156 relations: Abdominal external oblique muscle, Agglutination, Amoeba, Anatomical terminology, Anatomical terms of bone, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomical terms of motion, Anatomical terms of muscle, Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy, Anatomy, Animal, Animal locomotion, Anterior superior iliac spine, Apex beat, Appendage, Arachnid, Armadillo, Arthroplasty, Benjamin Cummings, Bilateria, Biology, Body plan, Bungarus, Carapace, Cardiac examination, Castration, Central nervous system, Cephalothorax, Cheek, Circular symmetry, Cnidaria, Concatenation, Contralateral brain, Coronal plane, Craniate, Ctenophora, Cytostome, Dog, Dolphin, Dorsal fin, Dorsal venous arch of the foot, Echinoderm, Embryo, Embryology, Epidermis, Euglena, Eye, Fibula, Fin, Fish, ..., Fish fin, Flagellum, Flatworm, Flounder, Gill, Greek language, Habit (biology), Hand, Hard palate, Head, Heart, Heliozoa, Hemiparesis, Homology (biology), Horse, Huntsman spider, Infratemporal space, Intercostal muscle, Invertebrate, Jellyfish, John Wiley & Sons, Jumping spider, Kangaroo, Larva, Latin, Limb (anatomy), List of anatomical lines, List of troglobites, Malleolus, Mandibular symphysis, Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Microscope slide, Mirror image, Morphology (biology), Navel, Neck, Neuraxis, Nose, Ocean sunfish, Old English, Orchiectomy, Organism, Orthograde posture, Osteology, Paleontology, Palmar aponeurosis, Paramecium, Paresis, Parietal bone, Paw, Pectoralis major, Pedipalp, Pelvis, Peripheral nervous system, Peritoneum, Perpendicular, Plankton, Protist, Radiata, Radiology, Radius (bone), Retroverted uterus, Rotation around a fixed axis, Sacrum, Sagittal plane, Sagittal suture, Sea cucumber, Sea urchin, Sessility (motility), Skin, Sole (foot), Spheroid, Spider, Spinal cord, Sponge, Standard anatomical position, Starfish, Status quo bias, Stentor, Stomach, Subcutaneous tissue, Substrate (biology), Supine position, Supraorbital ridge, Surface anatomy, Symmetry in biology, Tail, Taxon, Tendon, Tentacle, Testicle, Thorax, Tibia, Transverse plane, Ulna, Uterus, Valgus deformity, Varus deformity, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vertebrate zoology, Veterinary medicine, Wolf spider, X-ray, Zoology. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
The external oblique muscle (of the abdomen) (also external abdominal oblique muscle) is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.
Many anatomical terms descriptive of bone are defined in anatomical terminology, and are often derived from Greek and Latin.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.
Muscles are described using unique anatomical terminology according to their actions and structure.
This article describes anatomical terminology that is used to describe the central and peripheral nervous systems - including the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, and nerves.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
The anterior superior iliac spine (abbreviated: ASIS) is a bony projection of the iliac bone and an important landmark of surface anatomy.
The apex beat (lat. ictus cordis), also called the apical impulse, is the pulse felt at the point of maximum impulse (PMI), which is the point on the precordium farthest outwards (laterally) and downwards (inferiorly) from the sternum at which the cardiac impulse can be felt.
In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.
Arthroplasty (literally "forming of joint") is an orthopedic surgical procedure where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or realigned by osteotomy or some other procedure.
Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
Bungarus is a genus of venomous elapid snakes, the kraits ("krait" is pronounced, rhyming with "kite"), found in South and Southeast Asia.
A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.
In medicine, the cardiac examination, also precordial exam, is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with chest pain suggestive of a cardiovascular pathology.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cephalothorax, also called prosoma in some groups, is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.
Cheeks (buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear.
In geometry, circular symmetry is a type of continuous symmetry for a planar object that can be rotated by any arbitrary angle and map onto itself.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.
The contralateral organization of the forebrain (Latin: contra ‚against‘; latus ‚side‘, lateral ‚sided‘) is the property that the hemispheres of the cerebrum and the thalamus represent mainly the contralateral side of the body.
A coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) sections.
A craniate is a member of the Craniata (sometimes called the Craniota), a proposed clade of chordate animals with a skull of hard bone or cartilage.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
A cytostome (from cyto-, cell and stome-, mouth) or cell mouth is a part of a cell specialized for phagocytosis, usually in the form of a microtubule-supported funnel or groove.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), and the (extinct) ichthyosaur.
The dorsal venous arch of the foot is a superficial vein that connects the small saphenous vein and the great saphenous vein.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Euglena is a genus of single-celled flagellate eukaryotes.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology; the term refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structure, as follows.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heliozoa, commonly known as sun-animalcules, are microbial eukaryotes (protists) with stiff arms (axopodia) radiating from their spherical bodies, which are responsible for their common name.
Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half").
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Huntsman spiders, members of the family Sparassidae (formerly Heteropodidae), are known by this name because of their speed and mode of hunting.
The Infratemporal space (also termed the infra-temporal space or the infra-temporal portion of the deep temporal space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial spaces or tissue spaces).
Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jumping spiders are a group of spiders that constitute the family Salticidae.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
Anatomical "lines", theoretical lines drawn through structures, are also used to describe anatomical location.
A troglobite (or, formally, troglobiont) is an animal species, or population of a species, strictly bound to underground habitats, such as caves.
A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.
