418 relations: A True Story, Aśvaghoṣa, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Abu Salabikh, Adelphoe, Aeneid, Aeschylus, Aesop's Fables, Against Apion, Agastya, Aitareya Upanishad, Akkadian literature, Alcaeus of Mytilene, Alcestis (play), Alcman, Almagest, Amarna letters, Anabasis (Xenophon), Analects, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian literature, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Hebrew writings, Andria (comedy), Andromache (play), Anitta, Antigone (Sophocles play), Antiquities of the Jews, Aphrahat, Apicius, Apollonius of Rhodes, Apology (Plato), Apuleius, Aranyaka, Archilochus, Argonautica, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Arrian, Assemblywomen, Atharvaveda, Athenaeus, Atra-Hasis, Augustine of Hippo, Aulus Furius Antias, Avesta, Ayadgar-i Zariran, Ban Gu, Bao Zhao, ..., Boethius, Book of Amos, Book of Daniel, Book of Documents, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Han, Book of Hosea, Book of Isaiah, Book of Job, Book of Nahum, Book of Rites, Book of the Dead, Book of the Later Han, Book of Wisdom, Brahmana, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Bronze Age, Buddhacarita, Caecilius Statius, Callimachus, Carbon dating the Dead Sea Scrolls, Catiline Orations, Cato the Elder, Cento (poetry), Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christi, Chandogya Upanishad, Chen Shou, Children of Heracles, Chinese classics, Chinese literature, Cicero, Classic of Poetry, Classical antiquity, Classical Latin, Classics, Code of Hammurabi, Code of the Nesilim, Code of Ur-Nammu, Coffin Texts, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Confessions (Augustine), Confucius, Consentius, Crito, Cyclops (play), Cyropaedia, Dante Alighieri, Daphnis and Chloe, Dating the Bible, De Coelesti Hierarchia, De doctrina christiana, De re militari, De rerum natura, Debate between bird and fish, Deipnosophistae, Dispute between a man and his Ba, Distichs of Cato, Divine Comedy, Documentary hypothesis, Drakht-i Asurig, Dynasty of Dunnum, Dyskolos, Early medieval literature, Ecclesiastes, Eclogues, Electra (Euripides play), Electra (Sophocles play), Elohist, Enûma Eliš, Enchiridion of Epictetus, Enheduanna, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Ennius, Ephrem the Syrian, Epic Cycle, Epic of Gilgamesh, Epictetus, Ereshkigal, Erra (god), Esagil-kin-apli, Etana, Euclid, Euclid's Elements, Eunuchus, Euripides, Euthyphro, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Faltonia Betitia Proba, Fan Ye (historian), Frahang-i Oim-evak, Fu (poetry), Gaius Acilius, Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus, Gaius Lucilius, Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus, Gatha, Gemara, Georgics, Germania (book), Gnaeus Naevius, Gorgias (dialogue), Great Hymn to the Aten, Greek literature, Gupta Empire, Heauton Timorumenos, Hecuba (play), Helen (play), Herakles (Euripides), Herodotus, Hesiod, Hieratic, Hippolytus (play), Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus), Histories (Herodotus), History of literature, History of the Peloponnesian War, Hittite military oath, Hittite texts, Homer, I Ching, Ibycus, Iliad, Indian epic poetry, Indian literature, Instructions of Shuruppak, Ion (play), Iphigenia in Aulis, Iphigenia in Tauris, Ipuwer Papyrus, Iron Age, Isha Upanishad, Jahwist, Jerome, Josephus, Julius Caesar, Katha Upanishad, Kültepe, Kālidāsa, Kena Upanishad, Kesh temple hymn, Lament for Ur, Laozi, Late antiquity, Late Latin, Latin literature, Laws of Eshnunna, Liber Linteus, Liber Memorialis, Lipit-Ishtar, List of languages by first written accounts, List of years in literature, Livius Andronicus, Livy, Longus, Loyalist Teaching, Lu (state), Lucian, Lucius Accius, Lucius Aelius Stilo Praeconinus, Lucius Afranius (poet), Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, Lucius Cassius Hemina, Lucius Cincius Alimentus, Lucius Coelius Antipater, Lucius Cornelius Sisenna, Lucius Pomponius, Lucretius, Lysistrata, Mahabharata, Mandala 1, Mandala 10, Mandukya Upanishad, Manetho, Mani (prophet), Manichaeism, Manius Manilius, Marcus Aurelius, Matigan-i Hazar Datistan, Medea (play), Meditations, Meghadūta, Menander, Mencius, Mencius (book), Menexenus, Meno, Mesopotamia, Metamorphoses, Metaphysics, Middle Persian literature, Miles Gloriosus (play), Mimnermus, Miriam Lichtheim, Mishnah, Mundaka Upanishad, Natural History (Pliny), Nergal, New Testament, Nicomachean Ethics, Ode, Odyssey, Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus Rex, Old Latin, Old Testament, Oresteia, Orestes (play), Orosius, Ovid, Oxford University Press, Pacuvius, Palermo Stone, Pali literature, Papyrus of Ani, Parallel Lives, Parmenides (dialogue), Pausanias (geographer), Pāṇini, Peace (play), Pervigilium Veneris, Petronius, Phaedra (Seneca), Phaedrus (dialogue), Pindar, Plato, Plautus, Pliny the Elder, Plotinus, Plutarch, Plutus (play), Poenulus, Polybius, Poor Man of Nippur, Prashna Upanishad, Pro Caelio, Protagoras (dialogue), Proto-writing, Prudentius, Psalms, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, Psychomachia, Ptolemy, Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, Publius Rutilius Rufus, Pyramid Texts, Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius, Quintus Cornificius, Quintus Fabius Pictor, Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Ramayana, Records of the Grand Historian, Records