383 relations: Acarnania, Achaea (Roman province), Achaean League, Achaemenid Empire, Aegean Islands, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Aetolia, Aetolian League, Afghanistan, Age of Enlightenment, Agoge, Agora, Alexander I of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Almopia, Ambracian Gulf, Anatolia, Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek coinage, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient history of Cyprus, Ancient Libya, Ancient Macedonian army, Ancient Rome, Antigonid dynasty, Antikythera, Antikythera mechanism, Antioch, Aoös, Aphrodite, Apollo, Apparent magnitude, Applied mathematics, Arable land, Archaeology, Archaic Greece, Archilochus, Archimedes, Architecture, Archon basileus, Ares, Argead dynasty, Aristarchus of Samos, Aristocracy, Aristodemus, ..., Aristophanes, Aristotle, Artemis, Athena, Athenian democracy, Athens, Attalid dynasty, Attica, Augustus, Babylonia, Basileus, Battle of Aegospotami, Battle of Arginusae, Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), Battle of 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Acarnania (Ακαρνανία) is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth.
Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion - "League of Achaeans") was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
Aetolia (Αἰτωλία, Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania.
The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The agōgē (Greek: ἀγωγή in Attic Greek, or ἀγωγά, agōgá in Doric Greek) was the rigorous education and training program mandated for all male Spartan citizens, except for the firstborn son in the ruling houses, Eurypontid and Agiad.
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
Alexander I of Macedon (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, "lover of the Greeks"), was the ruler of the ancient Kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his death in 454 BC.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Almopia (Αλμωπία), or Enotia, also known in the Middle Ages as Moglena (Greek: Μογλενά, Macedonian: Меглен and Bulgarian: Меглен or Мъглен), is a municipality and a former province (επαρχία) of the Pella regional unit in Macedonia, Greece.
The Ambracian Gulf, also known as the Gulf of Arta or the Gulf of Actium, and in some official documents as the Amvrakikos Gulf (Αμβρακικός κόλπος), is a gulf of the Ionian Sea in northwestern Greece.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.
Anaximenes of Miletus (Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 585 – c. 528 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
The ancient history of Cyprus shows a precocious sophistication in the neolithlic era visible in settlements such as at Choirokoitia dating from the 9th millennium BC, and at Kavalassos from about 7500 BC.
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
The army of the Kingdom of Macedonia was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Antigonid dynasty (Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").
Antikythera or Anticythera (Ἀντικύθηρα Αντικύθηρα,, literally "opposite Kythera") is a Greek island lying on the edge of the Aegean Sea, between Crete and Peloponnese.
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
The Aoös (Αώος) or Vjosë is a river in northwestern Greece and southwestern Albania.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Archilochus (Ἀρχίλοχος Arkhilokhos; c. 680c. 645 BC)While these have been the generally accepted dates since Felix Jacoby, "The Date of Archilochus," Classical Quarterly 35 (1941) 97–109, some scholars disagree; Robin Lane Fox, for instance, in Travelling Heroes: Greeks and Their Myths in the Epic Age of Homer (London: Allen Lane, 2008), p. 388, dates him c. 740–680 BC.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς) was a Greek title, meaning "king magistrate": the term is derived from the words archon "magistrate" and basileus "king" or "sovereign".
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Macedonian Greek royal house.
Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
In Greek mythology, Aristodemus (Ancient Greek: Ἀριστόδημος) was a Heracleidae, son of Aristomachus and brother of Cresphontes and Temenus.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The naval Battle of Aegospotami took place in 405 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War.
The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BC during the Peloponnesian War near the city of Canae in the Arginusae islands, east of the island of Lesbos.
The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes.
The Battle of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek city-state of Corinth and its allies in the Achaean League in 146 BC, which resulted in the complete and total destruction of Corinth.
The naval Battle of Cyzicus took place in 410 BC during the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Delium (or Delion, a city in Boeotia) took place in 424 BC, during the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Himera (480 BC), supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis, or at the same time as the Battle of Thermopylae, saw the Greek forces of Gelon, King of Syracuse, and Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, defeat the Carthaginian force of Hamilcar the Magonid, ending a Carthaginian bid to restore the deposed tyrant of Himera.