In the facial skeleton of the skull the external surface of the mandible is marked in the median line by a faint ridge, indicating the mandibular symphysis, or symphysis menti, or line of junction where the two lateral halves of the mandible fused at an early period of life.
The medial epicondyle of the humerus is an epicondyle of the humerus bone of the upper arm in humans.
A microscope slide is a thin flat piece of glass, typically 75 by 26 mm (3 by 1 inches) and about 1 mm thick, used to hold objects for examination under a microscope.
A mirror image (in a plane mirror) is a reflected duplication of an object that appears almost identical, but is reversed in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button, or tummy button) is a hollowed or sometimes raised area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
The neuraxis or sometimes neuroaxis is the axis of the central nervous system.
A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.
The ocean sunfish or common mola (Mola mola) is the heaviest known bony fish in the world.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Orthograde is a term derived from (Greek ὀρθός, orthos ("right", "true", "straight") + Latin gradi (to walk) that describes a manner of walking which is upright, with the independent motion of limbs. Both New and Old World monkeys are primarily arboreal, and they have a tendency to walk with their limbs swinging in parallel to one another. This differs from the manner of walking demonstrated by the apes. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans, when walking, walk upright, and their limbs swing in opposition to one another for balance (unlike monkeys, apes lack a tail to use for balance). Disadvantages related to upright walking do exist for primates, since their primary mode of locomotion is quadrupedalism. This upright locomotion is called "orthograde posture". Orthograde posture in humans was made possible through millions of years of evolution. In order to walk upright with maximum efficiency, the skull, spine, pelvis, lower limbs, and feet all underwent evolutionary changes.
Osteology is the scientific study of bones, practiced by osteologists.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
The palmar aponeurosis (palmar fascia) invests the muscles of the palm, and consists of central, lateral, and medial portions.
Paramecium (also Paramoecium) is a genus of unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group.
Paresis is a condition typified by a weakness of voluntary movement, or partial loss of voluntary movement or by impaired movement.
The parietal bones are two bones in the human skull which, when joined together at a fibrous joint, form the sides and roof of the cranium.
A paw is the soft foot-like part of a mammal, generally a quadruped, that has claws.
The pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body.
Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of chelicerates – a group of arthropods including spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans, and is no longer accepted.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
A retroverted uterus (tilted uterus, tipped uterus) is a uterus that is tilted posteriorly.
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
A sagittal plane or longitudinal plane is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.
The sagittal suture is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The sole is the underside of the foot.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, and because appendages (arms, legs, tentacles, etc.) can change position with respect to the main body, it is important that anatomical terms of location refer to the organism when it is in its standard anatomical position.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
Status quo bias is an emotional bias; a preference for the current state of affairs.
In Greek mythology, Stentor (Greek: Στέντωρ; gen.: Στέντορος) was a herald of the Greek forces during the Trojan War.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
The supine position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down.
The supraorbital ridge or brow ridge, known as superciliary arches in medicine, refers to a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates.
Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body of an animal.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a condition in which the bone segment distal to a joint is angled outward, that is, angled laterally, away from the body's midline.
In orthopedics, a varus deformity is an inward angulation (medial angulation, that is, towards the body's midline) of the distal segment of a bone or joint.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vertebrate zoology is the biological discipline that consists of the study of Vertebrate animals, i.e., animals with a backbone, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Wolf spiders are members of the family Lycosidae, from the Ancient Greek word "λύκος" meaning "wolf".
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
AP diameter, Aboral, Anatomic directions, Anatomic location terms, Anatomic position, Anatomic terms of location, Anatomical axes, Anatomical axis, Anatomical directions, Anatomical term of location, Anatomical terminology of location, Anatomical terms for location, Anatomy directions, Anterial, Anterior, Anterior (anatomy), Anterior and posterior, Anteriorly, Antero-posterior, Antero-posteriorly, Anteroposterior, Anteroposterior axis, Anteversion, Anteverted, Apical (anatomy), Basal (anatomy), Body axis, Caudal (anatomical term), Caudal end, Caudally, Contralateral, Coronal view, Cranial and Caudal, Cranial and caudal, Cranially, Craniocaudal, Craniocaudal axis, Distad, Distal, Distally, Dorsa, Dorsal (anatomy), Dorsal (location), Dorsal side, Dorsal surface, Dorsally, Dorso ventral, Dorso-lateral, Dorsolateral, Dorsoplantar, Dorsoventral, Dorsoventrally, Dorsum (anatomy), Dorsum (biology), Frontal (anatomy), Inferior (anatomy), Inferiorly, Ipsilateral, Ipsilaterally, Lateral (anatomy), Lateral and medial, Longitudinal plane, Medial (anatomy), Mid-inguinal point, Mid-pupillary line, Midpupillary line, Midventral line, Oblique plane, Palmar (anatomy), Papillary axis, Pars lateralis, Pars medialis, Planes of anatomical movement, Planes of motion, Plantar, Posterior (anatomy), Posteriorily, Posteriorly, Postero-anterior, Posteroanterior, Proximal, Proximal and distal, Radial deviation, Radioulnar, Retrolateral, Retroversion, Rostralward, Sagitally, Sagittal view, Sagittally, Short axis, Standard anatomical terms of location, Subcaudal, Subplantar, Superficial (anatomy), Superior (anatomy), Terms for anatomical location, Terms for zootomical location, Terms of anatomical location, Tuffier's line, Underparts, Upperparts, Ventral, Ventral side, Ventrolateral, Volar pads, Volar surface, Zootomical terms for location, Zootomical terms of location.