of the Three Kingdoms, Republic (Plato), Rhesus (play), Rigveda, Routledge, Samaveda, Sangam literature, Sanskrit, Sappho, Satyricon, Semonides of Amorgos, Sempronius Asellio, Seneca the Younger, Septuagint, Seven Against Thebes, Shabuhragan, Shakuntala (play), Silappatikaram, Sima Qian, Sirach, Socrates of Constantinople, Solon, Somnium Scipionis, Sophocles, Spring and Autumn Annals, Stesichorus, Story of Sinuhe, Story of Wenamun, Suetonius, Sumer, Sumerian creation myth, Sumerian language, Sumerian literature, Sun Tzu, Symposium (Plato), Syriac literature, Tacitus, Taittiriya Upanishad, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, Tale of Two Brothers, Tamil literature, Tanakh, Tao Te Ching, Taylor & Francis, Terence, The Acharnians, The Anabasis of Alexander, The Art of War, The Bacchae, The Birds (play), The City of God, The Clouds, The Consolation of Philosophy, The Eloquent Peasant, The Enneads, The Frogs, The Golden Ass, The Histories (Polybius), The Jewish War, The Knights, The Maxims of Ptahhotep, The Persians, The Phoenician Women, The Suppliants (Aeschylus), The Suppliants (Euripides), The Trojan Women, The Twelve Caesars, The Wasps, Theaetetus (dialogue), Theocritus, Theogony, Theophrastus, Thesmophoriazusae, Thucydides, Timaeus (dialogue), Tirukkuṛaḷ, Titus Albucius, Tolkāppiyam, Torah, Tripiṭaka, Tukulti-Ninurta Epic, University of California Press, Urukagina, Valerius Antias, Vedas, Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Vedic period, Vedic Sanskrit, Vendidad, Vikramōrvaśīyam, Virgil, Visperad, Vulgate, Westcar Papyrus, Wisdom literature, Works and Days, Writing, Xenophon, Yajurveda, Yasht, Zhuang Zhou, Zhuangzi (book), Zimri-Lim, Zoroaster, Zuo zhuan, 1st century BC in poetry, 1st century in poetry, 2nd century BC in poetry, 2nd century in poetry, 3rd century BC in poetry, 3rd century in poetry, 4th century BC in poetry, 4th century in poetry, 5th century BC in poetry, 5th century in poetry, 6th century BC in poetry, 7th century BC in poetry. 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A True Story (Ἀληθῆ διηγήματα, Alēthē diēgēmata; or) is a novel written in the second century AD by Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-speaking author of Syrian descent.
or Ashvaghosha was a Buddhist philosopher, dramatist, poet and orator from India.
Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
The low tells at Abu Salabikh, around northwest of the site of ancient Nippur in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq mark the site of a small Sumerian city of the mid third millennium BCE, with cultural connections to the cities of Kish, Mari and Ebla.
Adelphoe (also Adelphoi and Adelphi – The Brothers) is a play by Roman playwright Terence, adapted partly from plays by Menander and Diphilus.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE.
Against Apion (Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy against criticism by Apion, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.
Agastya was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
The Aitareya Upanishad (Sanskrit: ऐतरेय उपनिषद्) is a Mukhya Upanishad, associated with the Rigveda.
Akkadian literature is the ancient literature written in the Akkadian language (Assyrian and Babylonian dialects) written in Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia) during the period spanning the Middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age (roughly the 23rd to 6th centuries BC).
Alcaeus of Mytilene (Ἀλκαῖος ὁ Μυτιληναῖος, Alkaios; c. 620 – 6th century BC) was a lyric poet from the Greek island of Lesbos who is credited with inventing the Alcaic stanza.
Alcestis (Ἄλκηστις, Alkēstis) is an Athenian tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides.
Alcman (Ἀλκμάν Alkmán; fl.  7th century BC) was an Ancient Greek choral lyric poet from Sparta.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις, (literally an "expedition up from")) is the most famous work, published in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.
The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.
This is a part of Hebrew literature The earliest known inscription in Hebrew is the Khirbet Qeiyafa Inscription (11th — 10th century BCE), if it can indeed be considered Hebrew at that early a stage.
Andria (English: The Girl from Andros) is a Roman comedy adapted by Terence from a Greek play by Menander.
Andromache (Ἀνδρομάχη) is an Athenian tragedy by Euripides.
Anitta, son of Pithana, was a king of Kussara, a city that has yet to be identified.
Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη) is a tragedy by Sophocles written in or before 441 BC.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
Aphrahat (c. 280–c. 345; ܐܦܪܗܛ — Ap̄rahaṭ,, Greek Ἀφραάτης, and Latin Aphraates) was a Syriac-Christian author of the third century from the Adiabene region of Assyria (then Sassanid ruled Assuristan), which was within the Persian Empire, who composed a series of twenty-three expositions or homilies on points of Christian doctrine and practice.
Apicius is a collection of Roman cookery recipes, usually thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD and written in a language that is in many ways closer to Vulgar than to Classical Latin; later recipes using Vulgar Latin (such as ficatum, bullire) were added to earlier recipes using Classical Latin (such as iecur, fervere).
