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Ancient Corinth

Index Ancient Corinth

Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta. [1]

258 relations: Achaea (ancient region), Achaean League, Achaean War, Achaicus of Corinth, Acrocorinth, Acropolis, Actium, Acts of the Apostles, Adeimantus of Corinth, Adrian and Natalia of Nicomedia, Against Leptines, Agamemnon, Alaric I, Albania, Alcibiades, Alcmaeon in Corinth, Alexander of Corinth, Alexander the Great, Ambracia, American Journal of Archaeology, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek coinage, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Rome, Andravida, Antigonid dynasty, Antigonus II Gonatas, Aphrodite, Apollo, Apollonia (Illyria), Apostolic see, Aratus of Sicyon, Archias of Corinth, Archon, Argonauts, Argos, Arion, Aristocracy, Aristotle, Attica, Basilica, Battle of Artemisium, Battle of Corinth (146 BC), Battle of Plataea, Battle of Salamis, Battle of Thermopylae, Berea (Bible), Black-figure pottery, ..., Boeotia, Bronze Age, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine silk, Cape Matapan, Chalkidiki, Chares of Athens, Christianity, Christianization, City-state, Classical antiquity, Classical Athens, Classical Greece, Cognomen, Colonies in antiquity, Colony, Common Peace, Constantinople, Corfu, Corinth, Corinth Excavations, Corinthian bronze, Corinthian helmet, Corinthian order, Corinthian War, Craterus (historian), Cult (religious practice), Cult of personality, Cynicism (philosophy), Cyprus, Cypselus, Cyriacus the Anchorite, Delphi, Demetrius I of Macedon, Demosthenes, Desmon of Corinth, Despotate of the Morea, Development of the Christian biblical canon, Dinarchus, Diocles of Corinth, Diodorus Siculus, Diogenes, Diolkos, Divine right of kings, Dorians, Doric Greek, Doric order, Duchy of Athens, Durrës, Ecclesia (ancient Athens), Eetion, Elis, Ephesus, Epidamnos, Epistle to the Romans, Etiology, Euboea, Eumelus of Corinth, Euphranor, Fall of Constantinople, Fier, First Epistle to the Corinthians, Fortification, Fourth Crusade, French people, Gela, Geoffrey I of Villehardouin, Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Gold, Greco-Persian Wars, Greece, Greek War of Independence, Gulf of Corinth, Hecatoncheires, Hegemony, Helios, Helladic chronology, Hellas (theme), Hellenistic period, Herodotus, Hesperia (journal), Hetaira, Hexamilion wall, History of Athens, History of Sparta, History of the Jews in Greece, Hoplite, Iliad, Imperial cult of ancient Rome, Ionia, Ionic order, Iran, Isocrates, Isthmian Games, Isthmus of Corinth, Italian Renaissance, Italy, Ivory, Jason, Julius Caesar, Justinian I, Kechries, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of the Morea, Labda (mythology), Lais of Corinth, Latin, League of Corinth, Lechaio, Lefkada, Leo Sgouros, Levant, List of Byzantine emperors, London Conference of 1832, Long Walls, Lord, Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, Lucius Mummius Achaicus, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia (Roman province), Magna Graecia, Medea, Mediterranean Sea, Megara, Metropolis of Corinth, Morea Eyalet, Morean War, Mosque, Mycenae, Mycenaean Greece, Nafplio, Naucratis, Neolithic, New Testament, Normans, Oceanid, Oceanus, Olympia, Greece, Oracle, Ottoman Empire, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Paul the Apostle, Pauline epistles, Pausanias (geographer), Pelasgians, Peloponnese, Peloponnese (theme), Peloponnesian League, Peloponnesian War, Periander, Perseus, Philip II of Macedon, Philopoemen, Pirene (fountain), Polemarch, Polis, Poseidon, Potidaea, Principality of Achaea, Priscilla and Aquila, Proconsul, Prytaneis, Psamtik I, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Pylos, Quadratus (martyr), Republic of Venice, Rex Sacrorum, Roger II of Sicily, Rumelia Eyalet, Saint Timothy, Sanjak, Saronic Gulf, Second Epistle to the Corinthians, Seneca the Younger, Seven Sages of Greece, Sicilian Expedition, Sicily, Silas, Sisyphus, Sparta, Strategos, Synagogue, Syracuse, Sicily, Temple, Temple of Isthmia, Tentmaking, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, The Queen of Corinth, Thebes, Greece, Theme (Byzantine district), Theodore II Palaiologos, Third Epistle to the Corinthians, Thucydides, Timoleon, Tiryns, Titan (mythology), Trireme, Trojan War, Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, Tyrant, William of Champlitte, William of Moerbeke, Xeniades, Xenophon, Xenophon of Corinth, Zeus. Expand index (208 more) »

