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Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. [1]

359 relations: Abdomen, Achromatic lens, Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy, Adipose tissue, Alessandro Achillini, Alexandria, Allegory, American Association of Anatomists, Amniote, Amphibian, Anatomical terminology, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomical terms of motion, Anatomy, Anatomy Act 1832, Anatomy murder, Ancient Greek, Andrea del Verrocchio, Andreas Vesalius, Angiography, Angular resolution, Animal, Annelid, Antenna (biology), Antonio Benivieni, Anus, Arachnid, Aristotle, Arm, Artery, Arthropod, Arthropod leg, Articular processes, Atrium (heart), Autonomic nervous system, Barber surgeon, Basal (phylogenetics), Basal lamina, Basement membrane, BBC Radio 4, Bile, Biochemistry, Biological neural network, Biology, Blastula, Blood vessel, Body plan, Body snatching, Bologna, Bone, ..., Brachiopod, Bronchus, Buccal pumping, Buccopharyngeal membrane, Cadaver, Caecilian, Calcium carbonate, Carapace, Cardiac muscle, Cartilage, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion molecule, Cell biology, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Cephalopod, Cephalothorax, Cetacea, Charles Darwin, Chelicerae, Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Chloroplast, Chondrichthyes, Chordate, Cilium, Class (biology), Clinician, Cloaca, Cnidaria, Cochlea, Coelacanth, Collagen, Columnar epithelial cell, Comparative anatomy, Connective tissue, Cretaceous, Crocodile, Crustacean, CT scan, Ctenophora, Cuticle, Cytoplasm, De humani corporis fabrica, Deciduous teeth, Diatom, Digestion, Diploblasty, Dissection, Dragonfly, Duchy of Brabant, Earthworm, Ebers Papyrus, Echidna, Echinoderm, Ectoderm, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Electron microscope, Embryogenesis, Embryology, Endoderm, Endoscopy, Endoskeleton, Endotherm, Epidermis, Epidermis (zoology), Epithelium, Erasistratus, Esophagus, Eukaryote, Eumetazoa, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Excretion, Exoskeleton, Extracellular matrix, Eye, Feather, Fetus, Fish fin, Fish scale, Flagellum, Fluoroscopy, Foot, Foundational Model of Anatomy, Frog, Galen, Gamete, Ganglion, Gas exchange, Germ layer, Gill, Gland, Glycoprotein, Gnathostomata, Gray's Anatomy, Gross anatomy, Hand, Harold Ellis (professor), Heart, Herophilos, Heterotroph, Hippocratic Corpus, Histology, Histopathology, History of anatomy, History of anatomy in the 19th century, Homology (biology), Human body, Human gastrointestinal tract, Human head, Human leg, Hypothalamus, Ignaz Semmelweis, In Our Time (radio series), Inner ear, Insect, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Intervertebral disc, Intestinal villus, Invertebrate, Islamic Golden Age, Jan van Calcar, Jellyfish, John Struthers (anatomist), Keratin, Keratinocyte, Kidney, Kingdom (biology), Lateral line, Leonardo da Vinci, Limb (anatomy), List of human anatomical features, List of human anatomical parts named after people, Liver, Lizard, Lobster, Lung, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Mammary gland, Marcello Malpighi, Marsupial, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Medical imaging, Medical manual, Medical 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Protozoa, Pseudopodia, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, Ptolemaic dynasty, Puerperal infections, Radiography, Radiolaria, Radiology, Regius Professor of Anatomy (Aberdeen), Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory tract, Royal College of Physicians, Salamander, Sea anemone, Sea cucumber, Segmentation (biology), Sensory neuron, Sessility (zoology), Sex organ, Silicon dioxide, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple eye in invertebrates, Skeletal muscle, Skeleton, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Snake, Somatic nervous system, Spawn (biology), Spider, Spinal cord, Spine (zoology), Spleen, Sponge, Squamous epithelial cell, Stomach, Striated muscle tissue, Sturgeon, Surface anatomy, Surgery, Sweat gland, Swim bladder, Synapomorphy, Tail, Tay Whale, Tetrapod, The Renaissance, Theodor Schwann, Thomas Jefferson University, Thoracic diaphragm, Thorax, Thorax (insect anatomy), Tissue (biology), Titian, Tooth enamel, Torso, Triassic, Triploblasty, Tuatara, Tubercle, Turtle, Turtle shell, Ultrastructure, University of Aberdeen, University of Padua, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary bladder, Uropygial gland, Uterus, Vein, Ventricle (heart), Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Veterinary surgery, Video camera, Visual perception, Vivipary, Vivisection, William S. Forbes, Wing, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, Yolk, Zygote. Expand index (309 more) »

