516 relations: A. Leo Oppenheim, Abscess, Abydos boats, Abydos, Egypt, Achaemenid Empire, Administration (government), Aegean Sea, Affricate consonant, Afghanistan, Afroasiatic languages, Agricultural productivity, Ahmose I, Akhenaten, Akkadian language, Al-Maqrizi, Alabaster, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Algebra, Alluvium, Amarna, Amarna art, Amarna Period, Amenemhat I, Amenemhat III, Amethyst, Amratian culture, Amun, Analytic language, Anatolia, Anatomically modern human, Ancient Egyptian architecture, Ancient Egyptian deities, Ancient Egyptian literature, Ancient Egyptian mathematics, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Ancient Libya, Ancient Macedonians, Ancient Near East, Ancient Rome, Animal fat, Animal husbandry, Arabian Desert, Arabic grammar, Arabs, Aram (biblical region), ..., Arameans, Archaeological Institute of America, Archaeology (magazine), Archive, Arnold J. 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Adolf Leo Oppenheim (7 June 1904 – 21 July 1974), one of the most distinguished Assyriologists of his generation was editor-in-charge of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute 1955-1974 and John A. Wilson Professor of Oriental Studies at the University of Chicago.
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An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
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The Abydos boats were discovered in October 2000.
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Abydos is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city.
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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
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An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira,, (ABC-CLIO: 2010).
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
O29-L1-G43 | nebty.
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Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten") known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
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Akkadian (akkadû, ak.kADû) is an extinct east Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia.
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Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442),Franz Rosenthal,.
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Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals, when used as a material: gypsum (a hydrous sulfate of calcium) and calcite, a carbonate of calcium, also known as onyx-marble, Egyptian alabaster or Oriental alabaster, in geological terms is "a stalagmitic limestone marked with patterns of swirling bands of cream and brown".
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
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Algebra (from Arabic and Farsi "al-jabr" meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
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Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
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Amarna (العمارنة al-‘amārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).
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The Ancient Egyptian art style, known as Amarna Art or the Amarna Style, is a style which was adopted in the Amarna Period (i.e. during and just after the reign of Akhenaten in the late Eighteenth Dynasty), and is noticeably different from more conventional Egyptian art styles.
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The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is now Amarna.
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Amenemhat I, also Amenemhet I and the hellenized form Ammenemes, was the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty, the dynasty considered to be the golden-age of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
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Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
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Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
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The Amratian Culture was a cultural period in the history of predynastic Upper Egypt, which lasted approximately from 4000 to 3500 BC.
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Amun (also Amon, Amen; Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major Egyptian deity and Berber deity.
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An analytic language is a language that conveys grammatical relationships without using inflectional morphemes.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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The term anatomically modern humans (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.
Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, including pyramids and temples.
Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses who were worshipped in ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from Ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination.
Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt circa 3000 BC to c.300 BC.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era.
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The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile Valley, generally corresponding to modern Northwest Africa.
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The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals.
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Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.
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The Arabian Desert is located in Western Asia.
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Arabic grammar (النحو العربي or قواعد اللغة العربية) is the grammar of the Arabic language.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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Aram is a region mentioned in the Bible located in present-day central Syria, including where the city of Aleppo (a.k.a. Halab) now stands.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans, (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ, ארמיא) were a Northwest Semitic people who originated in what is now present-day western, southern and central Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
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The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites.
Archaeology magazine is a bimonthly mainstream publication for the general public, supported by its website.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
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Arnold Joseph Toynbee CH (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of International History at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
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Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of Ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 100 AD.
An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.
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Ashdod (אַשְׁדּוֹד; اشدود, إسدود Isdud) is the fifth-largest city in Israel, located in the Southern District of the country, on the Mediterranean coast where it is situated between Tel Aviv to the north (away) and Ashkelon to the south (away).
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Ashur-uballit II (Aššur-uballiṭ II) was the last king of the Neo Assyrian Empire, succeeding Sin-shar-ishkun (623-612 BC).
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Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; "ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܒܵܢܝܼ ܐܵܦܠܝܼ"; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'; 668 BC – c. 627 BC),These are the dates according to the Assyrian King list, also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was an Assyrian king, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (934–609 BC).
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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
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Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.
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Aten (also Aton, Egyptian jtn) is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra.