Achaea (ancient region)

Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα) was (and is) the northernmost region of the Peloponnese, occupying the coastal strip north of Arcadia.

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Achaean League

The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion - "League of Achaeans") was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.

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Achaean War

The Achaean War was an uprising by the Greek Achaean League, an alliance of Achaean and other Peloponnesian states in ancient Greece, against the Roman Republic around 146 BC, just after the Fourth Macedonian War.

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Achaicus of Corinth

Achaicus (Achaikos, "belonging to Achaia") was a Corinthian Christian who according to the Bible, together with Fortunatus and Stephanas, carried a letter from the Corinthians to St. Paul, and from St.

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Acrocorinth (Ακροκόρινθος), "Upper Corinth", the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock overseeing the ancient city of Corinth, Greece.

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An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.

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Actium (Greek: Ἄκτιον) was the name of an ancient town on a promontory of western Greece in northwestern Acarnania, at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf). Actium is chiefly famous as the name given to the nearby naval Battle of Actium, in which Octavian won a decisive victory over Mark Antony on September 2, 31 BC. Actium was situated on the southern side of the strait opposite the later city of Nicopolis built by Octavian. Since 2002 the peninsular of Actium has been linked with Preveza on the north shore of the Ambracian Gulf by the Aktio-Preveza Undersea Tunnel.

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Acts of the Apostles

Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

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Adeimantus of Corinth

Adeimantus of Corinth (Ἀδείμαντος), son of Ocytus, was the Corinthian commander during the invasion of Greece by Xerxes.

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Adrian and Natalia of Nicomedia

Saint Adrian (also known as Hadrian) or Adrian of Nicomedia (died 4 March 306) was a Herculian Guard of the Roman Emperor Galerius Maximian.

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Against Leptines

Against Leptines was a speech given by Demosthenes in which he called for the repeal of a law sponsored by Leptines which denied anyone a special exemption from paying public charges (leitourgiai).

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In Greek mythology, Agamemnon (Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀgamémnōn) was the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike (Λαοδίκη), Orestes and Chrysothemis.

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Alaric I

Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.

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Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae (Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnídēs; c. 450–404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general.

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Alcmaeon in Corinth

Alcmaeon in Corinth (Ἀλκμαίων ὁ διὰ Κορίνθου, Alkmaiōn ho dia Korinthou; also known as Alcmaeon at Corinth, Alcmaeon) is a play by Greek dramatist Euripides.

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Alexander of Corinth

Alexander (died 247 BC) was a Macedonian governor and tyrant of Corinth.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ambracia (Ἀμβρακία, occasionally Ἀμπρακία, Ampracia), was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta.

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American Journal of Archaeology

The American Journal of Archaeology (AJA), the peer-reviewed journal of the Archaeological Institute of America, has been published since 1897 (continuing the American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts founded by the institute in 1885).

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American School of Classical Studies at Athens

The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) (Αμερικανική Σχολή Κλασικών Σπουδών στην Αθήνα) is one of 17 foreign archaeological institutes in Athens, Greece.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek coinage

The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.