The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration.

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Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy is a series of anatomy lessons on video presented by Robert Acland.

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In biology, adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Alessandro Achillini (Latin Alexander Achillinus; 29 October 1463 – 2 August 1512) was an Italian philosopher and physician.

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Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor.

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The American Association of Anatomists (AAA), based in Bethesda, MD, was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1888 for the "advancement of anatomical science." AAA is the professional home for an international community of biomedical researchers and educators focusing on anatomical form and function.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds and mammals that lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anatomical terminology is used by anatomists and zoologists, in scientific journals, textbooks, and by doctors and other health professionals.

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Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.

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Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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The Anatomy Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will. IV c.75) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave freer licence to doctors, teachers of anatomy and bona fide medical students to dissect donated bodies.

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An anatomy murder (sometimes called burking in British English) is a murder committed in order to use all or part of the cadaver for medical research or teaching.

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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was master of an important workshop in Florence.

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Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514–15 October 1564) was a Brabançon anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.

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Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

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Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 17,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Antennae (singular: antenna) in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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Antonio Benivieni (1443–1502) was a Florentine physician who pioneered the use of the autopsy, a postmortum dissection of a deceased patient's body used to understand the cause of death.

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The anus (which is from the Proto-Indo-European ano–, meaning "ring") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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In human anatomy, the arm is the upper limb of the body, comprising regions between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.

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The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.

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The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.

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The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek ζυγον.

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The atrium (plural: atria) is one of the two blood collection chambers of the heart.

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The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs.

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The barber surgeon was one of the most common medical practitioners of medieval Europe – generally charged with looking after soldiers during or after a battle.

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In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.

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The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the epithelium (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, etc), mesothelium (pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity, etc) and endothelium (blood vessels, lymph vessels, etc) from underlying connective tissue.

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BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.

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Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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In neuroscience, a biological neural network (sometimes called a neural pathway) is a series of interconnected neurons whose activation defines a recognizable linear pathway.

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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.

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The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body.

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A body plan (also written bodyplan), Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is "an assemblage of morphological features shared among many members of a phylum-level group".

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Body snatching is the secret disinterment of corpses from graveyards or other burial sites.

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Bologna (Emilian: Bulåggna pronounced; Bononia) is the largest city (and the capital) of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton.

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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are marine animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs.

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Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.

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The region where the crescentic masses of the ectoderm and endoderm come into direct contact with each other constitutes a thin membrane, the buccopharyngeal membrane (or oropharyngeal membrane), which forms a septum between the primitive mouth and pharynx.

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A cadaver, also called a corpse in medical literary and legal usage or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.

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Caecilians (New Latin, blind ones) are a group of limbless, serpentine amphibians.

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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates such as turtles and tortoises.

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Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium.

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Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue in animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.

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Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "contain") is a branch of biology that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division, death and cell function.

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In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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A cephalopod (pronounced) is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet").

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The cephalothorax is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.

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Cetacea is a widely distributed and diverse infraorder of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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The chelicerae, are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Chordates are animals possessing a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail for at least some period of their life cycles.

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A cilium (Latin for eyelash; the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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In biological classification, class (classis) is.

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A clinician is a health care practitioner that works as a primary care giver of a patient in a hospital, skilled nursing facility, clinic, or patient's home.