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Atropa belladonna or Atropa bella-donna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the tomato family Solanaceae, native to Europe, North Africa, Western Asia, and some parts of Canada and the United States.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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The Autobiography of Harkhuf is a tomb inscription from Ancient Egypt which is significant to Egyptology studies.
The Autobiography of Weni is a tomb inscription from Ancient Egypt which is significant to Egyptology studies.
Avaris (Egyptian:, Budge notation: Hut-waret, Αὔαρις, Auaris) was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos, in the ancient Land of Goshen.
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Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty.
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Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
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The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era.
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Ball games, or ball sports, are any form of game or sport which feature a ball as part of play.
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain.
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Barry John Kemp, CBE, FBA is an English archaeologist and Egyptologist.
Bastet was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the Second Dynasty (2890 BC).
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The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the city of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus vetus in Greece.
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The Battle of Kadesh (also Qadesh) took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Syrian-Lebanese border The battle is generally dated to 1274 BC of the conventional Egyptian chronology, and is the earliest battle in recorded history for which details of tactics and formations are known.
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The Battle of Qarqar (or Ḳarḳar) was fought in 853 BC, when the army of Assyria led by king Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar, led by Hadadezer (also called Adad-idr and possibly to be identified with Benhadad II) of Damascus and King Ahab of Israel.
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The ancient Egyptians regarded beauty as a sign of holiness.
Beni Hasan (also written as Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) (بني حسن) is an Ancient Egyptian cemetery site.
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Berber or the Amazigh languages or dialects (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ.
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The Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen/imazighen/, singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ/Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa.
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Berkley Books is an imprint of Penguin Group (USA) that began as an independent company in 1955.
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A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a damage in the continuity of the bone.
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The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.
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The bow and arrow is a projectile weapon system (a bow with arrows) that predates recorded history and is common to most cultures.
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The British Museum is a museum dedicated to human history, art, and culture, located in the Bloomsbury area of London.
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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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Bubastis (Greek: Βούβαστις Boubastis or Βούβαστος Boubastos), also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city, the capital of its own nome, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt.
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Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below (to the North of) the Second Cataract.
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Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
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Byblos, in Arabic Jubayl (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation), is a Mediterranean city in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
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Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
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Cambyses II (کمبوجيه دوم; page Aramaic כנבוזי, Kanbūzī; Greek Καμβύσης, Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew כמבישה, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was King of Kings of Persia.
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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew: כנען /; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן /) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East.
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Canopic jars were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife.
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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.
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Carchemish (IPA-ified from «kär-kĕm´ĭsh), also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš; Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital at times independent but also having been part of the Mitanni, Hittite and Neo Assyrian Empires, now on the frontier between Turkey and Syria.
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Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.
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Cartonnage is a type of material composing Egyptian funerary masks from the First Intermediate Period onward.
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Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.
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A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.
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Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
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Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw.
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A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures.
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A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
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In ancient Egyptian society chariotry stood as an independent unit in the King’s military force.
ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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A church building, often simply called a church, is a building used for religious activities, particularly worship services.
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A circle is a simple shape in Euclidean geometry.
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A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
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Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69Walker, p. 129. – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, shortly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion.
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Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (Κλεοπάτρα Τρύφαινα) was an Egyptian Ptolemaic queen.
A code is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
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The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period.
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Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.
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In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
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Commander is a naval officer rank.
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A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.
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The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
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Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: met.rem.ən.khēmi, Sahidic: mənt.rəm.ən.kēme, Greek: Μετ Ρεμνχημι Met Rem(e)nkhēmi) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
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The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the largest Christian Church in Egypt, and also the largest in the Middle East overall.
Corvée is a form of suggested, but not required labor done by volunteers in the private sector.
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The cosmetic palettes of middle to late predynastic Egypt are archaeological artefacts, originally used to grind and apply ingredients for facial or body cosmetics.
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Costume jewelry, trinkets, fashion jewelry, junk jewelry, fake jewelry, or fallalery is jewelry manufactured as ornamentation to complement a particular fashionable costume or garmentBaker, Lillian.
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The cradle of civilization is a term referring to locations where, according to current archaeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
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In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
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Cyperus papyrus (papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.
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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
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The deben was an ancient Egyptian weight unit.