Apollonius of Rhodes (Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος Apollṓnios Rhódios; Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE), was an ancient Greek author, best known for the Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
The Apology of Socrates (Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, Apologia Sokratous; Latin: Apologia Socratis), by Plato, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption, in 399 BC.
Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.
The Aranyakas (Sanskrit: आरण्यक) constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas.
Archilochus (Ἀρχίλοχος Arkhilokhos; c. 680c. 645 BC)While these have been the generally accepted dates since Felix Jacoby, "The Date of Archilochus," Classical Quarterly 35 (1941) 97–109, some scholars disagree; Robin Lane Fox, for instance, in Travelling Heroes: Greeks and Their Myths in the Epic Age of Homer (London: Allen Lane, 2008), p. 388, dates him c. 740–680 BC.
The Argonautica (translit) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Assemblywomen (Ἐκκλησιάζουσαι Ekklesiazousai; also translated as, Congresswomen, Women in Parliament, Women in Power, and A Parliament of Women) is a comedy written by the Greek playwright Aristophanes in 391 BCE.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Atra-Hasis ("exceedingly wise") is the protagonist of an 18th-century BC Akkadian epic recorded in various versions on clay tablets.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Furius Antias was an ancient Roman poet, born in Antium.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Ayadgar-i Zareran (and other approximations of ambiguous Book Pahlavi ʾyʾtkʾr y zryrn), meaning "Memorial of Zarer", is a Zoroastrian Middle Persian heroic poem that, in its surviving manuscript form, represents one of the earliest surviving examples of Iranian epic poetry.
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.
Bao Zhao (c. 414September 466) was an early medieval Chinese poet, writer, and official known for his ''shi'' poetry, ''fu'' rhapsodies, and parallel prose.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Rites or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods.
The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.
The Wisdom of Solomon or Book of Wisdom is a Jewish work, written in Greek, composed in Alexandria (Egypt).
The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇa) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhacharita ("Acts of the Buddha";, Devanagari बुद्धचरितम्) is an epic poem in the Sanskrit mahakavya style on the life of Gautama Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa, composed in the early second century CE.
Statius Caecilius, also known as Caecilius Statius (c. 220 BC – c. 166 BC), was a Roman comic poet.
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya.
Carbon dating the Dead Sea Scrolls refers to a series of radiocarbon dating tests performed on the Dead Sea Scrolls, first by the AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) lab of the Zurich Institute of Technology in 1991 and then by the AMS Facility at the University of Arizona in Tucson in 1994-95.
The Catiline or Catilinarian Orations is a set of speeches to the Roman Senate given by Marcus Tullius Cicero, one of the year's consuls, accusing a Senator, Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline), of leading a plot to overthrow the Roman government.
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
A cento is a poetical work wholly composed of verses or passages taken from other authors, especially the Roman poet Virgil, disposed in a new form or order.
Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christi (A Virgilian Cento Concerning the Glory of Christ) is a Latin poem arranged by Faltonia Betitia Proba (AD 352384) after her conversion to Christianity.
The Chandogya Upanishad (Sanskrit: छांदोग्योपनिषद्, IAST: Chāndogyopaniṣad) is a Sanskrit text embedded in the Chandogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda of Hinduism.
Chen Shou (233–297), courtesy name Chengzuo, was an official and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.
Children of Heracles (Ἡρακλεῖδαι, Hērakleidai; also translated as Herakles' Children and Heracleidae) is an Athenian tragedy by Euripides that was first performed c. 430 BC.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
The Code of Nesilim is an ancient Hittite legal code dating from c. 1650 – 1500 BCE.
The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.
The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins beginning in the First Intermediate Period.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
Confessions (Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an autobiographical work, consisting of 13 books, by Saint Augustine of Hippo, written in Latin between AD 397 and 400.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Publius Consentius was a 5th-century Latin grammarian and the author of two treatises, which are perhaps the fragments of a complete grammar: one entitled, Ars de Duabus Partibus Orationis, Nomine et Verbo, on the noun and the verb, much used during the Carolingian period; and the other, Ars de Barbarismis et Metaplasmis, on barbarisms and metaplasm.
Crito (or; Κρίτων) is a dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.
Cyclops (Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps) is an ancient Greek satyr play by Euripides.
The Cyropaedia, sometimes spelled Cyropedia, is a largely fictional biography of Cyrus the Great the founder of Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Daphnis and Chloe (Δάφνις καὶ Χλόη, Daphnis kai Chloē) is the only known work of the 2nd century AD Greek novelist and romancer Longus.
The four tables give the most commonly accepted dates or ranges of dates for the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, the Deuterocanonical books (included in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox bibles, but not in the Hebrew and Protestant bibles) and the New Testament, including, where possible, hypotheses about their formation-history.
De Coelesti Hierarchia (Περὶ τῆς Οὐρανίας Ἱεραρχίας, "On the Celestial Hierarchy") is a Pseudo-Dionysian work on angelology, written in Greek and dated to ca.
De doctrina christiana (English: On Christian Doctrine or On Christian Teaching) is a theological text written by Saint Augustine of Hippo.
De re militari (Latin "Concerning Military Matters"), also Epitoma rei militaris, is a treatise by the late Latin writer Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus about Roman warfare and military principles as a presentation of methods and practices in use during the height of Rome's power, and responsible for that power.