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In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the intestinal, reproductive, and urinary tracts of certain animal species, opening at the vent.

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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The cochlea (κοχλίας, kōhlias, meaning spiral or snail shell) is the auditory portion of the inner ear.

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The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.

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Columnar epithelia are epithelial cells whose height are at least four times their width.

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Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.

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Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four types of biological tissue that support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs in the body.

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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.

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A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) or computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual 'slices') of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

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A cuticle, or cuticula, is a term used for any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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The cytoplasm comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures.

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De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.

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Deciduous teeth, otherwise known as baby teeth, temporary teeth, milk teeth, and now more commonly primary teeth, are the first set of teeth in the growth development of humans and other diphyodont mammals.

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Diatoms are a major group of algae, and are among the most common types of phytoplankton.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.

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Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization, from Greek anatomia, from ana- "up" and temnein "to cut") is the process of disassembling and observing something to determine its internal structure and as an aid to discerning the functions and relationships of its components.

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A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, suborder Anisoptera (from Greek ανισος anisos "uneven" + πτερος pteros, "wings", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).

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The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to c. 1550 BC.

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Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the Phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an Ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatiseWilkins, Robert H. Neurosurgical Classics. USA: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Thieme, 1992.

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An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.

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Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

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Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early human embryo.

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Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body.

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An endoskeleton (From Greek ἔνδον, éndon.

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An endotherm (Greek: endon.

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The epidermis is composed of the outermost layers of cells in the skin,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005) Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders.

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In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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Epithelium (''epi-'' + ''thele'' + ''-ium'') is one of the four basic types of animal tissue.

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Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) is a clade comprising all major animal groups except sponges, placozoa, and several other obscure or extinct life forms, such as Dickinsonia.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth.

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Excretion is the process by which waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Eyes are the organs of vision.

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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and some non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

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In human development, a fetus (plural "fetuses"), also spelled foetus, is a prenatal human between its embryonic state and its birth.

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Fish fins are the most distinctive features of a fish, composed of bony spines protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion, as seen in most bony fish, or similar to a flipper, as seen in sharks.

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The skin of most fishes are covered with scales.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

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The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.

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The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy.

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Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek an-, without + oura, tail).

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; AD 129 – /), better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ganglia) is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system.

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Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface.

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A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance such as hormones for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.

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Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.

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Gray's Anatomy is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter.

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Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level.

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A hand (med./lat.: manus, pl. manūs) is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Harold Ellis CBE FRCS (born 13 January 1926 in London, England) is a retired Surgeon.

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The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος), sometimes Latinized Herophilus (335–280 or 255 BC), was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.

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A heterotroph (ἕτερος heteros.

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The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.

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Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", and -λογία ''-logia'' "science") is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

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Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

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The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.

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The history of anatomy in the 19th century saw anatomists largely finalise and systematise the descriptive human anatomy of the previous century.

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In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species.

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The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.

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The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body.

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The human leg is the entire lower extremity or limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region; however, the precise definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle (called "crus" in Latin or "sura" for the backpart).

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The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, "room, chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (born Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of German extraction now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.

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In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.

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The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.

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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.

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Insects exhibit a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.

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Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.

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An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.

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Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that protrude from the epithelial lining of the intestinal wall.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebrae (vertebral column), derived from the notochord.

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The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.

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Jan Steven van Calcar (Giovanni da Calcar, Joannes Stephanus Calcarensis) (c. 1499–1546) was a German-born Italian painter.

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Jellyfish or jelliesVan Patten, Peg.

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Sir John Struthers FRSE FRCSEd (–) was the first Regius Professor of Anatomy at the University of Aberdeen.

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Keratin is a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.

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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.

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In biology, kingdom (latin: regnum, pl. regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank below domain.

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The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, mainly fish, used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water.

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Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci, (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.

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The detailed list of human anatomical features.

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This is a list of human anatomical parts named after people.

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with approximately over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

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The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices.

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Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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A mammary gland is an organ in female mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.

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Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".