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The decimal numeral system (also called base 10 or occasionally denary) has ten as its base.
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Deir el-Medina (دير المدينة) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC)Oakes, p. 110 The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.
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Democratization is the transition to a more democratic political regime.
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Demographics of Libya include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population.
Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
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Dental caries (caries is Latin for "rottenness"), also known as tooth decay, cavities, or caries, is a breakdown of teeth due to activities of bacteria.
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The Description de l'Égypte (Description of Egypt) was a series of publications, appearing first in 1809 and continuing until the final volume appeared in 1829, which offered a comprehensive scientific description of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
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Dhu'l-Nun al-Misri (ذو النون المصري; pronounced Zun-Noon al-Misri; born 796 in Akhmim, Sohag Governorate; died 246 AH) was an Egyptian Sufi saint.
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Dietary elements (commonly known as dietary minerals or mineral nutrients) are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules.
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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles, (245–311)Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine", 32–35; Barnes, New Empire, 31–32.
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Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
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The divine right of kings or divine right is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Djoser, also anglicized as Djeser and Zoser, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch.
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Domestication (from the Latin domesticus: "of the home") is the cultivating or taming of a population of organisms in order to accentuate traits that are desirable to the cultivator or tamer.
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Donald Bruce Redford (born September 2, 1934) is a Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, currently Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Pennsylvania State University.
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The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to c. 1550 BC.
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The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an Ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatiseWilkins, Robert H. Neurosurgical Classics. USA: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Thieme, 1992.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
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Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment used in Ancient Egypt for thousands of years.
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The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt.
Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and vegetables, since Egypt's rich Nile valley and delta produce large quantities of these crops in high quality.
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Egyptian faience is a sintered-quartz ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various colours, with blue-green being the most common.
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An Egyptian fraction is a finite series of distinct unit fractions, such as \tfrac+\tfrac+\tfrac.
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Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs was written by Alan Gardiner and first published in 1927 in London by the Clarendon Press.
Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyptian: mdw·w-nṯr, "god's words") were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements.
Egyptian is the oldest known language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
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Egyptian medical papyri are ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus which permit a glimpse at medical procedures and practices in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world.
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The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
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Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in Ancient Egypt, and regions under Egyptian control.
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The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was concluded between Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II and Hittite King Hattusili III.
Egyptians (مَصريين; مِصريّون) are an ethnic group and the citizens of Egypt sharing a common culture and a variety of Arabic.
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Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
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Egyptomania was the renewed interest of Europeans in ancient Egypt during the nineteenth century as a result of Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign (1798–1801) and, in particular, as a result of the extensive scientific study of ancient Egyptian remains and culture inspired by this campaign.
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Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
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Eleanor Robson is a Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History at the Department of History, University College London, chair of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq and a Quondam Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
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The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) is a well attested group of rulers, whose earlier members before Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
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Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
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Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.
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In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.
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An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire or Roman Empire." An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire.
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Empirical evidence, data, or knowledge, also known as sense experience, is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation.
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Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
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Esarhaddon or Asarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-ahu-iddin "Ashur has given a brother"; Aramaic: ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܐܵܗܐܹ ܐܝܼܕܝܼܢܵܐ; אֵסַר חַדֹּן; Ασαραδδων; Asor Haddan), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
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The Faiyum Oasis (or Al-Fayoum Oasis, Al Fayyum Oasis, and other variations in spelling) is a depression or basin in the desert immediately to the west of the Nile south of Cairo.
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A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing to separate grains from their husks.
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Flax (also known as common flax or linseed), with the binomial name Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
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Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
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A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.
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The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
The following is a chronicle of predynastic and ancient Egyptian foreign contacts up through 343 BC.
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom.
A fraction (from fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead.
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Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
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Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), ISBN 0-19-861263-X, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; עזה), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
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Georges Raymond Nicolas Albert Roux (November 16, 1914 – August 12, 1999) was a French writer, author of the popular history books about the Ancient Near East, Ancient Iraq and La Mésopotamie.
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Gerzeh (also Girza or Jirzah) was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt.
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The Giza Necropolis (أهرامات الجيزة,, "pyramids of Giza") is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
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Ancient Egypt artifacts.
In monotheism and henotheism, God is conceived as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith.
