478 relations: Abscess, Abydos boats, Abydos, Egypt, Achaemenid Empire, Administration (government), Aegean Sea, Affricate consonant, Afghanistan, Afroasiatic languages, Agricultural productivity, Ahmose I, Akhenaten, Akkadian language, Al-Maqrizi, Alabaster, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Algebra, Alluvium, Amarna, Amarna art, Amarna Period, Amenemhat I, Amenemhat III, Amethyst, Amratian culture, Amun, Analytic language, Anatolia, Ancient Egyptian agriculture, Ancient Egyptian architecture, Ancient Egyptian deities, Ancient Egyptian funerary texts, Ancient Egyptian literature, Ancient Egyptian mathematics, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Egyptian pottery, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Ancient Libya, Ancient Macedonians, Ancient Near East, Ancient Rome, Animal, Animal fat, Animal husbandry, Arabian Desert, Arabic grammar, ..., Archaeological Institute of America, Archaeology (magazine), Archive, Art of ancient Egypt, Article (grammar), Assyria, Asthma, Aten, Atropa belladonna, Augustus, Autobiography of Harkhuf, Autobiography of Weni, Avaris, Ay, Badari culture, Ball game, Barley, Barry Kemp (Egyptologist), Bastet, Battle of Actium, Battle of Kadesh, Beauty and cosmetics in ancient Egypt, Beni Hasan, Berber languages, Berbers, Berkley Books, Bone fracture, Book frontispiece, Bow and arrow, British Museum, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bubastis, Buhen, Building material, Byblos, Calcium oxide, Cambyses II, Canaan, Canopic jar, Capital city, Carnelian, Cartonnage, Cataracts of the Nile, Caulking, Central government, Ceramic glaze, Chaff, Chamber tomb, Chariot, Chariotry in ancient Egypt, Christianity, Church (building), Circle, Civilization, Cleopatra, Code of law, Coffin Texts, Colchis, Colonialism, Colony, Commander, Composite bow, Coptic alphabet, Coptic language, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Corvée, Cosmetic palette, Costume jewelry, Courtyard, Criminal law, Crop yield, Currency, Cushi, Cyperus papyrus, Cyprus, Deben (unit), Decimal, Deir el-Medina, Demotic (Egyptian), Description de l'Égypte, Desiccation, Dhul-Nun al-Misri, Diocletian, Diodorus Siculus, Divine right of kings, Djoser, Domestication, Donald B. Redford, Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), Eastern Mediterranean, Ebers Papyrus, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian blue, Egyptian chronology, Egyptian cuisine, Egyptian faience, Egyptian fraction, Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian language, Egyptian medical papyri, Egyptian mythology, Egyptian pyramids, Egyptian temple, Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, Egyptians, Egyptology, Egyptomania, Elam, Eleanor Robson, Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt, Embalming, Emerald, Emmer, Emphatic consonant, Empirical evidence, Empiricism, Faiyum Oasis, Fish, Flail, Flax, Flint, Flooding of the Nile, Foreign contacts of ancient Egypt, Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Fraction (mathematics), Fricative consonant, Funerary art, Galena, Geometry, Georgia (country), Gerzeh culture, Giza pyramid complex, Glossary of ancient Egypt artifacts, God, God's Wife of Amun, Gold mining, Golden ratio, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Granary, Grazing, Great Pyramid of Giza, Great Sphinx of Giza, Greco-Roman world, Greek alphabet, Greywacke, Growing season, Gum arabic, Gypsum, Hand drill (hieroglyph), Hatshepsut, Hellenistic period, Henry Chadwick (theologian), Heracleopolis Magna, Heraclius, Herodotus, Hieratic, History of ancient Egypt, History of Ethiopia, Hittites, Homo sapiens, Hor-Aha, Horemheb, Horn of Africa, Hull (watercraft), Hunter-gatherer, Hyksos, Hypostyle, Hypotenuse, Imhotep, Income, Index of ancient Egypt-related articles, Instruction of Amenemope, Instruction of Any, Intef I, Ipuwer Papyrus, Iran, Irrigation, Isis, Islam, Itjtawy, Janet Johnson (Egyptologist), Jean-François Champollion, Johannes Krause, John