities in northern Anatolia during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Birgi is a small town located in the Ödemiş district of İzmir province in Turkey.
Bitlis (Բաղեշ; Bidlîs; ܒܝܬ ܕܠܝܣ; بتليس; Βαλαλης Balales) is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Seljuq Wars (Bizans-Selçuklu Savaşları) were a series of decisive battles that shifted the balance of power in Asia Minor and Syria from the European Byzantine Empire to the Central Asian Seljuq Turks.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Chobanids (Turkish: Çobanoğulları or Çobanoğulları Beyliği) was an Anatolian beylik founded by the dynasty of the same name and controlled the region in and around the northern Central Anatolian city of Kastamonu in the 13th century, ruling as an independent entity in intervals.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples.
The Danishmend or Danishmendid dynasty (سلسله دانشمند, Danişmentliler) was a Turkish dynasty that ruled in north-central and eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Denizli is an industrial city in the southwestern part of Turkey and the eastern end of the alluvial valley formed by the river Büyük Menderes, where the plain reaches an elevation of about.
Didymóteicho (Διδυμότειχο) is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece.
Divriği, historically known as Tephrike (Τεφρική Tephrike, Տեւրիկ Tewrik) and formerly sometimes called Divrik, is a small town and a district of Sivas Province of Turkey.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Eğirdir is a town and district of Isparta Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Eflani is a town and district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Elazığ) is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative center of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1067 metres. Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.http://www.kultur.gov.tr/genel/medya/iltanitimbrosuru-eng/elazig_eng.pdf Elazığ initially developed in 1834 as an extension of the historic city of Harput, which was situated on a hill and difficult to access in winter.
Elbistan is a district in Kahramanmaraş Province in southern Turkey.
The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea.
Eretnids (Turkish plural; Eretnaoğulları) was an Anatolian beylik that succeeded the Ilkhanid governors in Anatolia and that ruled in a large region extending between Caesarea (Kayseri), Sebastea (Sivas) and Amaseia (Amasya) in Central Anatolia between 1328–1381.
Ermenek is a town and district of Karaman Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.
Erzincan (Երզնկա, Yerznka) is the capital of Erzincan Province in northeastern Turkey.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
The Eshrefids or Ashrafids (Modern Turkish: Eşrefoğulları or Eşrefoğulları Beyliği) was one of the Anatolian beyliks.
The Anatolian beylik of Germiyan with its capital in Kütahya was one of the prominent frontier principalities established by the Oghuz Turks after the decline of Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
Hamidids or Hamed Dynasty (Modern Turkish: Hamidoğulları or Hamidoğulları Beyliği) also known as the Beylik of Hamid, was one of the 14th century Anatolian beyliks that emerged as a consequence of the decline of the Sultanate of Rum and ruled in the regions around Eğirdir and Isparta in southwestern Anatolia.
Hasankeyf (Heskîf, حصن كيفا,, Κιφας, Cepha, ܟܐܦܐ) is an ancient town and district located along the Tigris River in the Batman Province in southeastern Turkey.
The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey).
The House of Mengüjek (Modern Turkish: Mengüçoğulları or Mengücek Beyliği or Mengüçlü Beyliği) was an Anatolian beylik of the first period, founded after the Battle of Manzikert.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Inalids (the sons of İnal or Yinal, İnaloğulları or Yinaloğulları) was the name of a small beylik (principality) which reigned in a small territory around Amid (modern Diyarbakır of Turkey) between 1098-1183.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Isfendiyarids or Isfendiyarid dynasty (Modern Turkish: İsfendiyaroğulları, İsfendiyaroğulları Beyliği), also known as the Beylik of Sinop, the Principality of Isfendiyar and Beylik of Isfendiyar (İsfendiyar Beyliği), its former name was Jandarids or Principality of Jandar (Candaroğulları, Candaroğulları Beyliği), was an Anatolian Turkoman beylik that ruled principally in the regions corresponding to present-day Kastamonu and Sinop provinces of Turkey, also covering parts of Zonguldak, Bartın, Karabük, Samsun, Bolu, Ankara and Çankırı provinces, between 1292–1461, in the Black Sea region of modern-day Turkey.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Kadi Ahmad Burhan al-Din (died 1398) was an Oghuz.
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province.
Karaman is a city in south central Turkey, located in Central Anatolia, north of the Taurus Mountains, about south of Konya.
The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province.
The Karasids or Karasid dynasty (Ottoman قرا صي; Modern Turkish Karesioğulları, Karesioğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karasi and Beylik of Karasi (Karasi Beyliği or Karesi Beyliği), was an Anatolian beylik in the area of classical Mysia (modern Balıkesir and Çanakkale provinces) from ca.
Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey.
Kayseri is a large and industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey.
Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Korkuteli is a district of Antalya Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, north-west of the city of Antalya.
Kozan (formerly Sis Սիս) is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, northeast of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.