The Battle of Leuctra (Λεῦκτρα, Leûktra) was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict.
The Second Battle of Mantinea was fought on July 4, 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans.
The First Battle of Mantinea of 418 BC was a significant engagement in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The naval Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War at the peninsula of Pylos, on the present-day Bay of Navarino in Messenia, and was an Athenian victory over Sparta.
The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.
The Battle of Sphacteria was a land battle of the Peloponnesian War, fought in 425 BC between Athens and Sparta.
The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
Bottiaea (Greek: Βοττιαία Bottiaia) was a geographical region of ancient Macedonia and an administrative district of the Macedonian Kingdom.
Brasidas (Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Bruce S. Thornton (born August 2, 1953) is an American classicist at California State University, Fresno, and research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Callippus (Κάλλιππος; c. 370 BC – c. 300 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
Candaules (died c.687 BC; Κανδαύλης, Kandaulēs), also known as Myrsilos (Μυρσίλος), was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia in the early years of the 7th century BC.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Continental Greece (Στερεά Ελλάδα, Stereá Elláda; formerly Χέρσος Ἑλλάς, Chérsos Ellás), colloquially known as Roúmeli (Ρούμελη), is a traditional geographic region of Greece.
The Ceraunian Mountains (Vargu Detar or Malësia Akrokeraune; Κεραύνια Όρη, Keravnia ori; Cerauni Montes) are a coastal mountain range in Southwestern Albania, within the county of Vlorë.
Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
Chaonia or Chaon (Greek Χαονία or Χάων) was the name of the northwestern part of Epirus, the homeland of the Greek tribe of the Chaonians.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cimon (– 450BC) or Kimon (Κίμων, Kimōn) was an Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Classical demography refers to the study of human demography in the Classical period.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Cleisthenes (Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.
Cleomenes (though some older reference works give the pronunciation with the accent on the next to last syllable, which is closer to the Greek; Greek Κλεομένης Kleomenes; died c. 489 BC) was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.
Coin counterfeiting of valuable antique coins is common; modern high-value coins are also counterfeited and circulated.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Religion in the Greco-Roman world at the time of the Constantinian shift mostly comprised three main currents.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.
The Dionysia was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Doris (Greek: ἡ Δωρίς: Eth. Δωριεύς, pl. Δωριῆς, Δωριεῖς; Dores, Dorienses) is a small mountainous district in ancient Greece, bounded by Aetolia, southern Thessaly, the Ozolian Locrians, and Phocis; the original homeland of the Dorian Greeks.
Draco (Δράκων, Drakōn; fl. c. 7th century BC) was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
The ecclesia or ekklesia (ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens.
The economy of ancient Greece was defined largely by the region's dependence on imported goods.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elimeia (Ελιμεία) is a former municipality in Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eordaia (Εορδαία) is a municipality in the Kozani regional unit, Greece.
Epaminondas (Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas; d. 362 BC) was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state of Thebes, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a pre-eminent position in Greek politics.
The ephors were leaders of ancient Sparta and shared power with the two Spartan kings.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
The Epistles (or Letters) of Horace were published in two books, in 20 BCE and 14 BCE, respectively.
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn).
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Eretria (Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers") is a town in Euboea, Greece, facing the coast of Attica across the narrow South Euboean Gulf.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In Greek mythology, Eurysthenes (Εὐρυσθένης, "widely ruling") was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus and Argia.
The essential Olympians' names are given in bold font.
Fifth-century Athens is the Greek city-state of Athens in the time from 480 BC-404 BC.
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage.
The First Messenian War was a war between Messenia and Sparta.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of sentences (called well-formed formulas in the case of a formal language), each of which is an axiom, an assumption, or follows from the preceding sentences in the sequence by a rule of inference.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gelo (Greek: Γέλων Gelon, gen.: Γέλωνος; died 478 BC), son of Deinomenes, was a 5th-century BC ruler of Gela and Syracuse and first of the Deinomenid rulers.
Greece is a country in Southern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by the Aegean Sea and Turkey, to the south by the Libyan Sea and to the west by the Ionian Sea, which separates Greece from Italy.