Baines (Egyptologist), Joseph Dauben, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Kamose, Karnak, Khasekhemwy, Khopesh, Khufu, Khufu ship, Kim Plofker, Kim Ryholt, Kingdom of Kush, Lake Timsah, Land management, Land of Punt, Land reclamation, Lapis lazuli, Late Egyptian language, Late Period of ancient Egypt, Lead, Leather, Leontopolis, Levant, Library of Alexandria, Libyan Desert, Life expectancy, Lighthouse of Alexandria, Linen, Lion, List of ancient Egyptians, List of rock formations, Lithic flake, Lower Egypt, Lute, Lyre, Maat, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Malachite, Malaria, Malkata, Manetho, Mark Antony, Mark Lehner, Mastaba, Mathematical notation, Mehen (game), Memphis, Egypt, Menes, Mentuhotep II, Mersa Gawasis, Mesopotamia, Metalworking, Middle Ages, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Military of ancient Egypt, Mineral (nutrient), Minoan civilization, Mitanni, Mortise and tenon, Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, Mudbrick, Mummy, Musical instrument, Napoleon, Naqada, Naqada III, Narmer, Narmer Palette, Natron, Natural disaster, Natural history, Natural resource, Naucratis, Near East, Nectanebo II, Nekhen, New Kingdom of Egypt, New York University, Nile, Nile Delta, Niya Kingdom, Nobility, Nomad, Nomarch, Nome (Egypt), North African elephant, Nubia, Nubian pyramids, Nubians, Numeral system, Obelisk, Obsidian, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Olive oil, Opium, Optimism, Oracle, Organ (anatomy), Ostracon, Outline of ancient Egypt, Ox, Paleolithic, Papyrus, Peasant, Pelusium, Periodontal disease, Persian language, Pharaoh, Pharyngeal consonant, Phoenicia, Physician, Pi, Pitch (resin), Piye, Place of worship, Plank (wood), Pleistocene, Poaceae, Porphyry (geology), Post and lintel, Poultry, Power (social and political), Precinct of Amun-Re, Precious metal, Prehistoric Egypt, Psamtik I, Psamtik III, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IV Philopator, Pylon (architecture), Pyramid of Khafre, Pyramid Texts, Pythagorean theorem, Quarry, Ramesses II, Ramesses XI, Ramsay MacMullen, Rashidun Caliphate, Regalia, Relief, Religious syncretism, Renaissance, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Robert Drews, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Sais, Egypt, Satrap, Savanna, Schistosomiasis, Sea Peoples, Seat of Wisdom, Sebayt, Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Senet, Seqenenre Tao, Serapis, Sesostris, Ship, Shipbuilding, Shoshenq I, Sickle, Silicon dioxide, Sintering, Sistrum, Slavery, Smendes, Social change, Social status, Sodium oxide, Soil fertility, Solar deity, Step pyramid, Stone structures, Stone tool, Story of Sinuhe, Story of Wenamun, Strabo, Strap, Stress (linguistics), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subject–verb–object, Sudan, Suez, Suez Canal, Suffix, Sulfur, Sumer, Sumerian language, Supervisor, Supreme Council of Antiquities, Surveying, Synthetic language, Syria, System of equations, Taharqa, Tanis, Tantamani, Theban High Priests of Amun, Thebes, Egypt, Theodosius I, Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt, Thomas Young (scientist), Thoth, Threshing, Thutmose I, Thutmose III, Thyme, Tooth decay, Trade route, Treenail, Tutankhamun, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, Ungulate, Upper and Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Ushabti, Verb–subject–object, Vizier (Ancient Egypt), Wadi, Wadi El Natrun, Wadi Hammamat, Walls-of-the-Ruler, Westcar Papyrus, Western Asia, Wildlife, Winnowing, Wood, Word order, Workforce, Working animal, 4.2 kiloyear event, 6th millennium BC. 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An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
The Abydos boats were discovered in October 2000.
Abydos (أبيدوس.; Sahidic Ⲉⲃⲱⲧ) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
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Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)Franz Rosenthal,.
Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Amarna (al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).
Amarna art, or the Amarna style, is a style adopted in the Amarna Period during and just after the reign of Akhenaten (r. 1351–1334 BC) in the late Eighteenth Dynasty, during the New Kingdom.
The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is now Amarna.
Amenemhat I, also Amenemhet I and the hellenized form Ammenemes, was the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty, the dynasty considered to be the golden-age of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
The Amratian culture was a culture of prehistoric Upper Egypt.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The civilization of ancient Egypt was indebted to the Nile River and its dependable seasonal flooding.
Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, including pyramids and temples.
Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt.
The literature that makes up the ancient Egyptian funerary texts is a collection of religious documents that were used in ancient Egypt, usually to help the spirit of the concerned person to be preserved in the afterlife.
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination.
Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt 3000 to c. 300 BC, from the Old Kingdom of Egypt until roughly the beginning of Hellenistic Egypt.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancient Egyptian pottery includes all objects of fired clay from ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
Arabic grammar (اَلنَّحْو اَلْعَرَبِي or قَوَاعِد اَللُّغَة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة) is the grammar of the Arabic language.
The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites.
Archaeology is a bimonthly magazine for the general public, published by the Archaeological Institute of America.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 30 AD.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Aten (also Aton, Egyptian jtn) is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of the god Ra.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
One of the (two) most important, and the most famous, autobiographical inscriptions of the Old Kingdom officials, is the Autobiography of Harkhuf. This private tomb inscription from Ancient Egypt is significant to Egyptology studies.
The Autobiography of Weni is a tomb inscription from Ancient Egypt which is significant to Egyptology studies.
Avaris (Egyptian: ḥw.t wꜥr.t, sometimes transcribed Hut-waret in works for a popular audience, Αὔαρις, Auaris) was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos.
Ay was the penultimate Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty.
The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt during the Predynastic Era.
Ball games (or ballgames), also ball sports, are any form of game or sport which feature a ball as part of play.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Barry John Kemp, CBE, FBA is an English archaeologist and Egyptologist.
Bastet or Bast (bꜣstjt "She of the Ointment Jar", Ⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥⲧⲉ) was a goddess of ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the Second Dynasty (2890 BCE).
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Kadesh or Battle of Qadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Syrian-Lebanese border.
The ancient Egyptians regarded beauty as a sign of holiness.
Beni Hasan (also written as Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) (بني حسن) is an Ancient Egyptian cemetery site.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Berkley Books is an imprint of Penguin Group (USA) that began as an independent company in 1955.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
A frontispiece in books is a decorative or informative illustration facing a book's title page — on the left-hand, or verso, page opposite the right-hand, or recto, page.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bubastis (Bohairic Coptic: Ⲡⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥϯ Poubasti; Greek: Βούβαστις Boubastis or Βούβαστος Boubastos), also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city.
Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below (to the North of) the Second Cataract in what is now Northern State, Sudan.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Canopic jars used by the ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.
Cartonnage is a type of material used in Ancient Egyptian funerary masks from the First Intermediate Period to the Roman era.
The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.
Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.
A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw.
A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
In ancient Egyptian society chariotry stood as an independent unit in the King’s military force.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
The cosmetic palettes are archaeological artefacts, originally used in predynastic Egypt to grind and apply ingredients for facial or body cosmetics.
Costume jewelry, trinkets, fashion jewelry, junk jewelry, fake jewelry, or fallalery is jewelry manufactured as ornamentation to complement a particular fashionable costume or garmentBaker, Lillian.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
The word Cushi or Kushi (כּוּשִׁי kūšî) is a term generally used in the Hebrew Bible to refer to a dark-skinned person of African descent, equivalent to Greek Aethiops.
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The deben was an ancient Egyptian weight unit.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
Deir el-Medina (دير المدينة) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC)Oakes, p. 110 The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.
Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
The Description de l'Égypte (Description of Egypt) was a series of publications, appearing first in 1809 and continuing until the final volume appeared in 1829, which aimed to comprehensively catalog all known aspects of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Dhūl-Nūn Abū l-Fayḍ Thawbān b. Ibrāhīm al-Miṣrī (ذو النون المصري; d. Giza, in 245/859 or 248/862), often referred to as Dhūl-Nūn al-Miṣrī or Zūl-Nūn al-Miṣrī for short, was an early Egyptian Muslim mystic and ascetic of Nubian origin.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Djoser (also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Donald Bruce Redford (born September 2, 1934) is a Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, currently Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Pennsylvania State University.
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4 (calcium copper tetrasilicate)) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment used in ancient Egypt for thousands of years.
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt.
Egyptian cuisine is characterized by dishes such as ful medames, mashed fava beans; kushari, with lentils and pasta, a national dish; and molokhiya, bush okra stew.
Egyptian faience is a sintered-quartz ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various colours, with blue-green being the most common.
An Egyptian fraction is a finite sum of distinct unit fractions, such as That is, each fraction in the expression has a numerator equal to 1 and a denominator that is a positive integer, and all the denominators differ from each other.
Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs was written by Alan Gardiner and first published in 1927 in London by the Clarendon Press.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Egyptian medical papyri are ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus which permit a glimpse at medical procedures and practices in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control.
The Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty, also known as the Eternal Treaty or the Silver Treaty, is the only ancient Near Eastern treaty for which both sides' versions have survived.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
Egyptomania was the renewed interest of Europeans in ancient Egypt during the nineteenth century as a result of Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign (1798–1801) and, in particular, as a result of the extensive scientific study of ancient Egyptian remains and culture inspired by this campaign.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Eleanor Robson is a Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History at the Department of History, University College London, chair of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq and a Quondam Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) is a well-attested group of rulers.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Faiyum Oasis (واحة الفيوم Waḥet El Fayyum) is a depression or basin in the desert immediately to the west of the Nile south of Cairo.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating grains from their husks.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
The following is a chronicle of predynastic and ancient Egyptian foreign contacts up through 343 BC.
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gerzeh (also Girza or Jirzah) was a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery located along the west bank of the Nile.
The Giza pyramid complex (أهرامات الجيزة,, "pyramids of Giza") is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
God's Wife of Amun (Egyptian: ḥm.t nṯr n ỉmn) was the highest-ranking priestess of the Amun cult, an important religious institution in ancient Egypt.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
The Great Sphinx of Giza (translit,, The Terrifying One; literally: Father of Dread), commonly referred to as the Sphinx of Giza or just the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
A Hand drill is a hieroglyph, (and tool), used in Ancient Egypt from the earliest dynasties.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henry Chadwick (23 June 1920 – 17 June 2008) was a British academic, theologian and Church of England priest.
Heracleopolis Magna (Μεγάλη Ἡρακλέους πόλις, Megálē Herakléous pólis) or Heracleopolis (Ἡρακλεόπολις, Herakleópolis) is the Roman name of the capital of the 20th nome of ancient Upper Egypt.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hieratic (priestly) is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt.
The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC.
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Hor-Aha (or Aha or Horus Aha) is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt by some Egyptologists, others consider him the first one and corresponding to Menes.
Horemheb (sometimes spelled Horemhab or Haremhab and meaning Horus is in Jubilation) was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns.
In geometry, a hypotenuse (rarely: hypothenuse) is the longest side of a right-angled triangle, the side opposite of the right angle.
Imhotep (Egyptian: ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap, in Unicode hieroglyphs: 𓇍𓅓𓊵:𓏏*𓊪, "the one who comes in peace"; fl. late 27th century BC) was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis.
Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.
Articles related to ancient Egypt include.
Instruction of Amenemope (also called Instructions of Amenemopet, Wisdom of Amenemopet) is a literary work composed in Ancient Egypt, most likely during the Ramesside Period (ca. 1300–1075 BCE); it contains thirty chapters of advice for successful living, ostensibly written by the scribe Amenemope son of Kanakht as a legacy for his son.
The Instruction of Any, or Ani, is an Ancient Egyptian text written in the style of wisdom literature which is thought to have been composed in the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom, with a surviving manuscript dated from the Twenty-First or Twenty-Second Dynasty.