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Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals living primarily in Australasia and the Americas.

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

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Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention.

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A medical manual is literature (usually a book) describing diagnosis, treatment, management, and prognosis of various disorders.

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A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, (born 6 October 1939) is a British broadcaster, author and parliamentarian.

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In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.

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The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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A microtome (from the Greek mikros, meaning "small", and temnein, meaning "to cut") is a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections.

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Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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The Middle Ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.

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In biology, mineralization refers to a process where an organism produces an inorganic substance.

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Molecular anatomy is the investigation of the molecular changes of cells, tissues, and organs in a developing embryo.

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The molluscs or mollusksSpelled mollusks in the USA, see reasons given in Rosenberg's; for the spelling mollusc see the reasons given by compose the large phylum of invertebrate animals known as the Mollusca.

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Mondino de Luzzi, or de Liuzzi or de Lucci, (ca. 1270 – 1326), also known as Mundinus, was an Italian physician, anatomist, and professor of surgery who lived and worked in Bologna.

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Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs (Prototheria) instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria).

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In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process.

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A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a nerve cell (neuron) whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control muscles.

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Mucous glands, found in several different parts of the body, typically stain lighter than serous glands during standard histological preparation.

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Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.

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A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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The neck is the part of the body, on many terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk.

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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.

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Nervous tissue is the main component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryo's precursor to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord.

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A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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In its most general form, a nipple is a structure from which a fluid emanates.

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The notochord is a flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates.

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Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder.

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An octopus (or; plural: octopuses, octopi, or octopodes; see below) is a cephalopod mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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The operculum of a bony fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills.

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In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.

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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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Osteichthyes, also called bony fish, are a taxonomic group of fish that have bone, as opposed to cartilaginous, skeletons.

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.

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Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.

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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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The two palpal bulbs or palpal organs are the copulatory organs of a male spider.

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Palpation is the process of using one's hands to examine the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.

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Paramecium is a genus of unicellular ciliated protozoan, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group.

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A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.

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A parietal eye, also known as a third eye or pineal eye, is a part of the epithalamus present in some animal species.

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Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of the prosoma in arthropods of the subphylum Chelicerata, lateral to the chelicerae and anterior to the first pair of walking legs.

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Pelvic spurs are the externally visible portion of the vestigial remnants of legs found on each side of the vent in primitive snakes, such as boas and pythons.

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The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.

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Personal grooming (also called preening) is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.

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In the development of vertebrates, the pharyngeal arches (which develop into the branchial arches or gill arches in fish) are primordia for a multitude of structures.

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Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.

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Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.

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Physical therapy or physiotherapy (often abbreviated to PT) is a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialty that remediates impairments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and physical intervention (therapy using mechanical force and movements).

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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

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The pinacoderm is the outer most layer of cells (pinacocytes) surrounding the body of organisms belonging to the phylum Porifera (sponges), equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms.

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The placenta (also known as afterbirth) is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply, fight against internal infection and produce hormones to support pregnancy.

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Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.

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Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.

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The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) also known as the duck-billed platypus is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.

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The Polychaeta or polychaetes are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.

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A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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The pouch is a distinguishing feature of female marsupials (and rarely in the males as in the water opossum and the extinct thylacine); the name marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, meaning "pouch".

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Praxagoras (Πραξαγόρας ὁ Κῷος) was an influential figure of medicine in ancient Greece.

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Primitive in the sense most relevant to phylogenetics means resembling evolutionary ancestors of living things and in particular resembling them in the nature of their anatomy and behaviour.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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In some systems of biological classification, the Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

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Pseudopods or pseudopodia (singular: pseudopodium) (from the Greek word ψευδοπόδια, ψευδός "false" + πόδια "feet") are temporary projections of eukaryotic cell membranes or unicellular protists.

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A pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that, though comprising only a single layer of cells, has its cell nuclei positioned in a manner suggestive of stratified epithelia.

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The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.

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Puerperal infections, also known as postpartum infections, puerperal fever or childbed fever, is any bacterial infection of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.