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Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andravida (Ανδραβίδα) is a town and a former municipality in Elis, in the northwest of the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece.

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Antigonid dynasty

The Antigonid dynasty (Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").

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Antigonus II Gonatas

Antigonus II Gonatas (Ἀντίγονος B΄ Γονατᾶς) (c. 319–239 BC) was a powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans.

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Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.

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Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Apollonia (Illyria)

Apollonia (Apolonia; Ἀπολλωνία κατ᾿ Ἐπίδαμνον or Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia kat' Epidamnon or Apollonia pros Epidamnon) was an ancient Greek city located on the right bank of the Aous river (modern-day Vjosë).

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Apostolic see

In Catholicism, an apostolic see is any episcopal see whose foundation is attributed to one or more of the apostles of Jesus.

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Aratus of Sicyon

Aratus (Ἄρατος; 271–213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon and a leader of the Achaean League.

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Archias of Corinth

Archias, son of Anaxidotos (Ἀρχίας Ἀναξιδότου Πελλαῖος) was a quasi-mythological Corinthian citizen and founder (oekist) of the colony of Syracuse in Sicily.

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Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.

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The Argonauts (Ἀργοναῦται Argonautai) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.

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Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

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Arion (Ἀρίων) was a kitharode in ancient Greece, a Dionysiac poet credited with inventing the dithyramb: "As a literary composition for chorus dithyramb was the creation of Arion of Corinth," The islanders of Lesbos claimed him as their native son, but Arion found a patron in Periander, tyrant of Corinth.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.

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A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.

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Battle of Artemisium

The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Corinth (146 BC)

The Battle of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek city-state of Corinth and its allies in the Achaean League in 146 BC, which resulted in the complete and total destruction of Corinth.

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Battle of Plataea

The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Salamis

The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.

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Battle of Thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Berea (Bible)

Berea or Beroea was a city of the Hellenic and Roman era now known as Veria (or Veroia) in Macedonia, northern Greece.

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Black-figure pottery

Black-figure pottery painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic (Greek, μελανόμορφα, melanomorpha) is one of the styles of painting on antique Greek vases.

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Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine silk

Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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Cape Matapan

Cape Matapan (Κάβο Ματαπάς, or Ματαπά in the Maniot dialect), also named as Cape Tainaron (Ακρωτήριον Ταίναρον), or Cape Tenaro, is situated at the end of the Mani Peninsula, Greece.

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Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.

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Chares of Athens

Chares of Athens (lived in the 4th century BC) and was an Athenian general, who for a number of years was a key commander of Athenian forces.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.

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A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical Athens

The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.

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Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.

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Common Peace

The idea of the Common Peace (Κοινὴ Εἰρήνη, Koinē Eirēnē) was one of the most influential concepts of 4th century BC Greek political thought, along with the idea of Panhellenism.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.

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Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.

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Corinth Excavations

The Corinth Excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens began in 1896 and have continued with little interruption until today.

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Corinthian bronze

Corinthian bronze, also named Corinthian brass or æs Corinthiacum, was a highly valuable metal alloy in classical antiquity.

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Corinthian helmet

The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.

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Corinthian order

The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture.

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Corinthian War

The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia.

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Craterus (historian)

Craterus (Greek: Κρατερός; 321 – c. 263 BC) was a Macedonian historian.

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Cult (religious practice)

Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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Cynicism (philosophy)

Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cypselus (Κύψελος, Kypselos) was the first tyrant of Corinth in the 7th century BCE.

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Cyriacus the Anchorite

Saint Cyriacus the Anchorite (also known as 'Cyriacus the Hermit') (Greek: Ὅσιος Κυριάκος ὁ Ἀναχωρητής, Hosios Kyriakos ho Anachōrētēs) was born in Corinth in the year 448.

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Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.

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Demetrius I of Macedon

Demetrius I (Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian Greek nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC).