De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.
The Debate between bird and fish is a literature essay of the Sumerian language, on clay tablets from the mid to late 3rd millennium BC.
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.
The Dispute between a man and his Ba or The Debate Between a Man and his Soul is an ancient Egyptian text dating to the Middle Kingdom about a man deeply unhappy with his life.
The Distichs of Cato (Latin: Catonis Disticha, most famously known simply as Cato), is a Latin collection of proverbial wisdom and morality by an unknown author named Dionysius Cato from the 3rd or 4th century AD.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
The documentary hypothesis (DH) is one of three models used to explain the origins and composition of the first five books of the Bible,The five books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Draxt ī Āsūrīg (meaning "The Assyrian Tree" or "The Babylonian Tree") is a Parthian-language poem consisting of about 120 verses and written in Book Pahlavi script.
The Dynasty of Dunnum, sometimes called the Theogony of Dunnum or Dunnu or the Harab Myth, is an ancient Mesopotamian mythical tale of successive generations of gods who take power through parricide and live incestuously with their mothers and/or sisters, until, according to a reconstruction of the broken text, more acceptable behavior prevailed with the last generation of gods, Enlil and his twin sons Nušku and Ninurta, who share rule amicably.
Dyskolos (Δύσκολος,, translated as The Grouch, The Misanthrope, The Curmudgeon, The Bad-tempered Man or Old Cantankerous) is an Ancient Greek comedy by Menander, the only one of his plays, and of the whole New Comedy, that has survived in almost complete form.
See also: Ancient literature, 10th century in literature, list of years in literature.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
The Eclogues, also called the Bucolics, is the first of the three major works of the Latin poet Virgil.
Euripides' Electra (Ἠλέκτρα, Ēlektra) is a play probably written in the mid 410s BC, likely before 413 BC.
Electra or Elektra (Ἠλέκτρα, Ēlektra) is a Greek tragedy by Sophocles.
The Elohist (or simply E) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, one of four sources of the Torah, together with the Jahwist, the Deuteronomist and the Priestly source.
The (Akkadian Cuneiform:, also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
The Enchiridion or Handbook of Epictetus (Ἐγχειρίδιον Ἐπικτήτου, Enkheirídion Epiktḗtou) (enchiridion is Greek for "that which is held in the hand") is a short manual of Stoic ethical advice compiled by Arrian, a 2nd-century disciple of the Greek philosopher Epictetus.
Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account, of preserved, early post-Sumerian copies, composed in the Neo-Sumerian period (ca. 21st century BC).
Quintus Ennius (c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic.
Ephrem the Syrian (ܡܪܝ ܐܦܪܝܡ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Mār Aprêm Sûryāyâ; Greek: Ἐφραίμ ὁ Σῦρος; Ephraem Syrus, also known as St. Ephraem (Ephrem, Ephraim); c. 306 – 373) was a Syriac Christian deacon and a prolific Syriac-language hymnographer and theologian of the 4th century.
The Epic Cycle (Ἐπικὸς Κύκλος, Epikos Kyklos) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems, composed in dactylic hexameter and related to the story of the Trojan War, including the Cypria, the Aethiopis, the so-called Little Iliad, the Iliupersis, the Nostoi, and the Telegony.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
Epictetus (Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.
In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal (lit. "Queen of the Great Earth") was the goddess of Kur, the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology.
Erra (sometimes called Irra) is an Akkadian plague god known from an 'epos' of the eighth century BCE.
Esagil-kin-apli was the ummânū, or chief scholar, of Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina, 1067–1046 BC, as he appears on the Uruk List of Sages and ScholarsW 20030,7 the Seleucid List of Sages and Scholars,” obverse line 16, recovered from Anu’s Bīt Rēš temple during the 1959/60 excavation.
Etana was an ancient Sumerian king of the city of Kish.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.
Eunuchus (The Eunuch) is a comedy written by the Roman playwright Terence featuring a complex plot of familial misunderstanding.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Euthyphro (translit; c. 399–395 BC), by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue whose events occur in the weeks before the trial of Socrates (399 BC), for which Socrates and Euthyphro attempt to establish a definitive meaning for the word piety (virtue).
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Faltonia Betitia Proba (c. AD 306/315 – c. 353/366) was a Latin Roman Christian poet, perhaps the earliest female Christian poet whose work survives.
Fan Ye (398–445 or 446), courtesy name Weizong (蔚宗), was a Chinese historian and politician of the Liu Song dynasty during the Southern and Northern dynasties period.
Frahang-i Ōīm-Ēwak is an old Avestan-Middle Persian dictionary.
Fu, sometimes translated "rhapsody" or "poetic exposition", is a form of Chinese rhymed prose that was the dominant literary form during the Han dynasty (206AD220).
Gaius Acilius (fl. 155 BC) was a senator and historian of ancient Rome.
Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus (C. Iulius L. f. Sex. n. Caesar Strabo Vopiscus)(ca. 130 BC – 87 BC) was the younger son to Lucius Julius Caesar II and his wife Poppilia and younger brother to Lucius Julius Caesar III.
Gaius Lucilius (c. 180 – 103/2 BC), the earliest Roman satirist, of whose writings only fragments remain, was a Roman citizen of the equestrian class, born at Suessa Aurunca in Campania.
Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus was a politician and historian of the Roman Republic.