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God's Wife of Amun (Egyptian) was the highest-ranking priestess of the Amun cult, an important Ancient Egyptian religious institution centered in Thebes during the Egyptian 25th and 26th dynasties (circa 740-525 BC).
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Gold mining is the process of mining of gold or gold ores from the ground.
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In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.
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In grammar the term particle has two different meanings.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.
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A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
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Grasses, or more technically graminoids, are monocotyledonous, usually herbaceous plants with narrow leaves growing from the base.
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Grazing has two distinct meanings.
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The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
The Great Sphinx of Giza (أبو الهول, The Terrifying One; literally: Father of Dread), commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (or; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
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Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.
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The growing season is a term used for the period of time in a given year when the climate is prime for both indigenous and cultivated plants experience the most growth.
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Acacia gum Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, chaar gund, char goond, or meska, is a natural gum made of the hardened sap of two species of the acacia tree; Senegalia (Acacia) senegal and Vachellia (Acacia) seyal.
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Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
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Hama (حماة, Biblical Ḥamāth, "fortress") is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
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A Hand drill is a hieroglyph, (and tool), used in Ancient Egypt from the earliest dynasties.
Harran (Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
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Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies; 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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Henry Chadwick, KBE, FBA (23 June 1920 – 17 June 2008) was a British academic and Church of England priest.
Heracleopolis Magna (Μεγάλη Ἡρακλέους πόλις, Megálē Herakléous pólis) or Heracleopolis (Ἡρακλεόπολις, Herakleópolis) is the Roman name of the capital of the 20th nome (region) of ancient Egypt, located approximately west of the modern city of Beni Suef.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).
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Hezekiah (Hebrew:; Ἐζεκίας, Ezekias, in the Septuagint; Ezechias; also transliterated as Ḥizkiyyahu or Ḥizkiyyah) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
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Hieratic (Greek ἱερατικά hieratika; literally "priestly") is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia.
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The history of Achaemenid Egypt is divided into two eras.
The history of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
This article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
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Hor-Aha (or Aha or Horus Aha) is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt in current Egyptology.
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Horemheb (sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab and meaning Horus is in Jubilation) was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.
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A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
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A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khaseshet, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Greek Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a mixed group of Asiatic people from Western Asia who took over the eastern Nile Delta, ending the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt and initiating the Second Intermediate Period.
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In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns.
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In geometry, a hypotenuse (alternate spelling: hypothenuse) is the longest side of a right-angled triangle, the side opposite of the right angle.
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Imhotep (also spelled Immutef, Im-hotep, or Ii-em-Hotep; called Imuthes (Ἰμούθης) by the Greeks; fl. 27th century BC (c. 2650–2600 BC); Egyptian: meaning "the one who comes in peace, is with peace") was an Egyptian polymath who served under the Third Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis.
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Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.
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Articles related to ancient Egypt include.
Instruction of Amenemope (also called Instructions of Amenemopet, Wisdom of Amenemopet) is a literary work composed in Ancient Egypt, most likely during the Ramesside Period (ca. 1300–1075 BCE); it contains thirty chapters of advice for successful living, ostensibly written by the scribe Amenemope son of Kanakht as a legacy for his son.
The Instruction of Any, or Ani, is an Ancient Egyptian text written in the style of wisdom literature which is thought to have been composed in the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom, with a surviving manuscript dated from the Twenty-First or Twenty-Second Dynasty.
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Sehertawy Intef I was a local nomarch at Thebes during the early First Intermediate Period and the first member of the 11th dynasty to lay claim to a Horus name.
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The Ipuwer Papyrus is a single papyrus holding an ancient Egyptian poem, called The Admonitions of Ipuwer or The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqīyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Iraklılar) are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq.
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Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil.
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Isis (Ἶσις; original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset") is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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The Israelites were a Semitic people of the Ancient Near East, who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods (15th to 6th centuries BCE), and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.
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Itjtawy (i-sh-tau-wee); full Egyptian name: Amenemhat-itj-tawy — "Amenemhat – the Seizer of the Two Lands"), is the as-yet unidentified location of the royal city founded by Twelfth Dynasty Egyptian King Amenemhat I, who ruled from about 1991 BC to 1962 BC, during year 20 of his reign. It is located in the Faiyum region, and its cemeteries were located at Lisht, el-Lahun and Dahshur. The site of Itjtawy may have been chosen due to its proximity to the source of Asiatic incursions into Egypt to help prevent further attacks.