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Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.

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Desmon of Corinth

Desmon of Corinth was an ancient Greek athlete from Corinth who won the stadion race of the 14th Ancient Olympic Games in 724 BC.

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Despotate of the Morea

The Despotate of the Morea (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως) or Despotate of Mystras (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries.

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Development of the Christian biblical canon

The Christian biblical canons are the books Christians regard as divinely inspired and which constitute a Christian Bible.

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Dinarchus or Dinarch (Δείναρχος; Corinth, c. 361 – c. 291 BC) was a logographer (speechwriter) in Ancient Greece.

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Diocles of Corinth

Diocles of Corinth (Διοκλῆς ὁ Κορίνθιος) was an ancient Greek athlete from Corinth who won the stadion race of the 13th Ancient Olympic Games in 728 BC.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Diogenes (Διογένης, Diogenēs), also known as Diogenes the Cynic (Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy.

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The Diolkos (Δίολκος, from the Greek διά, dia "across" and ὁλκός, holkos "portage machine") was a paved trackway near Corinth in Ancient Greece which enabled boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth.

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Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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The Dorians (Δωριεῖς, Dōrieis, singular Δωριεύς, Dōrieus) were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans, and Ionians).

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Doric Greek

Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.

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Doric order

The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

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Duchy of Athens

The Duchy of Athens (Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, Doukaton Athinon; Catalan: Ducat d'Atenes) was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.

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Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.

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Ecclesia (ancient Athens)

The ecclesia or ekklesia (ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens.

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In Greek mythology, Eëtion (Ἠετίων Ēetíōn) was the king of the Cilician Thebe.

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Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.

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Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.

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The ancient Greek city of Epidamnos or Epidamnus (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).

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Epistle to the Romans

The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.

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Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.

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Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.

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Eumelus of Corinth

Eumelus of Corinth (Εὔμελος ὁ Κορίνθιος Eumelos ho Korinthios), of the clan of the Bacchiadae, is a semi-legendary early Greek poet to whom were attributed several epic poems as well as a celebrated prosodion, the treasured processional anthem of Messenian independence that was performed on Delos.

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Euphranor of Corinth (middle of the 4th century BC) was the only Greek artist who excelled both as a sculptor and as a painter.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Fier (Fieri) is a city and a municipality in Fier County in southwest Albania.

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First Epistle to the Corinthians

The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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Gela (Γέλα), is a city and comune in the Autonomous Region of Sicily, the largest for area and population in the island's southern coast.

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Geoffrey I of Villehardouin

Geoffrey I of Villehardouin (Geoffroi Ier de Villehardouin) (c. 1169 – c. 1229) was a French knight from the County of Champagne who joined the Fourth Crusade.

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Geoffrey of Villehardouin

Geoffroi de Villehardouin (c. 1150–c. 1213-1218) was a knight and historian who participated in and chronicled the Fourth Crusade.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Greco-Persian Wars

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.

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No description.

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Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.

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Gulf of Corinth

The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf (Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, Korinthiakόs Kόlpos) is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece.

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The HecatoncheiresDepending on the method of transliteration, the Ancient Greek ἑκατόν may be latinised as and χείρ may be transliterated as, or even.

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Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

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Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.

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Helladic chronology

Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history.

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Hellas (theme)

The Theme of Hellas (θέμα Ἑλλάδος, Thema Hellados) was a Byzantine military-civilian province (thema, theme) located in southern Greece.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hesperia (journal)