Sehertawy Intef I was a local nomarch at Thebes during the early First Intermediate Period and the first member of the 11th Dynasty to lay claim to a Horus name.
The Ipuwer Papyrus (officially Papyrus Leiden I 344 recto) is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus made during the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, and now held in the Dutch National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Netherlands.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Itjtawy (full Egyptian name Amenemhat-itj-tawy — "Amenemhat, Seizer of the Two Lands"), is the as yet unidentified location of the royal city founded by Twelfth Dynasty Egyptian King Amenemhat I, who ruled from about 1991 BC to 1962 BC, during year 20 of his reign.
Janet Helen Johnson (born December 24, 1944) is an American Egyptologist and academic, specialise in Egyptian language and the Late Period of ancient Egypt.
Jean-François Champollion (Champollion le jeune; 23 December 17904 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of Egyptology.
Johannes Krause (born July 17, 1980 in Leinefelde) is a German biochemist with a research focus on historical infectious diseases and human evolution.
John Robert Baines, (born 17 March 1946) is a British retired Egyptologist and academic.
Joseph Warren Dauben (born 29 December 1944, Santa Monica) is a Herbert H. Lehman Distinguished Professor of History at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.
The Journal of Near Eastern Studies (JNES) is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press, covering research on the ancient and medieval civilisations of the Near East, including their archaeology, art, history, literature, linguistics, religion, law, and science.
Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty.
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.
Khasekhemwy (ca. 2690 BC; Ḫꜥj-sḫm.wj, also rendered Kha-sekhemui) was the final king of the Second dynasty of Egypt.
Khopesh (ḫpš; also vocalized khepesh) is an Egyptian sickle-sword that evolved from battle axes.
Khufu (full name Khnum Khufu, known to the Greeks as Cheops, was an ancient Egyptian monarch who ruled during the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC). Khufu was the second ruler of the 4th dynasty; he followed his possible father, king Sneferu, on the throne. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are rather poorly documented. The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of a later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments, and many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main character noted in the Papyrus Westcar from the 13th dynasty. Most documents that mention king Khufu were written by ancient Egyptian and Greek historians around 300 BC. Khufu's obituary is presented there in a conflicting way: while the king enjoyed a long lasting cultural heritage preservation during the period of the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom, the ancient historians Manetho, Diodorus and Herodotus hand down a very negative depiction of Khufu's character. Thanks to these documents, an obscure and critical picture of Khufu's personality persists.
The Khufu ship is an intact full-size vessel from Ancient Egypt that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC.
Kim Leslie Plofker (born November 25, 1964) is an American historian of mathematics, specializing in Indian mathematics.
Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt (born 19 June 1970) is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
Lake Timsah, also known as Crocodile Lake, is a lake in Egypt on the Nile delta.
Land management is the process of managing the use and development (in both urban and rural settings) of land resources.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt around 1350 BC – the Amarna Period.
The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Achaemenid Persian conquests and ended with the conquest by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Leontopolis was an Ancient Egyptian city located in the Nile Delta, Lower Egypt.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας, contemporary Koine), was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC) which has been estimated to be in overall height.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is a list of ancient Egyptian people who have articles on Wikipedia.
A rock formation is an isolated, scenic, or spectacular surface rock outcrop.
In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure,"Andrefsky, W. (2005) Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
Maat or Ma'at (Egyptian '''mꜣꜥt''' /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malkata (or Malqata), meaning the place where things are picked up in Arabic, is the site of an Ancient Egyptian palace complex built during the New Kingdom, by the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III.
Manetho (Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytus (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the early 3rd century BC.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with more than 30 years of experience excavating in Egypt.
A mastaba or pr-djt (meaning "house for eternity" or "eternal house" in Ancient Egyptian) is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with inward sloping sides, constructed out of mud-bricks (from the Nile River).
Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.
Mehen is a board game which was played in ancient Egypt.
Memphis (مَنْف; ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.
Menes (mnj, probably pronounced *; Μήνης) was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt and as the founder of the First Dynasty.