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Jean-François Champollion (a.k.a. Champollion le jeune; 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of the Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of egyptology.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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John Robert Baines (born 17 March 1946) is a retired academic.
Joseph Warren Dauben (born 29 December 1944, Santa Monica) is a Herbert H. Lehman Distinguished Professor of History at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.
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Josiah or Yoshiyahu (or;, literally meaning "healed by Yah" or "supported of Yah"; Josias; c. 649–609 BC) was a king of Judah (641–609 BC), according to the Hebrew Bible, who instituted major reforms.
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The Journal of Near Eastern Studies (JNES) is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press, devoted to examination of the ancient and medieval civilisations of the Near East.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian, Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; IVDÆA, يهودية, Yahudia) is the biblical, Roman, and modern name of the mountainous southern part of Palestine.
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Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty.
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The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings.
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Khasekhemwy (ca. 2690 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the final king of the Second dynasty of Egypt.
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Khopesh (ḫpš; also vocalized khepesh) is an Egyptian sickle-sword that evolved from battle axes.
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Khufu, originally Khnum-Khufu, is the birth name of a Fourth Dynasty ancient Egyptian pharaoh, who ruled in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC).
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The Khufu ship is an intact full-size vessel from Ancient Egypt that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC.
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Kim Leslie Plofker (born November 25, 1964) is an American historian of mathematics, specializing in Indian mathematics.
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Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt (born 1970) is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature.
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The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient African kingdom situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.
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Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and rural settings) of land resources.
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The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet, or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an old kingdom.
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Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
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Lapis lazuli, also or, or lapis for short, is a deep blue semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
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Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom around 1350 BC – the Amarna period.
The Late Period of Ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Persian conquests and ended with the conquest by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.
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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide.
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Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
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Leontopolis, was an Ancient Egyptian city, known today as the archaeological site and settlement called Tell el-Muqdam.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
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The Libyan Desert, also known as the Western Desert, forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and covers an area of approximately.
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Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.
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The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 280 and 247 BC which was between tall.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum.
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This is a list of ancient Egyptian people who have articles on Wikipedia.
A rock formation is an isolated, scenic, or spectacular surface rock outcrop.
In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure," and may also be referred to as a chip or spall, or collectively as debitage.
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Lower Egypt (Egyptian Arabic:Maṣr El-sofla) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El-Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Zawyet Dahshur.
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Lute can refer generally to any string instrument having the strings running in a plane parallel to the sound table (in the Hornbostel–Sachs system), more specifically to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes.
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Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
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The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
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Maat or Ma'at was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice.
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Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.
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Malkata (or Malqata), meaning the place where things are picked up in Arabic, is the site of an Ancient Egyptian palace complex built by the 18th Dynasty pharaoh Amenhotep III.
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Manetho (Μανέθων, Manethōn, or Μανέθως, Manethōs) was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era, approximately during the 3rd century BC.
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Marcus Antonius (Latin:; January 14, August 1, 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
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Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with more than 30 years of experience excavating in Egypt.
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A mastaba or "pr-djt" (meaning "house for eternity" or "eternal house" in Ancient Egyptian), is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides, constructed out of mud-bricks (from the Nile River) or stone.
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Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (North-western Iran) and who spoke the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryan tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC). This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west. From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the western parts of Media fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed Vassal Treaties upon the Median rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria. An alliance with the Medes and rebelling Babylonians, Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra spread in western Iran. Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey, south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea, near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty. According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes: The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran, the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran. It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle.
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Mehen is a board game that was played in ancient Egypt.
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Memphis (منف; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.
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Menes (Mnj, probably pronounced *; Μήνης; مينا) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I).
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Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (reigned c. 2061 BC – 2010 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty who reigned for 51 years.
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Mersa Gawasis (Ancient Egyptian) is a small Egyptian harbour on the Red Sea and a former Egyptian port city.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Middle Assyrian Empire (1392 BC–934 BC) of the Assyrian Empire.
Middle Egyptian is the typical form of Egyptian written from 2000 BC to 1300 BC (after Old Egyptian and before Late Egyptian).