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Radiography is an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation other than visible light, especially X-rays, to view the internal structure of a non-uniformly composed and opaque object (i.e. a non-transparent object of varying density and composition) such as the human body.

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The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of (diameter 0.1–0.2 mm) that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.

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Radiology is a medical specialty that uses imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body.

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The Regius Professor of Anatomy is a Regius Professorship at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

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Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy involved with the process of respiration.

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The Royal College of Physicians, sometimes referred to as the Royal College of Physicians of London to differentiate it from other similarly-named bodies, is a British professional body of doctors of general medicine and its subspecialties.

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Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.

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Sea anemones are a group of water-dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.

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Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.

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Segmentation in biology refers to the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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Sensory neurons are nerve cells that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system, ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.

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In zoology, sessility is a characteristic of some aquatic animals, such that they are not able to move about.

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A sex organ or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any anatomical part of the body involved in sexual reproduction and constituting the reproductive system in a complex organism, especially the external sex organs; the external sex organs are also commonly referred to as the genitalia or genitals.

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Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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Simple cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like) cells.

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A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system.

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The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletos "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates.

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Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears.

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The somatic nervous system (SoNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements.

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Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited, usually into water, by aquatic animals.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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In a zoological context, a spine is a hard, needle-like anatomical structure.

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The spleen (from Greek σπλήν—splḗn) is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer").

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In anatomy, squamous epithelium (''squama-'' + ''-ous'') is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells.

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The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestive system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in many animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs.

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Striated muscle tissue is muscle tissue that has repeating sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue.

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Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

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Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas (for example, a perforated ear drum).

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Sweat glands (also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands), are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.

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The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at its current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.

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In cladistics, a synapomorphy or synapomorphic character state is a trait that is shared ("symmorphy") by two or more taxa and inferred to have been present in their most recent common ancestor, whose own ancestor in turn is inferred not to possess the trait.

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The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.

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The Tay Whale, known locally as The Monster, was a humpback whale that swam into the Firth of Tay of eastern Scotland in 1883.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (Ancient Greek τετραπόδηs tetrapodēs, "four-footed"), or the tetrapods, comprises the first four-limbed vertebrates and their descendants, including the living and extinct amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds, and some extinct fish.

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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.

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Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States.

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In human anatomy, the thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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The thorax or chest (θώραξ (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"), thorax is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.

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The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.

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In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.

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Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

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Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.

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Trunk or torso is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from roughly 250 to 200 Mya (to million years ago), an interval of 51.04 million years.

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Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

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Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand and which, although resembling most lizards, are part of a distinct lineage, the order Rhynchocephalia.

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A tubercle is generally a wart-like projection, but it has slightly different meaning depending on which family of plants or animals it is used to refer to.

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Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all classified as "turtles" by zoologists), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.

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Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the nanostructure of a biological specimen, such as a cell, tissue, or organ, at scales smaller than can be viewed with light microscopy.

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The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.

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The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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The uropygial gland, informally known as the preen gland or the oil gland, is a bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals, including humans.

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In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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In the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate animal.

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The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is a bony skeletal structure found in vertebrates.

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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy), etc. are performed by Veterinary Surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery, some also perform additional procedures. The goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in pets and in farm animals. In the former, situation is a bit like in human beings, and more and more complex operations are performed, with sophisticated anaesthesia techniques. In the latter, the cost of the operation must not exceed the economic benefit in surgically treating the illness.

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A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.

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Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light.

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Vivipary has two different meanings.

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Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.

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William Smith Forbes (10 February 1831–17 December 1905)Staff report (December 18, 1905) Dr.

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A wing is a type of fin with a surface that produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid.

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X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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The yolk is a part of an egg (or just of the egg cell in non-egg-laying animals) that feeds the developing embryo in animals.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Anatomic, Anatomical, Anatomically, Anatomist, Anatomy and physiology, Animal anatomy, Female anatomy, Male anatomy, Vertebrate anatomy, Zootomy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy

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