Hesperia is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

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Hetaira (plural hetairai, also hetaera (plural hetaerae), (ἑταίρα, "companion", pl. ἑταῖραι) was a type of prostitute in ancient Greece. Traditionally, historians of ancient Greece have distinguished between hetairai and pornai, another class of prostitute in ancient Greece. In contrast to pornai, who provided sex for a large number of clients in brothels or on the street, hetairai were thought to have had only a few men as clients at any one time, to have had long-term relationships with them, and to have provided companionship and intellectual stimulation as well as sex. For instance, Charles Seltman wrote in 1953 that "hetaeras were certainly in a very different class, often highly educated women". More recently, however, historians have questioned the extent to which there was really a distinction between hetairai and pornai. The second edition of the Oxford Classical Dictionary, for instance, held that hetaira was a euphemism for any kind of prostitute. This position is supported by Konstantinos Kapparis, who holds that Apollodorus' famous tripartite division of the types of women in the speech Against Neaera ("We have courtesans for pleasure, concubines for the daily tending of the body, and wives in order to beget legitimate children and have a trustworthy guardian of what is at home.") classes all prostitutes together, under the term hetairai. A third position, advanced by Rebecca Futo Kennedy, suggests that hetairai "were not prostitutes or even courtesans". Instead, she argues, hetairai were "elite women who participated in sympotic and luxury culture", just as hetairoi – the masculine form of the word – was used to refer to groups of elite men at symposia. Even when the term hetaira was used to refer to a specific class of prostitute, though, scholars disagree on what precisely the line of demarcation was. Kurke emphasises that hetairai veiled the fact that they were selling sex through the language of gift-exchange, while pornai explicitly commodified sex. She claims that both hetairai and pornai could be slaves or free, and might or might not work for a pimp. Kapparis says that hetairai were high-class prostitutes, and cites Dover as pointing to the long-term nature of hetairai's relationships with individual men. Miner disagrees with Kurke, claiming that hetairai were always free, not slaves. Along with sexual services, women described as hetairai rather than pornai seem to have often been educated, and have provided companionship. According to Kurke, the concept of hetairism was a product of the symposium, where hetairai were permitted as sexually available companions of the male party-goers. In Athenaeus' Deipnosophistai, hetairai are described as providing "flattering and skillful conversation": something which is, elsewhere in classical literature, seen as a significant part of the hetaira's role. Particularly, "witty" and "refined" (αστεία) were seen as attributes which distinguished hetairai from common pornai. Hetairai are likely to have been musically educated, too. Free hetairai could become very wealthy, and control their own finances. However, their careers could be short, and if they did not earn enough to support themselves, they might have been forced to resort to working in brothels, or working as pimps, in order to ensure a continued income as they got older.

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Hexamilion wall

The Hexamilion wall (Εξαμίλιον τείχος, "six-mile wall") was a defensive wall constructed across the Isthmus of Corinth, guarding the only land route into the Peloponnese peninsula from mainland Greece.

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History of Athens

Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.

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History of Sparta

The History of Sparta describes the destiny of the ancient Dorian Greek state known as Sparta from its beginning in the legendary period to its incorporation into the Achaean League under the late Roman Republic, as Allied State, in 146 BC, a period of roughly 1000 years.

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History of the Jews in Greece

Jews have been present in Greece since at least the fourth century BC.

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Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Imperial cult of ancient Rome

The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.

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Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

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Ionic order

The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.

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Isthmian Games

Isthmian Games or Isthmia (Ancient Greek: Ἴσθμια) were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were named after the Isthmus of Corinth, where they were held.

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Isthmus of Corinth

The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth.

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Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.

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Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kechries (Κεχριές, rarely Κεχρεές) is a village in the municipality of Corinth in Corinthia in Greece, part of the community of Xylokeriza.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).

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Kingdom of Sicily

The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.

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Kingdom of the Morea

The Kingdom of the Morea or Realm of the Morea (Regno di Morea) was the official name the Republic of Venice gave to the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece (which was more widely known as the Morea until the 19th century) when it was conquered from the Ottoman Empire during the Morean War in 1684–99.

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Labda (mythology)

According to Herodotus, Labda (Greek: Λάβδα) was a daughter of the Bacchiad Amphion, and mother of Cypselus, by Eetion.

