357 relations: Abdomen, Achromatic lens, Adipose tissue, Alessandro Achillini, Alexandria, Allegory, Amniote, Amphibian, Anatomy, Anatomy Act 1832, Anatomy murder, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek, Andrea del Verrocchio, Andreas Vesalius, Angiography, Angular resolution, Animal, Annelid, Antenna (biology), Antonio Benivieni, Anus, Arachnid, Aristotle, Arm, Artery, Arthropod, Arthropod leg, Articular processes, Atrium (heart), Auscultation, Autonomic nervous system, Barber surgeon, Basal (phylogenetics), Basal lamina, Basal metabolic rate, Basement membrane, BBC Radio 4, Bile, Biochemistry, Biology, Biopsy, Blastula, Blood vessel, Body plan, Body snatching, Bologna, Bone, Brachiopod, Bronchus, ..., Buccal pumping, Buccopharyngeal membrane, Cadaver, Caecilian, Calcium carbonate, Carapace, Cardiac muscle, Cartilage, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion molecule, Cell biology, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Cephalopod, Cephalothorax, Cetacea, Charles Darwin, Chelicerae, Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Chloroplast, Chondrichthyes, Chordate, Cilium, Class (biology), Clinician, Cloaca, Cnidaria, Cochlea, Coelacanth, Collagen, Comparative anatomy, Compound eye, Connective tissue, Cretaceous, Crocodile, Crustacean, CT scan, Ctenophora, Cuticle, Cytoplasm, De humani corporis fabrica, Deciduous teeth, Diatom, Digestion, Diploblasty, Dissection, Dragonfly, Duchy of Brabant, Earthworm, Ebers Papyrus, Echidna, Echinoderm, Ectoderm, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Electron microscope, Embryogenesis, Embryology, Endoderm, Endoscopy, Endoskeleton, Endotherm, Epidermis, Epidermis (zoology), Epithelium, Erasistratus, Esophagus, Eukaryote, Eumetazoa, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Excretion, Exoskeleton, Extracellular matrix, Feather, Fetus, Fish fin, Fish scale, Flagellum, Fluoroscopy, Foot, Frog, Function (biology), Galen, Gamete, Ganglion, Gas exchange, Gastrointestinal tract, Germ layer, Gill, Gland, Glycoprotein, Gnathostomata, Gray's Anatomy, Gross anatomy, Hand, Harold Ellis (surgeon), Heart, Herophilos, Heterotroph, Hippocratic Corpus, Histology, Histopathology, History of anatomy, Homology (biology), Human body, Human head, Human leg, Hypothalamus, Ignaz Semmelweis, In Our Time (radio series), Inner ear, Insect, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Inspection, Interdisciplinarity, Intervertebral disc, Intestinal villus, Invertebrate, Islamic Golden Age, Jan van Calcar, Jellyfish, John Struthers (anatomist), Keratin, Keratinocyte, Kidney, Kingdom (biology), Lateral line, Leonardo da Vinci, Limb (anatomy), Liver, Lizard, Lobster, Lung, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Mammary gland, Marcello Malpighi, Marsupial, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Medical imaging, Medical literature, Medical school, Medical ultrasound, Medicine, Melvyn Bragg, Mesoderm, Microscope, Microscopic scale, Microscopy, Microtome, Microvillus, Middle ear, Mineralization (biology), Molecular anatomy, Mollusca, Mondino de Luzzi, Monotreme, Motility, Motor neuron, Mucous gland, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Muscle tissue, Myocyte, Myofibril, Neck, Nerve, Nerve net, Nervous tissue, Neural circuit, Neural tube, Neuron, Nipple, Notochord, Nursing, Occupational therapy, Octopus, Operculum (fish), Organ (anatomy), Organelle, Organism, Osteichthyes, Outline of human anatomy, Oviparity, Ovoviviparity, Palpal bulb, Palpation, Paramecium, Paramedic, Parietal eye, Pedipalp, Pelvic spur, Peripheral nervous system, Personal grooming, Phagocytosis, Pharyngeal arch, Philosophy, Phospholipid, Photoreceptor cell, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Physical therapy, Physiology, Pinacoderm, Placenta, Plant anatomy, Plant cell, Platypus, Podiatry, Polychaete, Polyp, Postpartum infections, Pouch (marsupial), Praxagoras, Primitive (phylogenetics), Protein, Protozoa, Pseudopodia, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy, Radiography, Radiolaria, Radiology, Regius Professor of Anatomy (Aberdeen), Renaissance, Reptile, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory tract, Royal College of Physicians, Salamander, Sea anemone, Sea cucumber, Segmentation (biology), Sensory neuron, Sessility (motility), Sex organ, Silicon dioxide, Simple cuboidal epithelium, Simple eye in