Manisa Province (Manisa ili) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir to the west, Aydın to the south, Denizli to the south east, Uşak to the east, Kütahya to the north east, and Balıkesir to the north. The seat of the province is the city of Manisa. Its provincial capital is the city of Manisa, the traffic code is 45.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Margrave was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom.
Mehmed I (1379 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi (چلبی محمد, "the noble-born") or Kirişci (from Greek Kyritzes, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mehmet Fuat Köprülü (December 5, 1890 – June 28, 1966), also known as Köprülüzade Mehmed Fuad, was a highly influential Turkish Turcologist, scholar, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey.
Menteshe (Menteşe) was one of the Anatolian beyliks, the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz Turks after the decline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.
Milas (ancient Greek Mylasa Μύλασα) is an ancient city and the seat of the district of the same name in Muğla Province in southwestern Turkey.
Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
Niğde Province (Niğde ili) is a province in the southern part of Central Anatolia, Turkey. Population is 341,412 (2013 est) of which 141,360 live in the city of Niğde. The population was 348,081 in 2000 and 305,861 in 1990. It covers an area of 7,312 km². Neighbouring provinces are Kayseri, Adana, Mersin, Konya, Aksaray and Nevşehir. The province is surrounded on three sides by ranges of the Taurus Mountains, including Mount Hasan and the Melendiz mountains. To the west lies the plain of Emen, which opens up into the wide plain of Konya. The plain is covered with nutritious volcanic soil and Niğde is a successful agricultural region, particularly apples and potatoes. Surrounded by mountains and at a fairly high altitude the area has a dry and chilly climate and is exposed to snows brought by cold north winds in winter. Average rainfall 0.9 mm, 78.5 mm in April, practically zero in July and August. Therefore, the hillsides are more or less bare of vegetation, with some forest at the higher altitudes. (see Niğde for more information about the provincial capital city).
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
The Osmanoğlu family refers to the current members of the historical House of Osman (the Ottoman dynasty), which was the namesake and sole ruling house of the Ottoman Empire from 1299 until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Pervâneoğlu (in Turkish plural Pervâneoğulları - the sons of Pervâne) was an Anatolian beylik centered in Sinop on the Black Sea coast and controlling the immediately surrounding region in the second half of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th (1261–1326).
A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
The Ramadanids, also known as the Ramadanid dynasty, Emirate of Ramadan, Beylik of Adana, and Ramadanid principality (Modern Turkish: Ramazanoğulları, Ramazan and Ramazanoğulları Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Sahib Ataids (Modern Turkish: Sâhipataoğulları or Sâhipataoğulları Beyliği) was an Anatolian beylik centered in Kara Hisar-i Sâhib (Afyonkarahisar) and founded by one of the last viziers of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, Fakhr al-Din Ali, also known as Sâhib Ata.
The Saltukids or Saltuqids (Modern Turkish: Saltuklu Beyliği) were a dynasty ruling one of the Anatolian beyliks founded after the Battle of Manzikert (1071) and centered on Erzurum.
Samsun is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people.
The Sarukhanids or Sarukhanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Saruhanoğulları, Saruhanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Saruhan and Beylik of Saruhan (Saruhan Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks, centered in Manisa.
Söğüt is a town and district in Bilecik Province, Turkey.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district, İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of the ancient city of Ephesus.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Seljuks in Dobruja refers to Seljuk Turks settled at Dobruja, now in Bulgaria and Romania, in the 13th century.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The Shah-Armens, also called the Kings of Armenia or Rulers of Ahlat (Ahlatşahlar Beyliği), were the 11th- and 12th-century Turcoman rulers of an Anatolian beylik founded after the Battle of Manzikert (1071) and centred in Ahlat on the northwestern shore of the Lake Van.
Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.
Sivas (Latin and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή) is a city in central Turkey and the seat of Sivas Province.
The State University of New York (SUNY) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
The timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) is summarized below.
Below is the identified timeline of the History of the Turkic peoples between 6th and 14th centuries.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Tzachas (Τζαχᾶς), also known as Chaka Bey (Çaka Bey)The Turkish form of "Tzachas" does not appear in any historical documents.
Umur Ghazi, Ghazi Umur, or Umur The LionDonald MacGillivray Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453, Cambridge University Press, 1993,, (Modern Turkish: Aydınoğlu Umur Bey, c. 1309 - 1348), also known as Umur Pasha was the second Emir of Aydin, on the Aegean cost of Anatolia, from 1334 to 1348.
Anatolian Beyliks, Anatolian Turkish Beylik, Anatolian Turkish Beyliks, Anatolian Turkish beyliks, Anatolian Turmen Beyliks, Anatolian beylik, Anatolian emirates, Beyliks, Karasy, Oghullar, Oghullari, Oghullarï, Oğullar, Oğulları, Tevaif-i mueluk, Tevaif-i muluk, Tevâif-i mülûk, Turkmen beyliks.