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC, stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period.
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands such as Santorini and flourished from approximately 2600 to 1400 BCE.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from ca.
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The mortise and tenon joint has been used for thousands of years by woodworkers around the world to join pieces of wood, mainly when the adjoining pieces connect at an angle of 90°.
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Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Ancient Egypt.
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The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian mathematical papyrus, also called the Golenishchev Mathematical Papyrus, after its first owner outside of Egypt, Egyptologist Vladimir Golenishchev.
A mudbrick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
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A mummy is a deceased human or other animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
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A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
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Nabopolassar (Akkadian: Nabû-apal-uṣur; 658 BC – 605 BC) was a king of Babylonia and a central figure in the fall of the Assyrian Empire.
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Napata was a city-state of ancient Nubia on the west bank of the Nile River, at the site of modern Karima, Northern Sudan.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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Naqada is a town on the west bank of the Nile in the Egyptian governorate of Qena.
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Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period.
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The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found.
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Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and about 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.
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A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
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Natural history is the research and study of organisms including plants or animals in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
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Natural Resources are all that exists without the actions of humankind.
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Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις), loosely translated as "(the city that wields) power over ships" (Piemro in Egyptian, now Kom Gieif), was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, 45 mi (72 km) SE of the open sea and the later capital of Ptolemaic Egypt, Alexandria.
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Near East (Proche-Orient) is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
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Nebuchadnezzar II (ܢܵܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ; נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר; Ancient Greek: Ναβουχοδονόσωρ; Arabic: نِبُوخَذنِصَّر; c. 634 – 562 BC) was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC.
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Menkheperre Necho I (Egyptian: Nekau, Greek: Νεχώς Α' or Νεχώ Α', Akkadian: Niku) (? – 664 BCE near Memphis) was a ruler of the Ancient Egyptian city of Sais.
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Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Kemet was a king of the 26th dynasty of Egypt (c. 610 BC – c. 595 BC).
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Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian Nakhthorheb(''Nḫht-Ḥr-Ḥbyt'', "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360—342 BC) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty, as well as the last native ruler of Ancient Egypt.
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Nekhen or Hierakonpolis (Ἱεράκων πόλις hierakōn polis, "city of hawks", الكوم الأحمر, Al-Kom Al-Aħmar, "red mound") was the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Predynastic period (3200 – 3100 BC) and probably, also during the Early Dynastic Period (3100 – 2686 BC).
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The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt.
New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian American research university based in New York City.
The Nile (النيل, Eg. en-Nīl, Std. an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Iteru) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.
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The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
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Nineveh (or; Ninua) is an ancient Mesopotamian city located in modern day Iraq; it is on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Niya, Niye, and also Niy of Thutmose I's Ancient Egypt, also Nii of the Amarna letters, and Nihe, etc.
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Nobility is a social class that possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than most other classes in a society, membership thereof typically being hereditary.
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Nomarchs (Ancient Egyptian: heri-tep a'a) were the semi-feudal rulers of Ancient Egyptian provinces.
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A nome (from Νομός, “district”) was a subnational administrative division of ancient Egypt.
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Northeast Africa is a general region in Africa.
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Nubia is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt.
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The term Nubian describes an ethnic group that originated in modern-day Sudan and Egypt.
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A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
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An obelisk (UK:; US:, from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
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Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
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Old Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language spoken from 2600 BC to 2000 BC during the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period.
The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom).
Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
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Opium (poppy tears, lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).
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Optimism is a mental attitude or world view.
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In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the gods.
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In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.
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Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon II was a pharaoh of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the son of Takelot I and Queen Kapes.
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An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery (or stone), usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of a topical guide to ancient Egypt: Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal.
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The Paleolithic (American spelling; British spelling: Palaeolithic; pronunciation: or) Age, Era or Period is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered (Grahame Clark's Modes I and II), and covers roughly 95% of human technological prehistory.
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The word papyrus refers to a thick paper-like material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus.
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A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society.
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Pelusium was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said.
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Periodontitis, also known as pyorrhea, is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth.
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Pharaoh (Dictionary Reference: or) is the common title of the kings of Ancient Egypt until the Macedonian conquest.