Gāthā is a Sanskrit term for "song" or "verse", especially referring to any poetic metre which is used in legends, and is not part of the Vedas but peculiar to either Epic Sanskrit or to Prakrit.
The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora, Gemarah, or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Hebrew, from the Aramaic verb gamar, study) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BC.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
Gnaeus Naevius (c. 270 – c. 201 BC) was a Roman epic poet and dramatist of the Old Latin period.
Gorgias (Γοργίας) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC.
The Great Hymn to the Aten is the longest of one of a number of hymn-poems written to the sun-disk deity Aten.
Greek literature dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Heauton Timorumenos (Ἑαυτὸν τιμωρούμενος, Greek for The Self-Tormentor) is a play written in Latin by Publius Terentius Afer, known in English as "Terence", a dramatist of the Roman Republic.
Hecuba (Ἑκάβη, Hekabē) is a tragedy by Euripides written c. 424 BC.
Helen (Ἑλένη, Helenē) is a drama by Euripides about Helen, first produced in 412 BC for the Dionysia in a trilogy that also contained Euripides' lost Andromeda.
Herakles (Ἡρακλῆς μαινόμενος, Hēraklēs Mainomenos, also known as Hercules Furens) is an Athenian tragedy by Euripides that was first performed c. 416 BCE.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hieratic (priestly) is a cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt.
Hippolytus (Ἱππόλυτος, Hippolytos) is an Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
Theophrastus's Enquiry into Plants or Historia Plantarum (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία, Peri phyton historia) was, along with his mentor Aristotle's History of Animals, Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, one of the most important books of natural history written in ancient times, and like them it was influential in the Renaissance.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.
The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
The Hittite military oath (CTH 427) is a Hittite text on two cuneiform tablets.
The corpus of texts written in the Hittite language is indexed by the Catalogue des Textes Hittites (CTH, since 1971).
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The I Ching,.
Ibycus (Ἴβυκος; fl. 2nd half of 6th century BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, a citizen of Rhegium in Magna Graecia, probably active at Samos during the reign of the tyrant Polycrates and numbered by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria in the canonical list of nine lyric poets.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter.
The Instructions of Shuruppak (or, Instructions of Šuruppak son of Ubara-tutu) are a significant example of Sumerian wisdom literature.
Ion (Ἴων, Iōn) is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be written between 414 and 412 BC.
Iphigenia in Aulis or at Aulis (Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Αὐλίδι, Iphigeneia en Aulidi; variously translated, including the Latin Iphigenia in Aulide) is the last of the extant works by the playwright Euripides.
Iphigenia in Tauris (Ἰφιγένεια ἐν Ταύροις, Iphigeneia en Taurois) is a drama by the playwright Euripides, written between 414 BC and 412 BC.
The Ipuwer Papyrus (officially Papyrus Leiden I 344 recto) is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus made during the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, and now held in the Dutch National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Isha Upanishad (Devanagari: ईशोपनिषद् IAST) is one of the shortest Upanishads, embedded as the final chapter (adhyāya) of the Shukla Yajurveda.
The Jahwist, or Yahwist, often abbreviated J, is one of the hypothesized sources of the Pentateuch (Torah), together with the Deuteronomist, the Elohist and the Priestly source.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Katha Upanishad (Sanskrit: कठोपनिषद् or कठ उपनिषद्) is one of the mukhya (primary) Upanishads, embedded in the last short eight sections of the school of the Krishna Yajurveda.
Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.
Kālidāsa was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language of India.
The Kena Upanishad is a Vedic Sanskrit text classified as one of the primary or Mukhya Upanishads that is embedded inside the last section of the Talavakara Brahmanam of the Samaveda.
The Kesh Temple Hymn or Liturgy to Nintud or Liturgy to Nintud on the creation of man and woman is a Sumerian tablet, written on clay tablets as early as 2600 BCE.
The Lament for Ur, or Lamentation over the city of Ur is a Sumerian lament composed around the time of the fall of Ur to the Elamites and the end of the city's third dynasty (c. 2000 BC).
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
The Laws of Eshnunna (abrv. LE) are inscribed on two cuneiform tablets discovered in Tell Abū Harmal, Baghdad, Iraq.
The Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis (Latin for "Linen Book of Zagreb", also rarely known as Liber Agramensis, "Book of Agram") is the longest Etruscan text and the only extant linen book, dated to the 3rd century BCE.
The Liber Memorialis is an ancient book in Latin featuring an extremely concise summary—a kind of index—of universal history from earliest times to the reign of Trajan.
Lipit-Ishtar (Akkadian: Lipit-Ištar; fl. c. 1870 BC — c. 1860 BC by the short chronology of the ancient near east) was the 5th king of the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the "Sumerian King List" (SKL).
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language.
This page gives a chronological list of years in literature (descending order), with notable publications listed with their respective years and a small selection of notable events.
Lucius Livius Andronicus (c. 284 – c. 205 BC) was a Greco-Roman dramatist and epic poet of the Old Latin period.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Longus, sometimes Longos (Λόγγος), was the author of an ancient Greek novel or romance, Daphnis and Chloe.
The Loyalist Teaching, or The Loyalist Instructions, is an ancient Egyptian text of the sebayt ('teaching') genre.
Lu (c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.
Lucius Accius (170 – c. 86 BC), or Lucius Attius, was a Roman tragic poet and literary scholar.
Lucius Aelius Stilo Praeconinus (c. 154 – 74 BC), of Lanuvium, is the earliest philologist of the Roman Republic.