invertebrates, Skeletal muscle, Skeleton, Skin, Smooth muscle tissue, Snake, Somatic nervous system, Spawn (biology), Spider, Spinal cord, Spine (zoology), Spleen, Sponge, Stomach, Striated muscle tissue, Sturgeon, Surface anatomy, Surgery, Sweat gland, Swim bladder, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Tail, Tay Whale, Tetrapod, Theodor Schwann, Thomas Jefferson University, Thoracic diaphragm, Thorax, Thorax (insect anatomy), Tissue (biology), Titian, Tooth enamel, Torso, Triassic, Triploblasty, Tuatara, Tubercle, Turtle, Turtle shell, Ultrastructure, University of Aberdeen, University of Padua, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary bladder, Uropygial gland, Uterus, Vein, Ventricle (heart), Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Veterinary surgery, Video camera, Visual perception, Viviparity, Vivisection, William S. Forbes, Wing, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, Yolk, Zygote. Expand index (307 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Alessandro Achillini (Latin Alexander Achillinus; 20 or 29 October 1463 (or possibly 1461)2 August 1512) was an Italian philosopher and physician.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The Anatomy Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will. IV c.75) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave freer licence to doctors, teachers of anatomy and bona fide medical students to dissect donated bodies.
An anatomy murder (sometimes called burking in British English) is a murder committed in order to use all or part of the cadaver for medical research or teaching.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
Antonio Benivieni (1443–1502) was a Florentine physician who pioneered the use of the autopsy, a postmortum dissection of a deceased patient's body used to understand the cause of death.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.
The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek ζυγον.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The barber surgeon, one of the most common European medical practitioners of the Middle Ages, was generally charged with caring for soldiers during and after battle.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
Body snatching is the secret removal of corpses from burial sites.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.
The region where the crescentic masses of the ectoderm and endoderm come into direct contact with each other constitutes a thin membrane, the buccopharyngeal membrane (or oropharyngeal membrane), which forms a septum between the primitive mouth and pharynx.
A cadaver, also referred to as a corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.
Caecilians (New Latin for "blind ones") are a group of limbless, serpentine amphibians.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
The cephalothorax, also called prosoma in some groups, is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The chelicerae are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
A clinician is a health care professional that works as a primary care giver of a patient in a hospital, skilled nursing facility, clinic, or patient's home.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) primarily found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis).
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.
Deciduous teeth, commonly known as baby teeth and temporary teeth,Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, and Anatomy, Bath-Balogh and Fehrenbach, Elsevier, 2011, page 255 are the first set of teeth in the growth development of humans and other diphyodont mammals.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
An endoskeleton (From Greek ἔνδον, éndon.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish.
The skin of most fishes is covered with scales, which, in many cases, are animal reflectors or produce animal coloration.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
In biology, function has been defined in many ways.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.
Gray's Anatomy is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
Harold Ellis CBE FRCS (born 13 January 1926 in London, England) is a retired Surgeon.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body.
The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.
Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.
Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Jan Steven van Calcar (Giovanni da Calcar, Ioannes Stephanus Calcarensis) (c. 1499–1546) was a German-born Italian painter.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Sir John Struthers (–) was the first Regius Professor of Anatomy at the University of Aberdeen.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, used to detect movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the surrounding water.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, (born 6 October 1939), is an English broadcaster, author and parliamentarian.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
A microtome (from the Greek mikros, meaning "small", and temnein, meaning "to cut") is a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections.
Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.
In biology, mineralization refers to a process where an inorganic substance precipitates in an organic matrix.
Molecular anatomy is the subspecialty of microscopic anatomy concerned with the identification and description of molecular structures of cells, tissues, and organs in an organism.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Mondino de Luzzi, or de Liuzzi or de Lucci, (ca. 1270 – 1326), also known as Mundinus, was an Italian physician, anatomist and professor of surgery, who lived and worked in Bologna.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
Mucous gland, also known as muciparous glands, are found in several different parts of the body, and they typically stain lighter than serous glands during standard histological preparation.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
The operculum is a series of bones found in bony fish that serves as a facial support structure and a protective covering for the gills; it is also used for respiration and feeding.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
The two palpal bulbs – also known as palpal organs and genital bulbs – are the copulatory organs of a male spider.
Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.
Paramecium (also Paramoecium) is a genus of unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group.
A paramedic is a healthcare professional who responds to medical emergencies outside of a hospital.
A parietal eye, also known as a third eye or pineal eye, is a part of the epithalamus present in some animal species.
Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of chelicerates – a group of arthropods including spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.
Pelvic spurs are the externally visible portion of the vestigial remnants of legs found on each side of the vent in primitive snakes, such as boas and pythons.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Personal grooming (also called preening) is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
The pharyngeal arches —also known as visceral arches—are structures seen in the embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The pinacoderm is the outer most layer of cells (pinacocytes) surrounding the body of organisms belonging to the phylum Porifera (sponges), equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.
Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
The pouch is a distinguishing feature of female marsupials (and rarely in the males as in the water opossumNogueira, José Carlos, et al. "" Journal of mammalogy 85.5 (2004): 834-841. and the extinct thylacine); the name marsupial is derived from the Latin marsupium, meaning "pouch".
Praxagoras (Πραξαγόρας ὁ Κῷος) was a figure of medicine in ancient Greece.
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) (from the Greek word ψευδοποδός, ψευδός "false" + ποδός "foot") is a temporary cytoplasm-filled projection of an eukaryotic cell membrane or a unicellular protist.
A pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that, though comprising only a single layer of cells, has its cell nuclei positioned in a manner suggestive of stratified epithelia.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
The Regius Professor of Anatomy is a Regius Professorship at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Simple cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like) cells.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
In a zoological context, spines are hard, needle-like anatomical structures found in both vertebrate and invertebrate species.The spines of most spiny mammals are modified hairs, with a spongy center covered in a thick, hard layer of keratin and a sharp, sometimes barbed tip.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
Surface anatomy (also called superficial anatomy and visual anatomy) is the study of the external features of the body of an animal.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
The swim bladder, gas bladder, fish maw or air bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that contributes to the ability of many bony fish (but not cartilaginous fish) to control their buoyancy, and thus to stay at their current water depth without having to waste energy in swimming.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.
The Tay Whale, known locally as The Monster, was a humpback whale that swam into the Firth of Tay of eastern Scotland in 1883.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
Thomas Jefferson University is a private university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.
In anatomy, a tubercle is any round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on external or internal organs of a plant or an animal.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all classified as "turtles" by zoologists), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.
Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The uropygial gland, informally known as the preen gland or the oil gland, is a bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) are performed by veterinary surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery, some also perform additional procedures. The goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in pets and in farm animals. In the former, the situation is more close to that with human beings, where the benefit to the patient is the important factor. In the latter, the economic benefit is more important.
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.
Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
William Smith Forbes (10 February 1831–17 December 1905)Staff report (December 18, 1905) Dr.
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.