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A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Philistia (Pleshet) was, according to and, a Pentapolis in south-western Levant, comprising Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza.
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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.
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The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
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A physician is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
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The number is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159.
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Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic, solid polymers.
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Piye (once transliterated as Piankhi; d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from 747 BCE to.
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A place of worship is a specially designed structure or consecrated space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation come to perform acts of devotion, veneration, or religious study.
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The Pleistocene (symbol PS) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's recent period of repeated glaciations.
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Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass.
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In architecture, post and lintel (also called prop and lintel or a trabeated system) is system with a lintel, header, or architrave as the horizontal member over a building void supported at its ends by two vertical columns, pillars, or posts.
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In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or control the behavior of people.
The Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main temple enclosures that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
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The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in c. 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh Narmer (also known as Menes).
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Psamtik I (also spelled Psammeticus or Psammetichus; Greek: Ψαμμήτιχος) (r. 664 – 610 BCE), was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt.
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Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC.
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The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
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The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
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Ptolemy I Soter I (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e. Ptolemy (pronounced) the Savior), also known as Ptolemy Lagides, c. 367 BC – c. 283 BC, was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and dynasty.
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Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr; reigned 221–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Pylon is the Greek term (Greek: πυλών) for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple (Egyptian: bxn.t in the Manuel de Codage transliteration).
The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.
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In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.
Ramesses II (variously transliterated as "Rameses" or "Ramses"; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
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Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth and final pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.
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Ramsay MacMullen (born March 3, 1928 in New York City) is an Emeritus Professor of history at Yale University, where he taught from 1967 to his retirement in 1993 as Dunham Professor of History and Classics.
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Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign.
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Relief, or relievo rilievo, is a sculptural technique.
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The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (RMP; also designated as: papyrus British Museum 10057, and pBM 10058), is the best example of Egyptian mathematics.
Robert Drews is an American historian who is Professor of Classical Studies Emeritus at Vanderbilt University.
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The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens.
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Sais (Σάϊς) or Sa el-Hagar was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile.
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Sargon II (Akkadian Šarru-ukin "he made firm the king"; reigned 722 – 705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
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Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid (Persian) Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
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A savanna or savannah is a grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
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Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, snail fever, and Katayama fever, is a disease caused by parasitic worms of the Schistosoma type.
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The Scythians (or; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of probably mainly Iranian-speaking "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group..." Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
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The Sea Peoples were conjectured groups of seafaring raiders,.
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In the Roman Catholic tradition, the epithet "the Seat of Wisdom" or "Throne of Wisdom" (a translation of the still-used Latin sedes sapientiae) is identified with one of many devotional titles for the Mother of God.
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Sebayt (Manuel de Codage transcription: sbA.yt) is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature.
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The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
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In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).
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The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
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Senet (or Senat) is a board game from predynastic and ancient Egypt.
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Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sîn-ahhī-erība, "Sîn has increased the brothers"), king of Assyria 705 BCE–681 BCE, is remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah and for his building programs, notably at his capital Nineveh.
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Serapis (Σέραπις, Attic/Ionian Greek) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, Doric Greek) is a Graeco-Egyptian god.
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Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent") was king of Assyria (859–824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.
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Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
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Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), (reigned c.943-922 BCE) — also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq) — was a Meshwesh-Berber king of Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty.
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A sickle is a hand-held agricultural tool with a variously curved blade typically used for harvesting grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock (either freshly cut or dried as hay).
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Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.
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In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (سيناء; سينا), or "סיני" in Hebrew, is a triangular peninsula in Egypt about in area.
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Sinsharishkun (Sin-shar-ishkun; Sîn-šarru-iškun, c. 627 – 612 BC), who seems to have been the Saràkos (Saracus) of Berossus, was one of the last kings of the Assyrian empire, followed only by Ashur-uballit II.
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Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat and/or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
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A sistrum (plural: sistrums or Latin sistra; from the Greek σεῖστρον seistron of the same meaning; literally "that which is being shaken", from σείειν seiein, "to shake") is a musical instrument of the percussion family, chiefly associated with ancient Iraq and Egypt.
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Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled.
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Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society.
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Social status is the position or rank of a person or group, within the society.