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (reigned c. 2061 BC – 2010 BC) was a Pharaoh of the 11th Dynasty who reigned for 51 years.
Mersa Gawasis (Ancient Egyptian Saww) is a small Egyptian harbour on the Red Sea and a former Egyptian port city.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the northern reaches of the Nile River in Egypt.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.
The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian mathematical papyrus, also called the Golenishchev Mathematical Papyrus, after its first owner outside of Egypt, Egyptologist Vladimir Golenishchev.
A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Naqada is a town on the west bank of the Nile in the Egyptian governorate of Qena.
Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC.
Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period.
The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC.
Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt, "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360—342 BC) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt. Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists delivered a specific style that left a distinctive mark on the reliefs of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Like his indirect predecessor Nectanebo I, Nectanebo II showed enthusiasm for many of the cults of the gods within ancient Egyptian religion, and more than a hundred Egyptian sites bear evidence of his attentions. Nectanebo II, however, undertook more constructions and restorations than Nectanebo I, commencing in particular the enormous Egyptian temple of Isis (the Iseum). For several years, Nectanebo II was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire. However, betrayed by his former servant, Mentor of Rhodes, Nectanebo II was ultimately defeated by the combined Persian and Greek forces in the Battle of Pelusium (343 BC). The Persians occupied Memphis and then seized the rest of Egypt, incorporating the country into the Achaemenid Empire. Nectanebo fled south and preserved his power for some time; his subsequent fate is unknown.
Nekhen or Hierakonpolis (Ἱεράκων πόλις Hierakōn polis "Hawk City", lit) was the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of prehistoric Egypt (3200–3100 BC) and probably also during the Early Dynastic Period (3100–2686 BC).
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
Niya, Niye, and also Niy of Thutmose I's Ancient Egypt, also Nii of the Amarna letters, and Nihe, etc.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomarchs (Ancient Egyptian: heri-tep a'a) were Ancient Egyptian administration officials responsible for the provinces.
A nome (from νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.
The North African elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaoensis) was a subspecies of the African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), or possibly a separate elephant species, that existed in North Africa north of the Sahara until becoming extinct in Roman times.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Nubian pyramids are pyramids that were built by the rulers of the ancient Kushite kingdoms.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
An obelisk (from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Optimism is a mental attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
The following outline is provided as an overview of a topical guide to ancient Egypt: Ancient Egypt – ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Pelusium (الفرما; Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ or Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲏ), was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said, becoming a Roman provincial capital and Metropolitan archbishopric, remaining a multiple Catholic titular see.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
The number is a mathematical constant.
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.
Piye (once transliterated as Piankhi; d. 714 BC) was an ancient Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from 744–714 BC.
A place of worship is a specially designed structure or consecrated space where individuals or a group of people such as a congregation come to perform acts of devotion, veneration, or religious study.
A plank is timber that is flat, elongated, and rectangular with parallel faces that are higher and longer than wide.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass.
In architecture, post and lintel (also called prop and lintel or a trabeated system) is a building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
The Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main temple enclosures that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh, Narmer for some egyptologists, Hor-Aha for others, (also known as Menes).
Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus (Latinization of translit), who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus, from Greek Ψαμμήτιχος) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; 245/4–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.
Pylon is the Greek term (Greek: πυλών) for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple (Egyptian: bxn.t in the Manuel de Codage transliteration).
The Pyramid of Khafre or of Chephren (translit) is the second-tallest and second-largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the Fourth-Dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chefren), who ruled from to 2532 BC.
The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.
In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Menmaatre Ramesses XI (also written Ramses and Rameses) reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth and final pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.
Ramsay MacMullen (born March 3, 1928 in New York City) is an Emeritus Professor of history at Yale University, where he taught from 1967 to his retirement in 1993 as Dunham Professor of History and Classics.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (RMP; also designated as papyrus British Museum 10057 and pBM 10058) is one of the best known examples of Egyptian mathematics.
Robert Drews (born March 26, 1936) is an American historian who is Professor of Classical Studies Emeritus at Vanderbilt University.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Sais (Σάϊς, ⲥⲁⲓ) or Sa El Hagar (صا الحجر) was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
In Roman Catholic tradition, "Seat of Wisdom" or "Throne of Wisdom" (translating Latin sedes sapientiae) is one of many devotional titles for Mary, the Mother of God.