Lucius Afranius was an ancient Roman comic poet, who lived at the beginning of the 1st century BC.
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi was a name used by Roman men of the gens Calpurnia during the Roman Republic and early Empire.
Lucius Cassius Hemina, Roman annalist, composed his annals in the period between the death of Terence and the revolution of the Gracchi.
Lucius Cincius Alimentus was a celebrated Roman annalist and jurist, who was praetor in Sicily in 209 BC, with the command of two legions.
Lucius Coelius Antipater was a Roman jurist and historian.
Lucius Cornelius Sisenna (c. 120 – 67 BC) was a Roman soldier, historian, and annalist.
Lucius Pomponius (fl. c. 90 BC or earlier) was a Roman dramatist.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Lysistrata (or; Attic Greek: Λυσιστράτη, Lysistrátē, "Army Disbander") is a comedy by Aristophanes.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
The first Mandala ("book") of the Rigveda has 191 hymns.
The tenth mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns.
The Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad (Sanskrit: माण्डूक्य उपनिषद्) is the shortest of all the Upanishads, and is assigned to Atharvaveda.
Manetho (Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytus (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the early 3rd century BC.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Manius Manilius (fl. 155-149 BC) was a Roman Republican orator and distinguished jurist who also had a long military career.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
The Matigan-i Hazar Datistan was the judicial code of the Magistan, the imperial parliament of the Arsacid Dynasty of the Parthian Empire (150 BCE–226 CE) and, for a while, of the Sassanid Empire (226–650 CE).
Medea (Μήδεια, Mēdeia) is an ancient Greek tragedy written by Euripides, based upon the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced in 431 BC.
Meditations (Ta eis heauton, literally "things to one's self") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy.
Meghadūta (मेघदूत literally Cloud Messenger) is a lyric poem written by Kālidāsa, considered to be one of the greatest Sanskrit poets.
Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
The Mencius (Old Chinese: *mˤraŋ-s tsəʔ) is a collection of anecdotes and conversations of the Confucian thinker and philosopher Mencius on topics in moral and political philosophy, often between Mencius and the rulers of the various Warring States.
Menexenus (Μενέξενоς) was one of the three sons of Socrates and Xanthippe.
Meno (Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Middle Persian literature is the corpus of written works composed in Middle Persian, that is, the Middle Iranian dialect of Persia proper, the region in the south-western corner of the Iranian plateau.
Miles Gloriosus is a comedic play written by Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254–184 B.C.). The title can be translated as "The Swaggering Soldier" or "Vainglorious Soldier".
Mimnermus (Μίμνερμος Mímnermos) was a Greek elegiac poet from either Colophon or Smyrna in Ionia, who flourished about 630–600 BC.
Miriam Lichtheim (3 May 1914, Istanbul – 27 March 2004, Jerusalem) was an Israeli translator of ancient Egyptian texts whose translations are still widely used.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
The Mundaka Upanishad (मुण्डक उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit Vedic text, embedded inside Atharva Veda.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
An ode (from ōdḗ) is a type of lyrical stanza.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ, Oidipous epi Kolōnōi) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles.
Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus (Οἰδίπους Τύραννος IPA), or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Oresteia (Ὀρέστεια) is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes.
Orestes (Ὀρέστης, Orestēs) (408 BCE) is an Ancient Greek play by Euripides that follows the events of Orestes after he had murdered his mother.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Marcus Pacuvius (220 – c. 130 BC) was an ancient Roman tragic poet.
The Palermo Stone is one of seven surviving fragments of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt.
Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language.
The Papyrus of Ani is a papyrus manuscript with cursive hieroglyphs and color illustrations created c. 1250 BCE, in the 19th dynasty of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt.
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
Parmenides (Παρμενίδης) is one of the dialogues of Plato.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
Peace (Εἰρήνη Eirēnē) is an Athenian Old Comedy written and produced by the Greek playwright Aristophanes.
Pervigilium Veneris (or The Vigil of Venus) is a Latin poem of uncertain date, variously assigned to the 2nd, 4th or 5th centuries.
Gaius Petronius Arbiter (c. 27 – 66 AD) was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero.
Phaedra, is a Roman tragedy with Greek subject of c. 1280 lines of verse by philosopher and dramatist Lucius Annaeus Seneca, which tells the story of Phaedra, wife of King Theseus of Athens, and her consuming lust for her stepson, Hippolytus.
The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Plutus (Πλοῦτος, Ploutos, "Wealth") is an Ancient Greek comedy by the playwright Aristophanes, first produced in 408 BC, revised and performed again in c. 388 BCE.
Poenulus, also called The Little Carthaginian or The Little Punic, is a Latin comedic play for the early Roman theatre by Titus Maccius Plautus, probably written between 195 and 189 BC.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
The Poor Man of Nippur is an Akkadian story dating from around 1500 BC.
The Prashnopanishad (प्रश्न उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit text, embedded inside Atharva Veda, ascribed to Pippalada sakha of Vedic scholars.
Pro Caelio is a speech given on April 4, 56 BC, by the famed Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero in defence of Marcus Caelius Rufus, who had once been Cicero's student but more recently was a political rival.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας) is a dialogue by Plato.
Proto-writing consists of visible marks communicating limited information.
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was a Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (now Northern Spain) in 348.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (Διονύσιος ὁ Ἀρεοπαγίτης), also known as Pseudo-Denys, was a Christian theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century, who wrote a set of works known as the Corpus Areopagiticum or Corpus Dionysiacum.