Geometric art is a phase of Greek art, characterized largely by geometric motifs in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BC – 700 BC.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
The Gerousia (γερουσία) was the Spartan council of elders, which was made up of men over the age of sixty.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
Greek lyric is the body of lyric poetry written in dialects of Ancient Greek.
Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Hampden–Sydney College (H-SC) is a liberal arts college for men in Hampden Sydney, Virginia.
Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.
The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta.
Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
In Greek mythology, the Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι) or Heraclids were the numerous descendants of Heracles (Hercules), especially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants of Hyllus, the eldest of his four sons by Deianira (Hyllus was also sometimes thought of as Heracles' son by Melite).
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Heraclides Ponticus (Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός Herakleides; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who was born in Heraclea Pontica, now Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey, and migrated to Athens.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
In Ancient Greek religion, Hestia (Ἑστία, "hearth" or "fireside") is a virgin goddess of the hearth, architecture, and the right ordering of domesticity, the family, the home, and the state.
Hiero II (Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Hipparchus or Hipparch (Ἵππαρχος; died 514 BC) was a member of the ruling class of Athens.
Hippias of Athens (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος) was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens between about 527 BC and 510 BC when Cleomenes I of Sparta successfully invaded Athens and forced Hippias to leave Athens.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Isagoras (Ἰσαγόρας), son of Tisander, was an Athenian aristocrat in the late 6th century BC.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός Hellenikos, "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after the battle of Chaeronea and succeeded by Alexander the Great at 336 BC, to facilitate the use of military forces in the war of Greece against Persia.
Leitkultur is a German concept, which can be translated as 'guiding culture' or 'leading culture', less literally as 'common culture', 'core culture' or 'basic culture'.
The Lelantine War is the modern name for a military conflict between the two ancient Greek city states Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea which took place in the early Archaic period, between c. 710 and 650 BC.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
This list of kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnesus.
The following is a List of Roman wars and battles fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.
Locris (Greek, Modern: Λοκρίδα, Lokrida, Ancient: Λοκρίς, Lokris) was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of three distinct districts.
Lower Macedonia (Κάτω Μακεδονία, Kato Makedonia) or Macedonia proper or Emathia is a geographical term used in Antiquity referring to the coastal plain watered by the rivers Haliacmon, Axius on the west and bounded by Strymon on the east.
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe.
Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος, Lykoûrgos,; 820 BC) was the quasi-legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
Lynkestis (also Lyncestis, Λυγκηστίς meaning "land of the lynx") or Lyncus (Λύγκος) was a region, and in earlier times a Greek kingdom of Upper Macedonia, located on the southern borders of Illyria and Paeonia.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
The Mamertines (Mamertini, "sons of Mars") were mercenaries of Italian origin who had been hired from their home in Campania by Agathocles (361 – 289 BC), Tyrant of Syracuse and self-proclaimed King of Sicily.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megaris (Μεγαρίς) was a small but populous state of ancient Greece, west of Attica and north of Corinthia, whose inhabitants were adventurous seafarers, credited with deceitful propensities.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Messenia or Messinia (Μεσσηνία) was an ancient district of the southwestern Peloponnese more or less overlapping the modern Messenia region of Greece.
Messenian Wars refers to the wars between Messenia and Sparta in the 8th and 7th centuries BC as well as the 4th century BC.
In ancient Greece, a metic (Ancient Greek: μέτοικος, métoikos: from μετά, metá, indicating change, and οἶκος, oîkos "dwelling") was a foreign resident of Athens, one who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Molossians were an ancient Greek tribe and kingdom that inhabited the region of Epirus since the Mycenaean era.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mygdonia (Μυγδονία / Μygdonia) was an ancient territory, part of Ancient Thrace, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
The National Archaeological Museum (Εθνικό Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο) in Athens houses some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological locations around Greece from prehistory to late antiquity.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Orestis (Greek: Ὀρεστίς) was a region of Upper Macedonia, corresponding roughly to the modern Kastoria regional unit located in West Macedonia, Greece.