Sebayt (Egyptian sbꜣyt, Coptic ⲥⲃⲱ "instruction, teaching") is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature.
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Senet (or Senat) is a board game from ancient Egypt whose original rules are the subject of conjecture.
Serapis (Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, earlier form, from Userhapi "Osiris-Apis") is a Graeco-Egyptian deity.
Sesostris (Σέσωστρις) was the name of a king of ancient Egypt who, according to Herodotus, led a military expedition into parts of Europe.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq, Tamazight: ⵛⵉⵛⵓⵏⵇ cicunq), (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq)—was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt.
A sickle, or bagging hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
A sistrum (plural: sistrums or Latin sistra; from the Greek σεῖστρον seistron of the same meaning; literally "that which is being shaken", from σείειν seiein, "to shake") is a musical instrument of the percussion family, chiefly associated with ancient Iraq and Egypt.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
A step pyramid or stepped pyramid is an architectural structure that uses flat platforms, or steps, receding from the ground up, to achieve a completed shape similar to a geometric pyramid.
Stone structures, or "megaliths", have been erected by humanity for thousands of years.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
The Story of Sinuhe is considered one of the finest works of ancient Egyptian literature.
The Story of Wenamun (alternately known as the Report of Wenamun, The Misadventures of Wenamun, Voyage of Unamūn, or as just Wenamun) is a literary text written in hieratic in the Late Egyptian language.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
A strap, sometimes also called strop, is an elongated flap or ribbon, usually of fabric or leather.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
A Supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, foreperson, overseer, cell coach, manager, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace.
The Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) was a department within the Egyptian Ministry of Culture from 1994 until January 2011, when it became an independent ministry, the Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA).
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.
Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo (Manetho's Tarakos, Strabo's Tearco), was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore (king) of the Kingdom of Kush.
Tanis (ϫⲁⲛⲓ/ϫⲁⲁⲛⲉ; Τάνις; ḏˁn.t /ˈɟuʕnat/ or /ˈcʼuʕnat/; صان الحجر) is a city in the north-eastern Nile Delta of Egypt.
Tantamani (Assyrian UR-daname), Tanutamun or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was a Pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush located in Northern Sudan and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.
While not regarded as a dynasty, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c. 943 BC, after which their influence declined.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Thoth (from Greek Θώθ; derived from Egyptian ḏḥw.ty) is one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.
Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
A treenail, also trenail, trennel, or trunnel, is a wooden peg, pin, or dowel used to fasten pieces of wood together, especially in timber frames, covered bridges, wooden shipbuilding and boat building.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
The Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XX, alternatively 20th Dynasty or Dynasty 20) is classified as the third and last dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1189 BC to 1077 BC.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC.
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed).
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
In Egyptian history, the Upper and Lower Egypt period (also known as The Two Lands, a name for Ancient Egypt during this time) was the final stage of its prehistory and directly preceded the nation's unification.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
The ushabti (also called shabti or shawabti, with a number of variant spellings, Ancient Egyptian plural: ushabtiu) was a funerary figurine used in Ancient Egypt.
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the pharaoh (king) during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Wadi El Natrun (Arabic for "Natron Valley"; Ϣⲓϩⲏⲧ Šihēt "Measure of the Hearts", Σκῆτις or Σκήτη) is a valley located in Beheira Governorate, Egypt, including a town with the same name.
Wadi Hammamat (Valley of Many Baths) is a dry river bed in Egypt's Eastern Desert, about halfway between Al-Qusayr and Qena.
The Walls-of-the-Ruler was a fortification, or possibly a whole string of them, built by Amenemhat I in the 14th nome of Lower Egypt to protect the eastern approaches to Egypt.
The Westcar Papyrus (inventory-designation: P. Berlin 3033) is an ancient Egyptian text containing five stories about miracles performed by priests and magicians.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
The 4.2-kiloyear BP aridification event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period.
The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 through 5001 BC.
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