The Psychomachia (Battle of spirits or soul war) by the Late Antique Latin poet Prudentius, from the early fifth century AD, is probably the first and most influential "pure" medieval allegory, the first in a long tradition of works as diverse as the Romance of the Rose, Everyman, and Piers Plowman. In slightly less than a thousand lines, the poem describes the conflict of vices and virtues as a battle in the style of Virgil's Aeneid. Christian faith is attacked by and defeats pagan idolatry to be cheered by a thousand Christian martyrs.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, commonly referred to simply as Vegetius, was a writer of the Later Roman Empire (late 4th century).
Publius Rutilius Rufus (158 BCafter 78 BC) was a Roman statesman, consul, orator and historian of the Rutilia gens, as well as great-uncle of Gaius Julius Caesar.
The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.
Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius, Roman annalist, living probably in the 1st century BC, wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls (ca. 390 BC) and went on to the time of Sulla (fr. 84: 82 BC).
Quintus Cornificius was an ancient Roman of senatorial rank from the gens Cornificia.
Quintus Fabius Pictor (flourished c. 200 BC; his birth has been estimated around 270 BC) was the earliest Roman historiographer and is considered the first of the annalists.
Quintus Lutatius Catulus (149–87 BC) was consul of the Roman Republic in 102 BC, and the leading public figure of the gens Lutatia of the time.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 AD) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Rhesus (Ῥῆσος, Rhēsos) is an Athenian tragedy that belongs to the transmitted plays of Euripides.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, from "song" and "knowledge"), is the Veda of melodies and chants.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψαπφώ, Psappho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.
The Satyricon, or Satyricon liber (The Book of Satyrlike Adventures), is a Latin work of fiction believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript tradition identifies the author as Titus Petronius.
Semonides of Amorgos (Σημωνίδης ὁ Ἀμοργῖνος, variantly Σιμωνίδης; fl. 7th century BC) was a Greek iambic and elegiac poet who is believed to have lived during the seventh century BC.
Publius Sempronius Asellio (born around 158 BC, died after 91 BC) was an early Roman historian and one of the first writers of historiographic work in Latin.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Seven Against Thebes (Ἑπτὰ ἐπὶ Θήβας, Hepta epi Thēbas) is the third play in an Oedipus-themed trilogy produced by Aeschylus in 467 BC.
The Shabuhragan (شاپورگان Shāpuragān), which means " book of Shapur", was a sacred book of the Manichaean religion, written by the founder Mani (c. 210–276 CE) himself, originally in Middle Persian, and dedicated to Shapur I (c. 215-272 CE), the contemporary king of the Sassanid Persian Empire.
Shakuntala, also known as The Recognition of Shakuntala, The Sign of Shakuntala, and many other variants (Devanagari: अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् – Abhijñānashākuntala), is a Sanskrit play by the ancient Indian poet Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of Shakuntala told in the epic Mahabharata.
Silappadikaram (republished as The Tale of an Anklet) is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.
Socrates of Constantinople (Σωκράτης ὁ Σχολαστικός, b. c. 380; d. after 439), also known as Socrates Scholasticus, was a 5th-century Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
The Dream of Scipio (Latin, Somnium Scipionis), written by Cicero, is the sixth book of De re publica, and describes a fictional dream vision of the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus, set two years before he oversaw the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
Stesichorus (Στησίχορος, Stēsikhoros; c. 630 – 555 BC) was the first great lyric poet of the West.
The Story of Sinuhe is considered one of the finest works of ancient Egyptian literature.
The Story of Wenamun (alternately known as the Report of Wenamun, The Misadventures of Wenamun, Voyage of Unamūn, or as just Wenamun) is a literary text written in hieratic in the Late Egyptian language.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The earliest record of a Sumerian creation myth, called The Eridu Genesis by historian Thorkild Jacobsen, is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Sumerian literature is the literature written in the Sumerian language during the Middle Bronze Age.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
The Symposium (Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato dated c. 385–370 BC.
Syriac literature is the literature written in Classical Syriac, the literary and liturgical language in Syriac Christianity.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
The Taittirīya Upanishad (Devanagari: तैत्तिरीय उपनिषद्) is a Vedic era Sanskrit text, embedded as three chapters (adhyāya) of the Yajurveda.
The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor is a Middle Kingdom story of an Ancient Egyptian voyage to "the King's mines".
The Tale of Two Brothers is an ancient Egyptian story that dates from the reign of Seti II, who ruled from 1200 to 1194 BC during the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom.
Tamil literature (தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
The Acharnians or Acharnians (Ancient Greek: Ἀχαρνεῖς Akharneîs; Attic: Ἀχαρνῆς) is the third play — and the earliest of the eleven surviving plays — by the Athenian playwright Aristophanes.
The Anabasis of Alexander (Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀνάβασις, Alexándrou Anábasis; Anabasis Alexandri) was composed by Arrian of Nicomedia in the second century AD, most probably during the reign of Hadrian.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
The Bacchae (Βάκχαι, Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes) is an ancient Greek tragedy, written by the Athenian playwright Euripides during his final years in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus I of Macedon.
The Birds (Greek: Ὄρνιθες Ornithes) is a comedy by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes.
The City of God Against the Pagans (De civitate Dei contra paganos), often called The City of God, is a book of Christian philosophy written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century AD.