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Sodium oxide (SOX) is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
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Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil related to plants its ease of tillage, fitness of seedbed, and impedance to seedling emergence and root penetration by providing nutrients and suitable soil structure to support the plants/trees growth.
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A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
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A step pyramid or stepped pyramid is an architectural structure that uses flat platforms, or steps, receding from the ground up, to achieve a completed shape similar to a geometric pyramid.
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Stone structures, or "megaliths", have been erected by humanity for thousands of years.
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A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
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The Story of Sinuhe is considered one of the finest works of Ancient Egyptian literature.
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The Story of Wenamun (alternately known as the Report of Wenamun, The Misadventures of Wenamun, Voyage of Unamūn, or as just Wenamun) is a literary text written in hieratic in the Late Egyptian language.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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A strap, sometimes also called strop, is an elongated flap or ribbon, usually of fabric or leather.
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In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān), is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.
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Suez (السويس; -arz) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
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In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes termed postfix or ending or, in older literature, affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
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Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
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Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
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Supervisor, foreman, foreperson, boss, overseer, cell coach, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace.
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The Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) was the branch of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt.
Susa (fa Shush;; Hebrew שׁוּשָׁן Shushān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Shush; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Elamite, First Persian Empire and Parthian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
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Syncretism is the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
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In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an isolating language.
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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia.
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Taharqa was a pharaoh of the Ancient Egyptian 25th dynasty and king of the Kingdom of Kush, which was located in Northern Sudan.
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Tanis (Τάνις; Djanet; صان الحجر) is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt.
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Tantamani (Assyrian UR-daname) or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was a Pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush located in Northern Sudan and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.
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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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While not regarded as a dynasty, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c.943 BC, after which their influence declined.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
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The Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt begins with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC, ending the New Kingdom, and ends with the start of the Late period, for which various points are offered, though it is most often regarded as dating from the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty by the Assyrians under King Assurbanipal.
The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor.
The Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a short-living province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC.
Thomas Young (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was an English polymath and physician.
Thoth (or; from Greek Θώθ, from Egyptian, perhaps pronounced *// or *//, depending on the phonological interpretation of Egyptian's emphatic consonants) was one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
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Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of cereal grain (or other crop) from the scaly, inedible chaff that surrounds it.
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Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thothmes, Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, meaning Thoth-Born) was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
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Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
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Thyme is an evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal and ornamental uses.
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A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
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A treenail, also trenail, trennel, or trunnel, is a wooden peg, pin, or dowel used to fasten pieces of wood together, especially in timber frames, covered bridges, wooden shipbuilding and boat building.
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Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled ca. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom.
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The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 402 BC.
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed).
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse clade of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and Rhinos, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
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Upper and Lower Egypt also referred to as The Two Lands is a name used for Ancient Egypt.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد /) is the strip of land, on both sides of the Nile valley, that extends between Nubia, and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
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The ushabti (also called shabti or shawabti, with a number of variant spellings, Ancient Egyptian plural: ushabtiu) was a funerary figurine used in Ancient Egypt.
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A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
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In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
The Victory stele of Esarhaddon, also known as the Zincirli stele or Senjirli stele, is a dolerite stele commemorating the return of Esarhaddon after his army's 2nd battle and victory over Pharaoh Taharqa in northern ancient Egypt in 671 BC.
The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the king, or pharaoh during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
Wadi (وادي) is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley.
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Wadi El Natrun (Arabic for "Natron Valley"; Ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ Šihēt "Measure of the Hearts", Σκῆτις or Σκήτη) is a valley located in Beheira Governorate, Egypt, including a town with the same name.
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Wadi Hammamat (Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypt's Eastern Desert, about halfway between Al-Qusayr and Qena.
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The Walls-of-the-Ruler was a fortification, or possibly a whole string of them, built by Amenemhat I in the 14th nome of Lower Egypt to protect the eastern approaches to Egypt.
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The Westcar Papyrus (inventory-designation: P. Berlin 3033) is an ancient Egyptian text containing five stories about miracles performed by priests and magicians.
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Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
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Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.
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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
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In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
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The workforce or labour force (also labor force in the United States) is the labour pool in employment.
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A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
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There were several types of Writing in Ancient Egypt.
The 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period in terms of impact on cultural upheaval.
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During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spread from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe, and also from Mesopotamia to Egypt.
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