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Lais of Corinth

Lais of Corinth (fl. 425 BCE) was a famous hetaira or courtesan of ancient Greece who was probably born in Corinth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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League of Corinth

The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός Hellenikos, "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after the battle of Chaeronea and succeeded by Alexander the Great at 336 BC, to facilitate the use of military forces in the war of Greece against Persia.

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Lechaio (Λέχαιο) is a village in the municipal unit of Assos-Lechaio in Corinthia, Greece.

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Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.

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Leo Sgouros

Leo Sgouros (Λέων Σγουρός), Latinized as Leo Sgurus, was a Greek independent lord in the northeastern Peloponnese in the early 13th century.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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London Conference of 1832

The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece.

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Long Walls

Although long walls were built at several locations in ancient Greece, notably Corinth and Megara, the term Long Walls (Μακρὰ Τείχη) generally refers to the walls that connected Athens to its ports at Piraeus and Phalerum.

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Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.

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Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus

Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus or Gallio was a Roman senator and brother of the famous writer Seneca.

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Lucius Mummius Achaicus

Lucius Mummius (2nd century BC), was a Roman statesman and general.

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Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

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Macedonia (Roman province)

The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.

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Magna Graecia

Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.

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In Greek mythology, Medea (Μήδεια, Mēdeia, მედეა) was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god Helios.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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Metropolis of Corinth

The Metropolis of Corinth, Sicyon, Zemenon, Tarsos and Polyphengos (Ιερά Μητρόπολις Κορίνθου, Σικυώνος, Ζεμενού, Ταρσού και Πολυφέγγους) is a metropolitan see of the Church of Greece in Corinthia, Greece.

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Morea Eyalet

The Eyalet of the Morea (ایالت موره; Eyālet-i Mōrâ) was a first-level province (eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire, centred on the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece.

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Morean War

The Morean War (Guerra di Morea) is the better-known name for the Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Nafplio (Ναύπλιο, Nauplio or Nauplion in Italian and other Western European languages) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf.

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Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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In Greek mythology and, later, Roman mythology, the Oceanids or Oceanides (Ὠκεανίδες, pl.) are water nymphs who were the three thousand daughters of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys.

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Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.

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Olympia, Greece

Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olymbía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.

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In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.

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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

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The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors or forerunners of the Greeks, or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece.

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The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.

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Peloponnese (theme)

The Theme of the Peloponnese (θέμα Πελοποννήσου) was a Byzantine military-civilian province (thema, theme) encompassing the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece.

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Peloponnesian League

The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, dominated by Sparta.

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Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.

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Periander (Περίανδρος; died c. 585 BC), was the Second Tyrant of the Cypselid dynasty that ruled over Corinth.

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In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.

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Philip II of Macedon

Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.

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Philopoemen (Φιλοποίμην, Philopoimen; 253 BC, Megalopolis – 183 BC, Messene) was a skilled Greek general and statesman, who was Achaean strategos on eight occasions.

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Pirene (fountain)

Pirene or Peirene (Πειρήνη) is the name of a fountain or spring in Greek mythology, physically located in Corinth.

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A polemarch (from, polemarchos) was a senior military title in various ancient Greek city states (poleis).

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Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Potidaea (Ποτίδαια, Potidaia) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece.

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Principality of Achaea

The Principality of Achaea or of the Morea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.

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Priscilla and Aquila

Priscilla (Priskilla) and Aquila (Akylas) were a first century Christian missionary married couple described in the New Testament and traditionally listed among the Seventy Disciples.

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A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.

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The Prytaneis (πρυτάνεις; sing.: πρύτανις prytanis) were the executives of the boule of ancient Athens.

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Psamtik I

Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus (Latinization of translit), who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Ptolemy II Philadelphus

Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.

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Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.

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Quadratus (martyr)

In addition to Quadratus of Athens (Quadratus the Apologist), there are several Christian saints with the name Quadratus (sometimes spelled Codratus).