The Clouds (Νεφέλαι Nephelai) is a Greek comedy play written by the celebrated playwright Aristophanes.
The Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524.
The Eloquent Peasant is an Ancient Egyptian story about a peasant, Khun-Anup, who stumbles upon the property of the noble Rensi son of Meru, guarded by its harsh overseer, Nemtynakht.
The Enneads (Ἐννεάδες), fully The Six Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and compiled by his student Porphyry (270).
The Frogs (Βάτραχοι Bátrachoi, "Frogs"; Latin: Ranae, often abbreviated Ran.) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes.
The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, which St. Augustine referred to as The Golden Ass (Asinus aureus), is the only ancient Roman novel in Latin to survive in its entirety.
Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.
The Jewish War or Judean War (in full Flavius Josephus's Books of the History of the Jewish War against the Romans, Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία, Phlauiou Iōsēpou historia Ioudaikou polemou pros Rōmaious biblia), also referred to in English as The Wars of the Jews, is a book written by Josephus, a Roman-Jewish historian of the 1st century.
The Knights (Ἱππεῖς Hippeîs; Attic: Ἱππῆς) was the fourth play written by Aristophanes, who is considered the master of an ancient form of drama known as Old Comedy.
The Maxims of Ptahhotep or Instruction of Ptahhotep is an ancient Egyptian literary composition based on the Vizier Ptahhotep's wisdom and experiences.
The Persians (Πέρσαι, Persai, Latinised as Persae) is an ancient Greek tragedy written during the Classical period of Ancient Greece by the Greek tragedian Aeschylus.
The Phoenician Women (Φοίνισσαι, Phoinissai) is a tragedy by Euripides, based on the same story as Aeschylus' play Seven Against Thebes.
The Suppliants (Ἱκέτιδες, Hiketides; Latin Supplices), also called The Suppliant Maidens, or The Suppliant Women, is a play by Aeschylus.
The Suppliants (Ἱκέτιδες, Hiketides; Latin Supplices), also called The Suppliant Maidens, or The Suppliant Women, first performed in 423 BC, is an ancient Greek play by Euripides.
The Trojan Women (Τρῳάδες, Trōiades), also known as Troades, is a tragedy by the Greek playwright Euripides.
De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.
The Wasps (Σφῆκες Sphēkes) is the fourth in chronological order of the eleven surviving plays by Aristophanes, the master of an ancient genre of drama called 'Old Comedy'.
The Theaetetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC.
Theocritus (Θεόκριτος, Theokritos; fl. c. 270 BC), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC.
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thesmophoriazusae (Θεσμοφοριάζουσαι Thesmophoriazousai; meaning Women Celebrating the Festival of the Thesmophoria), or Women at the Thesmophoria (sometimes also called The Poet and the Women) is one of eleven surviving plays by Aristophanes. It was first produced in, probably at the City Dionysia. The play's focuses include the subversive role of women in a male-dominated society; the vanity of contemporary poets, such as the tragic playwrights Euripides and Agathon; and the shameless, enterprising vulgarity of an ordinary Athenian, as represented in this play by the protagonist, Mnesilochus. The work is also notable for Aristophanes' free adaptation of key structural elements of Old Comedy and for the absence of the anti-populist and anti-war comments that pepper his earlier work. It was produced in the same year as Lysistrata, another play with sexual themes. How The Poet and the Women fared in the City Dionysia drama competition is unknown, but the play has been considered one of Aristophanes' most brilliant parodies of Athenian society.Barrett, David, ed. (1964). Aristophanes: The Frogs and Other Plays. Penguin Books. p. 97..
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
The Tirukkural or Thirukkural (திருக்குறள், literally Sacred Verses), or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil text consisting of 1,330 couplets or Kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of an individual.
Titus Albucius (praetor c. 105 BC) was a noted orator of the late Roman Republic.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
Tukilti-Ninurta Epic is an Assyrian epic written in Akkadian describing and glorifying the wars and conquests of the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I against the Babylonian king Kashtiliash IV during the Kassite dynasty.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.
Valerius Antias (1st century BC) was an ancient Roman annalist whom Livy mentions as a source.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
The Vendidad or Videvdat is a collection of texts within the greater compendium of the Avesta.
Vikramōrvaśīyam (meaning Urvashi Won by Valour) is a five-act Sanskrit play by ancient Indian poet Kalidasa who flourished in the 4th Century CE, on the Vedic love story of king Pururavas and an Apsara, a celestial nymph named Urvashi.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Visperad or Visprad is either a particular Zoroastrian religious ceremony or the name given to a passage collection within the greater Avesta compendium of texts.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The Westcar Papyrus (inventory-designation: P. Berlin 3033) is an ancient Egyptian text containing five stories about miracles performed by priests and magicians.
Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the ancient Near East.
The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.
The Yashts (Yašts) are a collection of twenty-one hymns in the Younger Avestan language.
Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi ("Master Zhuang"), was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.
Zimri-Lim was king of Mari from about 1775 to 1761 BC.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).
This article describes aspects of poetry in the 3rd century B.C.
1st century books, 1st millennium BC books, 1st-millennium BC books, 2nd century books, 3rd century books, 4th century books, 4th century in literature, 5th century books, Bronze Age literature, Early Literature, Early literature, First literature, Iron Age literature, Late Antique literature, Oldest literature, Oldest work of literature, Oldest works of literature.