The following outline is provided as an overview of a topical guide to ancient Egypt: Ancient Egypt – ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ancient Greece.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Rome: Ancient Rome – former civilization that thrived on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies: Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch of the humanities, which covers the languages, literature, history, art, and other cultural aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας; died c. 470 BC) was a Spartan regent, general, and war leader for the Greeks who was suspected of conspiring with the Persian king, Xerxes I, during the Greco-Persian Wars.
Pausanias of Orestis (Greek: Παυσανίας ἐκ τῆς Ὀρεστίδος) was a member of Philip II of Macedon's somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard.
The Peace of Nicias, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War.
Pederasty in ancient Greece was a socially acknowledged romantic relationship between an adult male (the erastes) and a younger male (the eromenos) usually in his teens.
Peisistratos (Πεισίστρατος; died 528/7 BC), Latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Pieria (Πιερία) is one of the regional units of Greece located in the southern part of the Region of Central Macedonia, within the historical province of Macedonia.
The Plague of Athens (Λοιμός των Αθηνών) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.
Plataea or Plataeae (Πλαταιαί) was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
A popular assembly (or people's assembly) is a gathering called to address issues of importance to participants.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
The prehistory of Italy began in the Paleolithic, when the Homo species colonized for the first time the Italian territory and ends in the Iron Age, when the first written records appeared in the peninsula and in the islands.
In Greek legends, Procles (Προκλῆς, "the renowned") was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus and Argia.
The Protogeometric style (or "Proto-Geometric") is a style of Ancient Greek pottery led by Athens produced between roughly 1050 and 900 BC, the period of the Greek Dark Ages and the beginning of the Archaic period.
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings.
Psamtik III (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus, from Greek Ψαμμήτιχος) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt from 526 BC to 525 BC.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The 74 regional units (περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enóti̱tes, sing.) are administrative units of Greece.
The regions of ancient Greece were areas identified by the ancient Greeks as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Rhea (Ῥέα) is a character in Greek mythology, the Titaness daughter of the earth goddess Gaia and the sky god Uranus as well as sister and wife to Cronus.
The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery was a common practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the time.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
The Spartan army stood at the center of the Spartan state, whose citizens trained in the disciplines and honor of a warrior society.
The polis of Sparta was the greatest military land power of classical Greek antiquity.
The Spartiates (Σπαρτιάτες, "Spartans") or Homoioi (Ὅμοιοι, "those who are alike"; sing. homoios) were the males of Sparta known to the Spartans as "peers" or "men of equal status".
Stagira, Stagirus, or Stageira (Στάγειρα or Στάγειρος) was an ancient Greek city, located in central Macedonia, near the eastern coast of the peninsula of Chalkidice, and is chiefly known for being the birthplace of Aristotle, who was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
In ancient Greece, the symposium (συμπόσιον symposion or symposio, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, dancing, recitals, or conversation.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Taganrog (p) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The Acharnians or Acharnians (Ancient Greek: Ἀχαρνεῖς Akharneîs; Attic: Ἀχαρνῆς) is the third play — and the earliest of the eleven surviving plays — by the Athenian playwright Aristophanes.
The Theban hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.
The Thirty Years' Peace was a treaty, signed between the ancient Greek city-states Athens and Sparta, in the year 446/445 BCE.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Upper Macedonia (Greek: Ἄνω Μακεδονία, Ánō Makedonía) is a geographical and tribal term to describe the upper/western of the two parts in which, together with Lower Macedonia, the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon was roughly divided.
The Vardar (Вардар) or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia and also a major river of Greece.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Ancient Greek Civilization, Ancient Greek Government, Ancient Greek civilisation, Ancient Greek civilization, Ancient Greek culture, Ancient Greek science, Ancient Greek world, Ancient Greeks, Ancient greece, Ancient greecians, Ancint greece, Anient Greece, Culture of ancient Greece, Government in Greek Antiquity, Government of Ancient Greece, Grecian runes, Grecianity, Greece in 4th century BC, Greek Antiquity, Greek Society, Greek antiquity, Greek civilization, Greek era, Greek society, Hellenic Civilization, Hellenic civilisation, Hellenic civilization, Hellenic world, History of Ancient Greece, Science in ancient Greece, The Ancient Greeks.