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Rex Sacrorum

In ancient Roman religion, the rex sacrorum ("king of the sacred", also sometimes rex sacrificulus, " offerings made by the king") was a senatorial priesthood reserved for patricians.

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Roger II of Sicily

Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.

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Rumelia Eyalet

The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia (ایالت روم ایلی, Eyālet-i Rūm-ėli), also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province (beylerbeylik or eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia").

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Saint Timothy

Timothy (Greek: Τιμόθεος; Timótheos, meaning "honouring God" or "honoured by God") was an early Christian evangelist and the first first-century Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97.

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Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.

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Saronic Gulf

The Saronic Gulf (Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος, Saronikós kólpos) or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea.

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Second Epistle to the Corinthians

The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, often written as 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle and the eighth book of the New Testament of the Bible.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Seven Sages of Greece

The Seven Sages (of Greece) or Seven Wise Men (Greek: οἱ ἑπτὰ σοφοί hoi hepta sophoi) was the title given by classical Greek tradition to seven philosophers, statesmen, and law-givers of the 6th century BC who were renowned for their wisdom.

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Sicilian Expedition

The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place during the period from 415 BC to 413 BC (during the Peloponnesian War).

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Silas or Silvanus (Greek: Σίλας / Σιλουανός; fl. 1st century AD) was a leading member of the Early Christian community, who accompanied Paul the Apostle on parts of his first and second missionary journeys.

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In Greek mythology Sisyphus or Sisyphos (Σίσυφος) was the king of Ephyra (now known as Corinth).

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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.

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A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.

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Syracuse, Sicily

Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.

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A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.

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Temple of Isthmia

The Temple of Isthmia is an ancient Greek temple on the Isthmus of Corinth dedicated to the god Poseidon and built in the Archaic Period.

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Tentmaking, in general, refers to the activities of any Christian who, while dedicating him or herself to the ministry of the Gospel, receives little or no pay for Church work, but performs other ("tentmaking") jobs to provide support.

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The Journal of Hellenic Studies

The Journal of Hellenic Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research in Hellenic studies.

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The Queen of Corinth

The Queen of Corinth is a Jacobean era stage play, a tragicomedy in the canon of John Fletcher and his collaborators.

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Thebes, Greece

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.

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Theme (Byzantine district)

The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.

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Theodore II Palaiologos

Theodore II Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Θεόδωρος Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Theodōros II Palaiologos) (c. 1396 – 21 June 1448) was Despot in the Morea from 1407 to 1443 and in Selymbria from then until his death.

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Third Epistle to the Corinthians

The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is a pseudepigraphical text under the name of Paul the Apostle.

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Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Timoleon (Greek: Τιμολέων), son of Timodemus, of Corinth (c. 411–337 BC) was a Greek statesman and general.

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Tiryns or (Ancient Greek: Τίρυνς; Modern Greek: Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, some kilometres north of Nafplio.

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Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

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A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed).

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A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.

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William of Champlitte

William I of Champlitte (Guillaume de Champlitte) (1160s-1209) was a French knight who joined the Fourth Crusade and became the first prince of Achaea (1205–1209).

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William of Moerbeke

William of Moerbeke, O.P. (Willem van Moerbeke; Gulielmus de Moerbecum; 1215-35 – 1286), was a prolific medieval translator of philosophical, medical, and scientific texts from Greek language into Latin, enabled by the period of Latin rule of the Byzantine Empire.

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Xeniades (Ξενιάδης) was the name of two people from Corinth who lived in the time of Ancient Greece.

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Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Xenophon of Corinth

Xenophon of Corinth, son of Thessalus, was a victor at the Olympic Games, both in the foot-race and in the pentathlon, in the 79th Olympiad (464 BC).

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Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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Redirects here:

Archaia Korinthos, Byzantine Corinth, Classical Corinth, Colonia Laus Iulia Corinthiensis, Corinth in the middle ages, Medieval corinth, Roman Corinth.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Corinth

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